1. Effect of Social Presence
Social presence is defined as the important degree of the other person in the interaction and the consequent salience of the interpersonal relationship. According Tu and Mcisaac social presence were defined as the degree of feeling, perception, and reaction to another intellectual entity in the computer-mediated communication environment. The feeling of being together with another known as Social presence it increases the sense of psychological understanding in terms of human warmth, contact, and sensitivity. The level is more likely to meet user’s psychological need to belong. Users are likely to feel involved in the social networking sites community. The key purpose of using SNS is to build a rich interpersonal relationship with others. People who experience a high degree of social presence when using the site are more likely to be deeply involved and engaged in it. Hence
H1: Social presence is positively related to a sense of belonging
Social presence describes the mental state in which a user feels close to another person in a virtual environment (Kim and song 2016) the psychological closeness derived from social presence increase flow which refers to the intrinsic enjoyment generated from engaging in social networking sites. When users experience a high degree of social presence they can escape from the real world and enter arousal, the pleasurable mental state through their warm and personal interactions with other users. Furthermore, delight and enjoyment are the most prominent psychological states of social presence with a high level of social presence, users are likely to be more satisfied and experience greater enjoyment in using social networking sites.
H2a: social presence is positively related to escapism
H2b: social presence is positively related to pleasure
H2c: social presence is positively related to arousal
2. Effects of Sense of Belonging
A sense of belonging states to the feeling that one is an important part of the social network community. (Zhao et al., 2012) Belongingness theory stresses that a strong sense of belonging produces positive emotions
The more individual has a strong sense of belonging to the social network community the more they grow better enjoyment from it. Specifically, a strong sense of belonging helps users to escape from the repetitive world and enter a pleasurable, exciting state while they play and have fun. In addition, as other studies have found, sense of belonging is positively related to hedonic well – being. which is represented by happiness, enjoyment, and pleasure.
H3a: Sense of belonging is positively related to escapism
H3b: Sense of belonging is positively related to pleasure
H3c: Sense of belonging is positively related to arousal
People are motivated essentially to interact with and belong to others. Individuals who recognize a high sense of belonging are more likely to use social networking sites because doing so satisfies their major human motivation to communicate with others, especially those with the same interest. However, a high level of SNS use, just like other internet activities, raises the potential of becoming addicted to social networking sites.
H4: a sense of belonging is positively related to social networking sites addiction
3. Effects of Enjoyment
The other one is enjoyment which is an important originator of high commitment to social networking sites. sites used for interaction purposes when users see SNS as enjoyable, they tend to put more time and effort into it and use it repeatedly in the near future. The more enjoyable the SNS, the more users become distracted in the process therefore, they lose track of time and become more psychologically involved. More precisely, when an SNS helps users to get excited and pleasure psychological state and to escape from the cruelty of the word, they are less willing to leave and become more dependent on the SNS.
H3a: Escapism is positively related to SNS addiction.
H3b: Pleasure is positively related to SNS addiction.
H3c: Arousal is positively related to SNS addiction.
Chapter 3 Research Methodology
This section addresses the research methodology for which the study is based on. It explains the research approach, questionnaire design, data collection method as well as data analysis technique and method. It also provides in detail about respondents. In addition, it talks about in detail the methods used to analyze and collect data’s.
3.1 Research Design
The research design is important because it is the demonstration of the operation’s flow in the paper. The primary stage of the research thesis proposal included identifying and defining the problems and establishment of the aim of the study and development research plan. The second phase of the research included a summary of the comprehensive literature review. The third point of the research included designing a field survey, which was conducted with determining factors influencing individuals to become addicted to SNS. The fourth part of the research focused on the modification of the questionnaire design. Then following with the fifth point focused on distributing questionnaire. Following up on the research data analysis and recommendation. Last but not least includes the conclusions and recommendations.
3.2 Research Approach
3.2.1 Qualitative versus Quantitative
any research which doesn’t involve numbers or numerical data it often involves words or language but may also use pictures or photographs and observation. Qualitative analysis results in rich data that gives an in-depth picture and it is particularly useful for exploring why and how things have happened. Qualitative data are much more general than quantitative data, but there are a number of common techniques for gathering qualitative data such as interview, focus groups, postcards, secondary data, and observation. Qualitative data can be radically different in scope there is a wide variety of methods for analyzing them, many of which involve structuring and coding the data into groups and themes.
Quantitative research is numerical and they are analyzed using mathematical and statistical methods but if there is no number involved it’s not quantitative research. It’s useful when numbers are highly valued and numerical data is considered the goal standard. The most common technique for gathering quantitative data are surveys, observations, secondary data.
for analyzing quantitative data there is a wide range of statistical techniques available, from simple graphs to show the data through tests of correlations between two or more items, to statistical significance. Also, its useful for identifying the relationship between groups of subjects where there is no obvious hypothesis as well as hypothesis testing to identify whether there is a genuine difference between groups.
Furthermore, quantitative makes available for researchers with a fast and efficient way of studying a large sample size quantitative research bring in objective results, we can gather objective, numerical data through quantitative research that is challenging to understand in multiple ways. Since the data are straightforward, the outcome can be easily likened to other data. Other benefits of quantitative data are it uses statistical methods of gathering. It allows to understand and explain a huge number of essential characteristics in the data. Last but not least the data that’s gathered through quantitative research and be put to future use by creating the program targeted to the studied group. it makes members more willing to join and makes it simpler to evaluate sensitive topics.
To complete this paper, we are going to focus on quantitative research in order to be able to measure and analyze the statistical data. Which is established in the study of the objective and literature review as well as the hypothesis.
3.3 Data Analysis and Technique
Research methodology represents the methods used to complete the research and answer the research questions. To complete the required data for this paper. A questionnaire was used. The data that was gathered were analyzed by SPSS
3.3.1 Introduction of SPSS
Statistical package for the social science also known as SPSS was acquired in 2009 but the origin story begins in 1968 it was developed by Norman H. Nie, Dale H. Bent and C. Hadlaithey released the first version of a statistical software package for mainframe computers and using punch cards. They named it the “statistical packaging for social science” or ‘SPSS’ for short.
3.3.2 What is SPSS
SPSS is a comprehensive system which helps us to analyze a data. It can take data from any type of file and use them to generate tabulated charts, reports and to plots of distributions and trends, descriptive statistics and complex statistical analysis. Also, it helps to perform highly complex data manipulation and analysis with simple instruction. It makes statistical more accessible for beginner and it is more convenient to use.
3.3.3 Steps of Using SPSS
step one is using a coded questionnaire to define the variable using variable then flowing with step two which is inputting the data into data viewer. Then step three which is analyzing data using analyze menu and graphs menu.
3.4 Data Collection Method
3.4.1 Questionnaire Design
According to Babbie states a questionnaire as a document containing questions and other types of items designed to solicit information appropriate to analysis (Babbie, 1990:377). A questionnaire is used in survey research and others modes of observation. Definitely, people ask different questions in their daily life. The use of the questionnaire or a set of questions is a similar process in the research. The research questions are confidently made to receive answers related to the chosen variables for analysis. It’s a very convenient way of collecting useful comparable data from the huge number of individuals. Nevertheless, it can only be generated valid and meaningful results if the question is well-defined and detailed.
The first section was designed to collect demographic information the second section of the questionnaire was based on social networking usage the last section was created on measurement variables which include 28 statements related for factors of social networking addiction.
To be able to select the appropriate method of analysis, the measurement level must be understood. For every type of measurement, there are the right methods that can be applied. The questionnaire was measured using five-point type scale (ranging from 1- “strongly disagree” to 5- “strongly agree”). In general, the information was gathered from the questionnaires also presented with the aid of SPSS was used for data analysis, for analyzing the data’s that was collected two steps where used Primary, analyzed the measurement model by testing the validity and reliability of the constructs. Additional, examined the structural model to test the relationships among the constructs
3.4.3 Duration of the Study
The paper has been done on the period of January, 2018 – May, 2018. Data collection
was done during the period from 24 April to May 3 2018.