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The study aims to analyze literal translation and other translation procedures, presented in Ba Gyi Aung Nyar Tal (the source text) by Min Thu Wun and its translated text version by Thagyi Gazette U Khin Maung, based on Newmark (1988)’s theory. It is mainly focused on the use of literal translation and partly on other translation procedures in terms of phrases, clauses and bigger units which support the theme of the short story. Qualitative research method is applied in this research. This paper will mainly figure out what difficulties are discovered in translating ST to TT. It is hoped that the results of this research would make a contribution to the development of the field of translation and further studies.


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First, our group would like to express our appreciation to Professor Dr Kyi Shwin, the Rector of Yangon University of Foreign Languages, for giving opportunities to implement this term paper in our final year.
Next, we would like to show our gratitude towards Professor Dr Ni Ni Aung, Head of the Department of English, Yangon University of Foreign Languages, with the helpful suggestions in a great support.
Furthermore, we are also grateful to our supervisor, U Aung Zaw Moe, lecturer of the Department of English, YUFL) for the time, support and guidance in our term paper to successfully bring to an end.
Finally, we would like to extend our grateful thanks to all the teachers at the Department of English, Yangon University of Foreign Languages, for their contributions to our understandings in accomplishment of this term paper.

1.1 Background of the Study 5
1.2 Scope of the Study 5
1.3 Aims ; Objectives 6
2.1 What is Translation? 7
2.2 Translation methods by Newmark 7
2.3 Translation procedures by Newmark 9
2.4 Biography 12
2.4.1 Biography of the Author “Min Thu Wun” 12
2.4.2 Biography of the Translator “Thagyi Gazette U Khin Maung” 13
3.1 Data Collection 14
3.2 Research Method 14
3.3 Research Procedures 14
3.4 Research Questions 14


This paper attempts to analyze the literal translation and other translation procedures in the selected “Ba Gyi Aung Nyar Dal” novel. It really intends to study the strategies used by the translator in translating by using literal translation and other translation procedures in the selected novel by Min Thu Wun into Myanmar. The translating Myanmar novel is complicated as it includes cultural aspects, social aspects, geographical aspects, aesthetic aspects and many others and this nature makes translators to take a precarious balance in usage of literal translation and other translation procedures when translating from language to language, culture to culture. Undoubtedly, a study on the translation procedures of the novel “Ba Gyi Aung Nyar Dal” novel will bring about some good examples of effective strategies and techniques for literal translation in Myanmar.

1.1 Background of the Study
Translation has played as an important role in every aspects of fields, especially in literary fields. Although English is known as a global language of communication, many countries still prefer to converse in their local tongue. Translation offers an insight into the culture and attitudes of other country. Though there are a lot of novels which have been translated from English to Myanmar, novels translated from Myanmar to English are rarely found. So, this term paper is focused on Uncle Aung -You Are a Humbug (???????????????) translated by Thagyi Gazette U Khin Maung. In addition, the translator U Khin Maung, under the pen name “??????”, wrote many stories in English newspapers. He also worked as an editor in Thuriya and Gazette newspaper which are written in English. Most of the foreign credited his works due to his excellent writing skills in English. From the short novel “???????????????”, the literal and cultural words which reflects the ancient Myanmar colonial period applied by the translator in the target text will be examined.

1.2 Scope of the Study
The study is analyzed only 20 selected words, using the method of literal translation and others translation procedures proposed by Newmark (1988), as a result of time limitation.
1.3 Aims and Objectives of the research
The aims of the study are to find out the difficulties and the challenges when doing the translation and to highlight the cultural differences in different languages. The study is determined by the use of words and phrases in colonial time.
This chapter deals with the theoretical basic of translation procedures, translation methods, translation and biographies of the authors.

2.1 What is Translation?
Translation is the communication of meaning from one language (the source) to another language (the target). Translation refers to written information, whereas interpretation refers to a spoken information. According to Newmark (1988), he states that translation is rendering the meaning of a text into another language in the way that the author intended the text.
When it comes to talking about translation, Newmark is the person that must mention. He divides translation into two: semantic translation and communicative translation. Semantic translation is more close to the source language, whereas communicative translation is more close to the target language. He believes that the translation theory’s main concerns to determine appropriate translation methods for all types and text categories. According to Newmark, everything is translatable up to a point, but there are often enormous difficulties.
The goal of translation is to establish a relationship of equivalence between the source and the target text, while considering the context, the rule of grammar of the source language, its writing forms, its idioms and so on. With the help of the digital technology, it allows us to present the interpretation of texts in the most comprehensive way, to create a more total understanding of a work and to establish a continuous interaction with the work.

Translation methods relate to what happens to texts.
There are two scopes in translation methods: Methods close to SL and Methods close to TL. There are all together 8 methods in numbers and 4 methods are close to SL and 4 methods are close to TL.
They are – (1) Word-for-word translation, (2) Literal translation, (3) Faithful translation, (4) Faithful translation (5) Adaptation, (6) Free translation, (7) Idiomatic translation and (8) Communicative translation.
Methods close to SL
1. Word-for-word translation: in which the SL word order is preserved and the words translated singly by their most common meanings, out of context.
2. Literal translation: in which the SL grammatical constructions are converted to their nearest TL equivalents, but the lexical words are again translated singly, out of context.
3. Faithful translation: it attempts to produce the precise contextual meaning of the original within the constraints of the TL grammatical structures.
4. Semantic translation: which differs from ‘faithful translation’ only in as far as it must take more account of the aesthetic value of the SL text.
Methods close to TL
1. Adaptation: which is the freest form of translation, and is used mainly for plays (comedies) and poetry; the themes, characters, plots are usually preserved, the SL culture is converted to the TL culture and the text is rewritten.
2. Free translation: it produces the TL text without the style, form, or content of the original.
3. Idiomatic translation: it reproduces the ‘message’ of the original but tends to distort nuances of meaning by preferring colloquialisms and idioms where these do not exist in the original.
4. Communicative translation: it attempts to render the exact contextual meaning of the original in such a way that both content and language are readily acceptable and comprehensible to the readership (1988b: 45-47)
Newmark (1991:10-12) writes of a continuum existing between “semantic” and “communicative” translation. Any translation can be “more, or less semantic—more, or less, communicative—even a particular section or sentence can be treated more communicatively or less semantically.

2.3 Translation procedures
Translation procedures are used for sentences as well as the smaller units of language. According to Vinay and Darbelnet (1976 in Monday, 2001), there are seven translation procedures: literal translation, borrowing, transposition, adaptation, modulation, calque and equivalence. Moreover, Peter Newmark (1988:81-91) classified the translation procedures into nineteen. Newmark’s procedures are very useful and reliable for the literary translators as the procedures are comprehensive and show the losses and gains in translation.
Translation procedures of Newmark are as follow:

Literal Translation
When grammatical constructions in source language are converted to their nearest target language equivalents but the lexical words are translated solely out of context, the procedure is called literal. It ranges from one word to one word, group to group, clause to clause or sentence to sentence. It is applied when the term of source language is transparent or semantically motivated and is standardized. For example, the word “frog” is translated as “???” in the TL.

Transference is the process of transferring a SL word to a TL text as a translation procedure. It involves transliteration, which relates to the conversion of different alphabets. The following are normally transferred: topographical and geographical names, names of all living and dead people names of newspapers and periodicals, titles of untranslated literary works, plays and films, private companies name and name of public or nationalized institutions, addresses, street names, etc. Hence,this procedure is applied when there is no equivalent vocabularies of TL to translate.

Naturalization adapts the SL word first to the normal pronunciation, then to the normal morphology(word-forms) of the TL and this procedure succeeds transference. For instance, the term “computer” is translated on the TL as “?????????”.

Cultural Equivalent
Cultural Equivalent is translating appropriately when a SL cultural word is translated by a TL cultural one. This procedure aims to supplement another translation procedure in a couplet. For example, the word ” the banyan tree” is translated in the TL as “????????”.

Functional Equivalent
Functional Equivalent is commonly used in cultural terms. It needs the use of cultural-free word, occasionally with a new specific word. As this procedure is a cultural componential analysis, it is the most accurate way of translating i.e. decentralizing a cultural word. A similar procedure is used when there is lack of technical word of TL. This procedure occupies the
middle, the universal area between the SL culture or language and TL culture or language.

Descriptive Equivalent
This procedure mainly focuses on descripting the cultural words and then, description has to be weighed against function in translating.

Synonymy is a near TL equivalent to a SL word in a context, when an exact equivalent may or may not exist. It is used for a SL term due to lack of clear one-to-one equivalent and unimportant word such as adverbs or adjectives of quality in the text. A synonym can only fit where it is impossible for literal translation and because the word is not quite unimportant for componential analysis.

Shifts or Transpositions
A shift or transposition is a translation procedure involving a change in the grammar from SL to TL. It can be changing from singular to plural or from SL verb to TL word or from an SL noun group to a TL noun or from complex sentence to a simple sentence.

Modulation occurs when translator reproduces the message of the original text in the TL text in conformity with the current norms of the TL, since the SL and the TL may appear dissimilar in the terms of perspective. It is also a variation through a change of viewpoint, of perspective and of though. It can be a change in the part for a whole, abstract for concrete, active for passive, change of symbols. Modulation is used when the TL rejects literal translation.

Recognized translation
Recognized translation uses the official or the generally accepted translation of any institutional term.

Compensation is said to occur when loss of meaning, sound-effect, metaphor or pragmatic effect in one part of a sentence is compensated in another par.

Componential Analysis
According to Newmark (1988b), componential analysis is first looking at the meaning resemblances between source language and target language word and later distinguishing their sense of components into one -to-two, three, or-four translations.

Reduction or Expansion
In translations, translators usually face with unclear texts. When they cut the overlapping meanings in their translations, ‘reduction’ is used in that situation. On the other hand, if they add some words to have more complete meanings, they apply the translation procedure of ‘expansion’.

Newmark defines that when a translation describes detail explanations for the incomplete meanings of the text, it is called ‘paraphrasing’.
Two contrasting procedures which are used in translating a word (or) phrase (or) clause are called ‘couplets’.

Notes, Additions, Glosses
All pieces of extra information that a translator add are said to be ‘notes, additions, glosses’.
‘Additions’ are expressed within the text. Some pieces of information written at the bottom of the page are called ‘notes’. Then ‘glosses’ can be seen at the end of the chapter or at the end of the books.


2.4.1 Biography of Min Thu Wun
Min Thu Wun was a Poet writer and scholar who helped launch a new age literary movement called Khit-San Sar Pay (Modern Literature). He was born on 10th February 1909 as Maung Wun at Kungyangon, Hinthada District, Ayeyarwaddy division. He is the father of U Htin Kyaw, the former president of Myanmar from 2016 to 2018. He started writing poems at the age of 20 for Rangoon College (later Yangon University) Magazine. It was in university that he along with the other studends of professor Pe Maung Tin –Theippan Maung Wa and Zawgyi, pioneered the Khit San style of short stories and poems published in the university magazine. He received his master’s degree in Myanmar literature in 1935. He went to study at Oxford University and achieved a bachelor’s degree in literature in 1939. He died on 15th August 2004 at 95 years old.

2.4.2 Biography of Thagyi Gazette U Khin Maung
U Khin Maung was born in 1892 in Gyan Khin, Ayeyarwaddy Division. Thagyi gazette U Khin Maung was named after working as an Editor of Thagyi gazette Magazine for many years. He got a degree from Yangon College in 1916 and started working as a teacher in Thatong, Mon State. He had worked as an editor in Thuriya Magazine, and Burma Observer Magazine. He used the pen name, Taw Thar and wrote some novels in English newspapers. Even the foreigners like his articles due to his good writing in English. He worked for the government after Myanmar got independence and was honored “the Wunna Kyaw Htin Degree”. He died on 21st November in 1952 at the age of 60.

The methodology used in this paper is Qualitative Research Methodology. The research methodology applied in the exploring the translationese of literal (word-for-word) translation in the novel “????????????????” from Myanmar into English is presented with the four sectors: data collection, research method, research procedure and research questions.
3.1 Data collection
The collection of data for this study is from the original novel “???????????????” is written by Min Thu Wun in Takatho Kyaung Tite Magazine (1932) and translated by Thagyi Gazette U Khin Maung in Ganda Lawka (World of Books) Magazine (1934).
3.2 Research Method
The method employed in this research is based on the translation theories of literal translation and translation procedures By Newman (1988b).
3.3 Research Procedures
Several procedures are used in this study. In the beginning, the source text and its translated text are read in details. Next, word-to-word, phrase- to-phrase, group-to-group and sentence-to-sentence translations are extracted. Then, the literal and other procedures are analyzed in terms of selected words, phrases and sentences. Finally, those analyzed data are expressed in findings and discussions section.
3.4 Research Questions
This study develops the following research questions:
1. What procedure or procedures are most common in the translations?
2. What are the difficulties observed in these translations?


The words and phrases below are translated by using ‘literal’ and ‘translation procedures’.
Literal Translation
1.ST – ?????????
TT – his mouth water
The phrase “?????????” in ST is literally translated as ” his mouth water”, meaning ‘arouse the appetite’. The translator exactly used the equivalent word in TT. Thus, the above phrase is literally translated.

2.ST – ?????????????????????
TT – the statuette of a princess
The word “?????????????????????” in ST is literally translated as “the statuette of a princess” in TT. Translator used the exact words in TT like “????????” as “princess” and “????????” as “statuette”. So, the above word is literally translated.

3.ST – ????????????????
TT – top-knot
The word “????????????????” is literally translated as “top-knot” in TT, meaning “tuft of hair in the top of the head”. The translator used the nearest word that is close to TL. Thus, the above word is literal translated.

4.ST – ????????????
TT – every time he recalled
The above clause is literally translated. “??????” is translated as “recalled” and “??????” is translated as “every time”. Nothing is added nor reduced in translation. So it is literally translated.

5.ST – ?????????????
TT- kerosene oil lamp
The above phrase “?????????????” is literally translated as “kerosene oil lamp”. The word “??????” in the source text is defined as “kerosene oil” in target language definitely. Similarly, for the second word, “???????” in the source text is literally translated as “lamp” in the target language. Thus, the above phrase is literally translated.

6.ST- “??????????????”
TT- “gasping incoherently”
The phrase is literally translated as: “gasping incoherently”.
The phrase “??????”is translated in one word as “incoherently” and the phrase “????????” is translated in one word as “gasping” which indicated the literal translation. Here, nothing is added or reduced in translation.

7.ST – “???????????????”
TT- “The misery of desire unfulfilled”
The above phrase is literally translated. “?????????” is translated “desire unfulfilled” and “??????” is translated as “misery” which indicated the literal translation. Here, nothing is added or changed in translation.

8.ST – ?????
TT – he recollected with a pang of sorrow
If literally translated, it will be as:
“he was grief-stricken”
The above clause “?????” (he was grief-stricken) is translated in “he recollected with a pang of sorrow” which indicates the procedure of “expansion”.

9.ST – ????????
TT – fore-noon meal of the pongyis
The word “????????” in ST is translated as “fore-noon meal of the pongyis” in TT which is translated by using the translation procedure if “expansion”.
By translating the original word as “fore-noon meal”, its translated meaning won’t be clearly understood without knowing the culture.
That’s the reason why the translator expanded its sourced text by adding the phrase “of the pongyis. So that the readers will totally understand how to call ‘the meal do pongyis have’.

10.ST- ????????????????????
TT- smoking
The above phrase “????????????????????” in the source text is translated into “smoking” in the target text. The translator reduced the similar expanding meanings and words in the source text and clearly translated into one word in the target text.

11.ST – ????????? ????????????? ??????????????
TT – he had boycotted all such refections as can only be had by purchased
If literally translated, it will be as:
“he had boycotted the snacks got only by purchase”
The above sentence is translated in the form of couplets; combining literal translation, and expansion.
It is obvious that “??????????????” is translated as “boycotted “, applying literal translation.
“????????? ?????????????” is translated into ” all such refections as can only be had by purchase”. Instead of translating as ” the snacks got only by purchase”, the translator expanded with some additional words in TT. That’s why expansion is used out of other procedures.

12.ST – ???????????????
TT – Ashay Kyaung boys
If literally translated, it will be as:
“Eastern schoolboys”
Although it is literally translated, the word doesn’t portray the original meaning. The above word is translated in the form of couplets, combining transference and shifts.
The first part “????????????” is translated as “Ashay Kyaung” which is the name of monetary and indicates the procedure of transference and the second part “???” is translated as “boys” which indicates the procedure of shifts because its grammar form changes from single in ST to plural “s” in TT.

13.ST – ????????????
TT – the Sabbath days (which were holidays)
The phrase “????????????” is literally translated into “the Sabbath days”. As “the Sabbath days” is the phrase concerned with culture in SL, the translator used the additional information “(which were holidays)” to be understood by the readers. So, procedure of Addition is applied in TT. Hence, the above phrase “????????????” is translated in the form of couplets; using literal translation and addition.

14.ST- “???????”
TT – “Sayardaw (Abbot)”
If literally translated, it will be as “the monk”.
As the “???????” is the phrase concerned with culture in SL, the translator used the additional information (Abbot) gave the meaning of the word to the reader. In this case, the translation procedure, addition is applied in TT. Hence the phrase “???????” is translated in the form of couplets: using naturalization and addition.

15.ST – ????????????
TT – Wundaukmin
If literally translated, it will be as “Town Governor”.
In the above word “????????????” in ST, the translator adapted the ST word first to the normal pronunciation than to the normal morphology of the TT “????????????” as “Wundaukmin” which indicates the translation procedure of naturalization. The translator addressed “Town Governor” as “????????????” as a name rather than its position.

16.ST – ?????????????????
TT – E wun may thu than eken thamayan
The above words are the religious prayers in Pali and there is no equivalent word to describe them in TT. Hence, the translator adapted SL word first to the normal pronunciation, then to the normal word-forms of TL. Naturalization is used translating in such circumstances because of cultural difference between SL and TL.

17.ST – ???????
TT – Sayagyi
In the word “???????”, the translator adapted the ST word first to the normal pronunciation than to the normal morphology of the TT “???????” as “sayagyi” in which naturalization is applied.

18.ST – ???????????????
TT – Uncle Aung – You are a humbug
If literally translated, it will be as:
“Uncle Aung lies to me”
The clause “???????????????” in ST is translated as “humbug” in TT. The translator changed the grammar form from “?????” (verb) in ST to “humbug” (noun) in TT and also changed the whole sentence structure which can be considered as “Shifts”.

Functional Equivalent
19.ST – “????????????????????”
TT – “all the time sad and pinning”
The phrase is literally translated, it will be as:
“He is in despair and lost in his own train of thought”
The phrase “????????????????????” is translated as “all the time sad and pinning” which indicates the translation procedure of Functional equivalent. Here, there is no TL equivalent in SL technical word. That’s why functional equivalent is used as a procedure to translate in the nearest meaning.

20.ST – ??????????? ?????????????
TT – turning it this way and that
If it is literally translated, it will be as:
“turning it from left to right and from right to left back again and again”
The phrase “??????????? ?????????????” is translated as “turning it this way and that” which indicates the translation procedures of functional equivalent. Here, there is no TL equivalent in SL technical word. To translate in the nearest meaning, functional equivalent is used.


Through the analysis, the overall method involves a variety of different procedures like literal translation, naturalization, addition, shifts, expansion, reduction, transference, through-translation, couplets, functional equivalent.
According to the time limit, we only emphasize on 20 phrases and clauses. The literal translation is commonly found. However, due to the cultural gap, the translator focused to use other translation procedures to maintain the meaning of the source text.

1. The use of the literal translation is commonly found in “???????????????” novel. But we also found the other translation procedures. We found that 7 out of 20 words are literally translated, 4 out of 20 words are couplets as well as naturalization and 5 out of 20 words are expansion.

2. In this paper, it shows that the literal translation alone is not enough in the literal translation because it often affects the themes or main message of the original novel. Sometimes, some cultural words are difficult to be translated. In translation, it is important to be translated from culture to culture as well as from language to language. For instance, Pali religious prayer “?????????????????” is familiar with Myanmar people but not with foreigners. Besides, the ways how people address the others according to their jobs like the words “????????????”, “???????”,etc… and how they are translated are very interesting not only in the colonial reign but also in our age. The translator used naturalization for these words instead of translating the original meaning into the target language in order to reflect the Myanmar culture for non-myanmar citizens. But, the word like “??????????” is translated into “Uncle Aung” in TL. Although it is not the culture word, its translation doesn’t support the original meaning entirely. To be concluded, these are the difficulties observed in our translation.


This term paper focuses on “?????????? ?????” by “Min Thu Wun”. The paper mainly emphasizes literal translation and translation procedures in ST. From this study, the life of people in rural areas are distinctly observed. The usages in this novel, (ruby, pice) reflects the colonial period. The words spoken by a person can feel a huge pain to the other person. The main message that the writer emphasizes we should pay an attention to the other person’s feeling. To be concluded, it hopes to be useful as a reference for the young learners who are interested in translation.
Wun, M.T. (1932, February). Ba Gyi Aung Nyar Tal. Tatkatho Kyaung Tite Magazine.
Wun, M.T. (2005). 20th Century Myanmar 100 Short Stories 100. Yangon: Thiha Yadanar Printing Press.
Maung, K. (1934). Uncle Aung – You Are a Humbug, Ganta Lawka Magazine.
Newmark, P. (1988a). A Textbook of Translation. Hertfordshire: Prentice Hall.
Newmark, P. (1988b). Approaches to Translation. Hertfordshire: Prentice Hall.
???,??? .(3rdEds.). (??????????? ???????). ????????? ????????????? ??????????????????????.???????: ????????????.
Wun, M. T (n.d.). The Biography of Min Thu Wun. Retrieved from
Wun, M.T. (2017, Nov 18). Bagyi Aung Nyar Tal. Retrieved from

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