2.2. Theoretical Framework
According to Kurtines and Silverman (1999) theory is comprised of an explanatory statement which used to help explain and understand relations among variables, how they operate and the processes involved. As they further argue the importance of theory lies in its ability to assist the researcher to identify and organize the connections among various phenomena that may seem unrelated (cited in Kawulich 2009: 37). In this section of the thesis will be described the theories that provide the theoretical framework for analyzing the human trafficking from the wider perspective connected to the global migration.
Existing Theoretical Concepts in Human Trafficking
There is a huge lack of theoretical concepts in human trafficking researches in general. As many commentators on the field argue, there are virtually no attempts made to analyze and understand the issue of human trafficking for labor exploitation within the exiting international migration theories. It has been said by different commentators on the field that the existing theoretical frameworks describing the concepts of human trafficking are not well developed; and most of them are criticized for referring only to the aims of those anti human trafficking policies or to the causes of human trafficking. And as Morehouse (2009: 75) argues these descriptions are too narrow and would be an insufficient theoretical framework on which to base a comparative country analysis on human trafficking.
The Rational Choice Theory of Migration
Though migration is not a prerequisite for human trafficking to occur, human trafficking involves the movement of people across national and international boundaries. In this case human trafficking can be seen as one segment of the broader human migration. There are a variety of theoretical approaches that has been developed to explain the factors that cause people to migrate. Theories in this category thrive to answer the question why migrations begin. Among others neoclassical economics or the rational choice theory is probably the earliest and the most known migration theory. According to Douglas and his colleagues there are two models of neoclassical economics, the macro economics and micro economics models (Douglas, 1993). For it focus on the individuals? decision and choice to migrate, the latter model is used in this research.
The rational choice theory or the micro model of neoclassical economics can be used to explain human trafficking from both the economic and social perspectives. This theory explains human behavior and the choice people made. In general, according to Douglas et al (1993), the basic argument behind this theory is that people as a rational being want to maximize economic and social gain and minimize risk. The rational choice theory framework can help to explain human trafficking from both perspectives of the trafficking victims and the traffickers.
According to this theory, people decide to migrate because a cost-benefit calculation leads them to expect a positive net return, usually monetary, from movement. Migration is conceptualized as a form of investment in human capital. People choose to move to a place where they can be most productive, given their skills; but before they can capture the higher wages associated with greater labor productivity they must undertake certain investments, which include the material costs of traveling, the effort involved in learning a new environment and culture, the difficulty experienced in adapting to a new labor market, and the psychological costs of cutting old ties and establishing new ones (Douglas et al 1993: 435). Victims of trafficking originally make the decision to trust the traffickers in hopes that they will accumulate money and have a better way of life in another country. In this case, according to the rational choice theory, trafficking victims were originally rational for they have decided to move with the traffickers to another country where they expect a better way of life. Because traffickers are professionally acquainted with deceiving talents, they are extremely persuasive and can easily persuade individuals to migrate. As far as the golden offers promised by traffickers concerned, the risk of trusting a trafficker seems small compared to the huge rewards in the future. Similar to the decision of the trafficking victims, the decision made by the traffickers is also rational. To win the trust of individual victims and to generate a huge amount of money from the trafficking of them, the traffickers deceive and persuade individuals with false promises.
In this theory rational decision making, free will, and cost benefit analysis are the three major variables that used to build an integrated framework to explain human trafficking. The way in which human traffickers select their victims is based on the cost-benefit analysis of the trafficking and vulnerability of potential victims (Lutya and Lanier 2012: 557). Human trafficking is a crime against humanity, and it is a direct affront to human dignity. Rational choice theories postulate that criminals like human traffickers are rational beings who make decisions to commit crime (trafficking persons) based on the costs and benefits involved in the process of crime perpetration (Lutya and Lanier 2012: 557).
Potential migrants estimate the costs and benefits of moving to alternative locations and migrate to where the expected discounted net returns are greatest over some time horizon. Based on this theory it can be concluded that, if the quantity of the expected net returns to migration is positive for some potential destination, the individual migrates; if it is negative the individual stays; and if it is zero, the individual is indifferent between moving and staying. In theory, a potential migrant goes to where the expected net returns to migration are greatest than staying at home (Douglas et al 1993).
2.3. Prevalence of Child Children Trafficking
Child migration as one mode of human movement is not uncommon phenomena throughout the world. Children as the integral part of human beings subjected to displace from their local environment to other areas for one or more reasons. An investigation under taken in Nepal by Singh cited in Gautam (2005) stated as the movement of human beings are observable from place to place since the beginning of human life, possessing a long lasting event due to interrelated dynamic factors that belong to social, economic, psychological, political ,institutional and/or more due to pushing or pulling incidents.
Likewise child migration, child trafficking is a global phenomenon that afflicts national advancement, and draws the attention of international communities in order to remediate its persistence. It is the conviction of several scholars that involves smuggling human beings especially women and children from place to place without the consent of the person.
According to UN Convention (2000) stated under Article 3, child trafficking seems to encompassthe whole processes that may endanger children and their life whether the negotiations, the forces utilized, the mechanisms of transportation and other activities and attempts to pursue the objective. The problem, child trafficking, describes a pattern of human rights violation saffecting at least one million children today – probably many more. It is more concerned withthe business of taking children away from their homes and families, transporting themelsewhere, often across frontiers and even to other continents, to be put to use by others,usually to make money (Dottridge, 2004;Plan Togo, 2005).