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1st Omnya ObaidSoftware engineering departmentNeelain UniversityKhartoum, [email protected] 2nd Ahmed ElsawiSoftware engineering departmentAfrica City of TechnologyKhartoum, [email protected] Abstract One of the approaches that make a significant change in software industry the Agile development as well as Model-Driven Development both of them proved that by the enhancing practically for the productivity and the software development prediction. The combination of both of them lead to effective integration with agile methods and its agility movement, and the model-driven development with promising quality, agile with its rapid response to change and actively involvement of stakeholder and with model-driven development the communication within projects becoming easier as well as the providing of a high-level designs and architectures will be help. Although the diffusion of processes that support the Agile Model Driven Development principles, there has been little methods that applied this kind of approach. This paper introduce a new method which adopt Extreme programming with consolidate MDD processes by integrating the release cycle with modeling processes, this method maintains the best principles of both methods so as to improving the quality of final product and obtaining early feedbacks by keep the customer involved and his collaboration in the development process. AMDD method helps in improving the agile development process with nothing require even not an expert on modeling. Keywords Agile method, Extreme programming, Release-cycle, Model-driven development, AMDD, AMDD Processes. Introduction Model-Driven Development has been a well-established term in modernistic software engineering for years. In 2001 the Model-Driven Architecture (MDA) was defined by Object Management Group (OMG). It defined a uniform basis for the underlying technologies and modeling languages and thus responded to the trend that model-driven software development (MDSD or MDD) and model-driven engineering (MDE) became increasingly relevant for professional software development 1. MDD is an approach used in development processes with intent to reduce the gap between problem area and solution area. Specifically the application of MDD relies on software implementation domains by using technologies that support systematic transformation of problem-level abstraction in software implementation 2. With MDD, thus developers could use a general purpose (e.g. UML 3) or domain specific (e.g., IFML 4) modeling language to form the essential aspects of the system under one or more perspectives and thus are large and complex. On other hand, domain specific modeling language have been proposed to overcome the complexity and steep learning curve of general purpose approaches their abstraction are not universal, but embody domain knowledge that make the language speak in terms closer to the anticipation of the developer and the stakeholders application. Also, the well-known principles should be seamlessly applied to both focuses of development, especially in the todays scenarios where scarcity of time and resources and high technological variability are the norm 5. The development lifecycle of MDA, which shown in Fig. 1,2 does not look very different from the traditional life cycle. The same phases are identified. One of the major differences lies in the nature of the artifacts that are created during the development process. The artifacts are formal models, i.e., models that can be understood by computers, and there a several important software quality attributes such as reusability, portability and interoerability are considered as additional potential benefits of MMD, it should be kept in main that MDD is not concrete methodolgy, but a generic approach that can be applied to software development processes to take advantage of its promises 6. Fig. 1. MDA Software Development Life cycle. However this does not negate the lack of suitable process models for MDD as well as the additional complexity and a high initial effort are indentified as additional problems. Agile methods are lightweight software developemt processes that emerged as a reaction to plan-driven limitations, by compromising between no process and excessive process. They develop systems incrementally by impose an iterative approach. Agile methods include Wxtreme Programming (XP), Scrum, Crystal, ect. Each of these share common principles and values defined by the Agile Manifesto 7. The integration of Agile and MDD is becoming more interest for many reasons. Firstly the benefits that Agile and MDD provide can lead to improved software development, also both Agile and Model-driven development promises increased productivity, quality, complexity of systems and stakeholder involvement.Though they also complement each other, where Agile methodolgies strength lies in its rapid response to change and its emphasis of working software over detailed documentation 8. While mode-driven engineering underlines a higher level of abstraction, with comprehensive commnication and documentation of complex systems, with help from models MDD improves internal communication within the projects, that usually become more easier to unserstand than code, for someone not directly involved in the development.Secondly, MDD can be considered as a heavyweight process which can be a barrier to industry adoption, and adding agility to it will ease its adoption. Where Agile development promoted to always be lightweight, making it difficult to apply agile development in large-scale projects where detailed documetation and high level design is a must 9. There some characterstics of Agile MDD ware presented in 12. Integration of these two styles can be a solution inherit the best out of both styles avoiding their shortcomings so the most common approach is to include agile practices to MDD practices. The remainder of this paper is organized as follows Section 2 related works, section 3 overview about the inegeration of Agile method and Model-Driven Development, section 4 our proposed method and section 5 we are going to discuess the results and evaluation the method. Eventually section 6 concludes the paper. ADDIN EN.CITE EndNoteCiteAuthorMarco Brambilla/AuthorYear2017/YearRecNum1/RecNumrecordrec-number1/rec-numberforeign-keyskey appEN db-ide9vzsv2tiaf0d8e05rc5vxeo0tptft0dt9s2 timestamp15361748951/key/foreign-keysref-type nameLegal Rule or Regulation50/ref-typecontributorsauthorsauthorMarco Brambilla, Jordi Cabot, Manuel Wimmer/author/authors/contributorstitlestitleModel-Driven Software Engineering in Practice Second Edition/titlesecondary-titleA Publication in the Morgan amp Claypool Publishers series /secondary-title/titlesperiodicalfull-titleA Publication in the Morgan amp Claypool Publishers series/full-title/periodicalkeywordskeywordmodeling, software engineering, UML, domain-specific language, model-driven/keywordkeywordengineering, code generation, reverse engineering, model transformation, MDD,/keywordkeywordMDA, MDE, MDSE/keyword/keywordsdatesyear2017/year/datesisbnPrint 2328-3319 Electronic 2328-3327/ related works The combination of Agile and MDD have been used in many successful application such as in 10 when they bult an Agile Collaborative Model Driven Development (AC-MDD) framework that helps increase the productivity in web application development by being consistent with systems requirements, in 11 a techniques been described to enable the use of Excel as an MDD front-end for the sepecification and development of financial applications, also an investigation have been done by 12 on the combination of MDE and agile methods can reduce the number of issues caused by erroneous assumptions in software of the mechatronic systems. 6 and 13 They have browsed in detail how the integration of agile methods and MDD and the practices for both of them indicated significant disparity compared with other processes, an agile, in-browser framework for the rapid prototyping of MDD transformations have been developed by 14, as mention in 15 the difference with AMDD is that instead of creating extensive models before writing source code you instead create agile models which are just barely good enough that drive your overall development efforts. AMDD is a critical strategy for scaling agile software development beyond the small, co-located team approach and also in 16 efficient development methodolgy and utilizing a e-government framework to measure the effectiveness of the MDD to the new measure through a case study applied to real information system development process. A model-driven development approcah called MockRE proposed by 17 that captures requirements using user interface prototypes that end-users can understand completely, 18 and 19 both of them propsed the integration and the process of implementation inheriting of Agile methods and MDA. In 20 they tried to select the advantages and important values to overcome limitations of MDA and XP the software development procedures with applied case study. In 22 they used MDA to Automating the software production process, from requirements to code based on a conceptual model-based approach. integrating Agile and Model Driven Development Proposed method based on MDA approach with agile methodology by combine the practices of both of them with consider of improving of the software engineering approaches and eliminates the limitations. As the name AMDD is the agile version of MDD, in general the main goal of MDD is ability to create understandable models. Generating software from these models, however, is not possible for every development team. In this context, AMDD is more realist approach in a sense that its goal is to describe how developers and stakeholders can work together to create models that are just barely good enough. The key principles of agile development include 21 (i) satisfy the customer through early and continuous software delivery (ii) welcome changing requirements (iii) deliver working software frequently (every 2 weeks to every 2 months) (iv) business people and developers to work together daily (v) rely on face-to-face communication to convey information (vi) continuous attention to software quality (vii) simplicity is essential. Integration of agile and MDD aims to achieve these principles in the context of model-centered development instead of traditional code-centered development, also keeping the customer involved and actively collaborated in development process was the most frequently stated aim for adopting Agile MDD. Moreover, accelerating development process was another common aim for combining Agile and MMD, and with this incorporating we can obtain early feedback, improving the quality of the final product, and creating quick design. Due to some contrasting points of view between agile development and MDD, an effective compromise must be reached in order to obtain the advantages of modeling without suffering from its disadvantages, so can be considered AMDD a smart compromise. In 19 the relation between Model-Driven architecture and agile development introduced as Fig. 2, explain. Fig. 2. MDA and ADP relation. The Fig. 2, identifies some Executable Models as following Requirement Model its aim to organize and monitor the project requirements according to CIM and Concept phase. Analysis Model its aim to identify modeling and transformation needs according to PIM and Inspection phase. Design Model its aims to obtain the modeling and transformation specifications according to PSM and Construction phase. Implementation Model its aim to tool provision and metadata administration facilities prepared to utilize Code and Transition phase. Project execution its aim to produce the vital programming artifacts and the final items. Fig. 2, depicts how the arrangement has been organized in diverse stages from the combination of MDA and ADP. These stages are helpful to comprehend and to represent the conditions between the workouts 19. Throughout this solution we are going to employ AMDD methodology using set of engineering processes that include agile-based and MDD-based strategies. In the next section we are going to present the basics aspects and distinguishing features of the AMDD processes. Sage Process Sage is a model-driven method that utilizes an iterative and incremental approach to develop high assurance reactive multi-agent systems. One main goal of Sage is to benefit from agile development advantages in developing high assurance systems through enhancing agile process documentation. For this purpose, a model-driven development method is proposed including four inter-connected models that capture developers decisions and inject the desired level of documentation. These are the models The environmental model, the behavioral model, the design model, and the run-time model 6. MDD-SLAP Process System level agile process (SLAP) is a Scrum-based agile methodology, developed and adopted at Motorola. SALP splits the software life cycle into successive iterations and each iteration in its turn, comprises three sprints, namely requirements and architecture, development, and system integration feature testing (SIFT). MDD-SLAP is mainly targeted at real-time telecommunication system to increase the development pace, ensure frequent delivery and enhance the product quality 6. Hybrid MDD Process Hybrid MDD process, specifically this process aims at effectively and economically applying MDD to small and middle size projects, which seriously lacks in the current MDD literature. Hybrid MDD selects MDD process elements that are more appropriate to develop small-scale projects, and introduces these elements into a traditional lightweight process, which is opted due to the project development team experience 6. AMDD High-level Life Cycle We have already mentioned the AMDD high-level cycle, which is the earliest AMDD process in the literature to our knowledge. Though put forward as a generic life cycle, the AMDD high-level life cycle is concrete enough to be used as a standalone process, albeit after a few augmentations. Hence, it is counted as an AMDD process, and is evaluated and compared to other AMDD processes 6. As we discussed in the previous section, MDD-based AMDD processes are the ones originated from a model-driven methods and agile principles are incorporated into them, while agile-based AMDD processes are ones derived from introducing MDD into an agile method as the skeleton of the process. In the next section we are going to introduce our proposed method AMDD processes with adoption of extreme programming method. Proposed method After the success of combine the MDD into Agile methodology, we proposed a new method to get the best principles and advantages of this integration to find good method to developing software product with participation of the customer with the team in order to get the best solution with suitable design that convenient the customer needs with his own preferences. Extreme programming one of the agile methodology proof the suitability with small project that developed and maintained by single team. Otherwise it cannot be implemented in the system where developers dont work well with each other and like work by their own also XP will not work in an environment where a customer or manager insists on a complete specification or design before they begin programming. Several potential drawbacks which include problems with unstable requirements, so no documented compromises of user conflicts, and lack of an overall design specification or document. This shows the need of new model for developing which is in standardized form and can be implemented in all type of environments. Here, a new method has been proposed which implements the Extreme programming in Model driven software development lifecycle. Based on MDD lifecycle we mentioned previously, such a relation going to make with intended to find incorporation with release cycle in extreme programming, so to implement this relation, three phases present the new method as follow below Initial Phase This Phase corresponding with the initial two phases of release cycle in XP (select user stories for release, and break down stories to tasks). As one of XP principle On-Sit Customer, the customer must be available at all time to establish the requirement in shape of stories, set priorities, test and answer some questions. The activities of this phase mutual effort between the customer and development team as mentioned below Select user stories with priority and agree from customer. Based on stories Platform Independent Model PIM is going to build. Brainstorm will conduct between the team to decide what tasks for a given story, writing a task card for each task. The outputs for this phase the PIM and task cards for the iteration, all those activities with customer participation. Second Phase In this phase, two activities from release cycle will implement some presentation will going to introduce with feedback from the customer. Create schedule for release, one task at a time until all the tasks for a story completed. Create Platform Specific Model PSM, by transform PIM using the transformation tool. Modeling, programming, testing and integration. A transformation tool takes a PIM and transforms it into a PSM the transformation is the automatic generation of a target model from a source model, according to a transformation definition. We can, for example, define a transformation definition from UML to C, which describes C should be generated for a UML model 23. Third Phase Last phase defines the acceptance test, releasing and evaluating the system. After customer agree on PSM, a software code will going to build automatically. The acceptance test running by customer. Deliver small release, Change request, maintenance activities done easily on the models. Fig. 3. XP release cycle based MDD itreation. The three phases represent the release activities and combine with MDD processes. In Fig. 3, we explain these phases.We can notice how the proposed method keeping the customer invloved and actively collaborated in the development process. Generally a model is adescription of a system, and PIM is a Platform Independent Model, which describes a system without any knowledge of the final implementation platform, in phase one we create the PIM based on user stories with high-level description, with using a transformation tool we transform PIM to PSM Platform Specific Model, which the transformation tool performs a transformation for a specific source model according to a transformation definition 23 a transformation definition describes how a model in a source language can be transformed into a model in a target language. The PSM describes the system with full knowledge of the final implementation platform, with customer feedback we could test, integrate, and modeling until we arrive to final software code to release. results and evaluation In this section we are going to discuss the results of integrating MDD process with XP-release cycle. The aim of this incorporation to get the best principles and values of both MDD and Agile method in order to eliminate the drawbacks of the both, Extreme Programming was the best choice to get this intent done. Moreover, accelerating development process was another common aim for this method. Also other results for incorporating Agile and MDD include obtaining early feedback, improving the quality of the final product, and creating quick design. This has facilitated the presence of models that have improved customer engagement and obtained better feedback. There some areas on Agile-Model-Driven-Development that this method takes place to evaluation and solve problems, as summarized below AMDD method is designed to produce results continuously. The development of software application can be supported in earlier stages. AMDD method avoids mixing technical with non-technical elements. The architecture is developed in parallel with the modeling and implementation of business requirements. Adjustments resulting from architectural changes do not affect the models, but only the transformation rules. And because of evolutionary developments of architecture, their changes are always limited 12. Confidence in the technology of the method can be created by early and continuous provision of usable results. Overall, the development of software becomes more efficient and of higher quality. AMDD method coherency, we mean how united and tightly connected the process elements are. An AMDD process must bring together the roles, activities and artifacts from agile and MDD processes, in a clear and well-organized manner 12. AMDD method involves customer, architects and developers in the developments of domain-specific language, the transformation and implementation of requirements. The work of the teams overlaps 9. AMDD method does not require everyone to be a modeling expert, it just requires them to be willing to try. AMDD also allows people to use the most appropriate modeling tool for the job, often very simple tools such as whiteboards or paper, because you want to find ways to communicate effectively, not document comprehensively. conclusions and future works On this paper we proposed a new method which adopted the Extreme Programming with integration of Model-Driven Development, this method introduced to exploit the advantages of MDD with kept of agile principles, and our method adopted successfully. XP-release cycle based MDD, has met the follow principles customer involvement, incremental delivery, and people not process, embrace change and maintain simplicity. Moreover it has kept satisfy of MDD process. AMDD is a promising research context and a great practical concept, but it is not mature enough and is still in its infancy. So our future studies will go to move forward with applied case studies on our method in order to resolve more drawbacks and improve the criteria of agile development. References ADDIN EN.REFLIST XXX-X-XXXX-XXXX-X/XX/XX.00 2018 IEEE __Pe_zUzNwkvQGFLtR(CR(YwjyHUNa4ae IX7gaA(H44c [email protected])slot
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