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ABSTRACT
This study intends to analyse the use of translation procedures in literary translation based on Peter Newmark(1988, 81-91)’s theory. The paper focuses on the original Myanmar short story, “?????????”, written by Ma Ko and its translated version “Like the River Water”, by Zaw Tun. In this paper, translation of Myanmar original words into English will be analysed according to translation procedures suggested by Peter Newmark. Those words are clearly and specifically discussed with detailed explanations in this study. The aim of this paper is to help the future researchers who are willing to analyse the translation of short stories from Myanmar to English, and to have better understanding of translation procedures.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Firstly, we would like to offer our appreciation to Sayagyi Dr. U Kyi Shwin, the Rector of Yangon University of Foreign Languages for giving us this opportunity and permission to write this term paper.
Secondly, we would like to express our sincere gratitude and appreciation to Professor Dr. Daw Ni Ni Aung, Head of the Department of English, Yangon University of Foreign Languages for her overall guidance and advice.
Moreover, we would also like to show our profound honour and respect to our supervisor, Daw Yee Yee Lwin, the Lecturer of the Department of English, Yangon University of Foreign Languages for guiding tirelessly by devoting time and efforts to enhance and broaden our knowledge. We can say that this term paper could have not accomplished accurately without her patience, perfect instructions, supervisions and supportive encouragement. Moreover, our genuine appreciation would extend to all the teachers at the Department of English, Yangon University of Foreign Languages, for enriching our knowledge.
Additionally, we are much obliged to our beloved family for supporting us in every possible way they can. Finally, we are thankful for all of
our classmates’ encouragement and valuable suggestions.

1. INTRODUCTION
Literary translation takes part an important role these days as people have been really interested in reading literature from different cultures, using different languages. Through literature, people can explore and share each other’s culture, tradition and customs. Language is used to communicate people from all over the world. There will be difficulties for people when they read literary works from other countries, written in different languages. Only translation can help not only to overcome such kind of language barriers but also to enhance the understanding between different cultures. Moreover, the reason of translating SL (Source Language) literary works into TL (Target Language) works is to convey sentiments like love, feelings and sympathy that the original writer intended to be felt. In this paper, Myanmar literary works are translated into the universal language, English, to let the world know and adore Myanmar culture, Myanmar traditions, Myanmar puns, and pure love and kindness of Myanmar people, etc.
1.1. Background of the study
The short story being analyzed in this study is extracted from the book named “????????????????????” in English “Sweet, Aesthetic Fruits called May, Wint, Myint and Ko”. It is a collection of short stories by four Myanmar Women writers, May Maung, Ma Wint (Myit Nge), Win Win Myint (Nandaw Shay) and Ma Ko and their translated version by Zaw Tun. It was first published in May, 2017 by Linn Lwan Khin Publishing House.
1.2. Aims and objectives
This study aims to explore the translation procedures in a Myanmar short story “?????????” written by “????” and its translated version “Like the River Water” translated by “Zaw Tun”. It will also help students have better understanding of translation procedures. To achieve these aims, the objectives of the study are
• To study the translation procedures suggested by Peter Newmark (1988:81-91)
• To find the words in the SL, Myanmar and the TL, English based on translation procedures
• To analyze the findings based on the translation procedures of Newmark’s theory (1988:81-91)

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2. LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1. Translation
What is translation? Translation can be defined in many ways. It has no concrete definition. In the book named “Approaches to Translation” by Peter Newmark (1981:7), he described translation as “a craft consisting in an attempt to replace a written message and/or statement in one language with the same message/statement in another language.” And also, Peter Newmark (1988:5) further defined translation as “the rendering of the meaning of a text into another language in the way that the author intended the text.” According to Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary (8th edition), translation is an act of transforming written and spoken language to another language. According to Catford (1965), translation is described as “the replacement of textual material in source language with equivalent material in target language.” Translation is the process of transferring data from source language to target language in terms of communication and understanding of one culture to another. According to Hatim and Munday (2004), Translation can range from an international treaty or rules and regulations to an advertisement. Translation is important because translating something from SL to TL is the only way to touch the heart of native people.
2.2. Translation Procedures
With the help of Translation procedures, which are applied to sentences and the smaller units of language, it is easy to make SL equivalent to TL in both meaning and grammatical pattern, and to find and analyze words in literature that fall into the categories of different translation procedures. Thus, they are very useful for literary translations. There are 19 procedures suggested by Newmark.
a. Literal Translation
According to Newmark (1988:70), the basic translation procedure, both in communicative and semantic translation, is believed to be the literal translation. It is said by Newmark (1988:69) that literal translation ranges from one word to one word through group to group, clause to clause, and sentence to sentence. The nature of literal translation procedure is defined as the translation of the TL corresponds or corresponds closely to that of SL in terms of grammatical constructions as well as the lexical equivalents. In other words, this kind of procedure follows closely the form of the source language. However, words such as phrasal verbs, idioms and proverbs cannot be translated literally.
For example, ????? ??????????? ????????????????
He goes to school by car.
b. Transference
According to Newmark (1988:81), transference procedure, which includes the function of transliteration, is applied when there is a need to transfer or convert a SL word to a TL text without changing the form of the SL. The words that are converted the different alphabets into English and vice versa are called loan words. The titles of famous living and dead people, geographical and topographical, periodicals and newspapers, untranslated literature, plays, and films, private companies and institutions, and public are words that translators normally use transference procedure for translation.
For example, Donald Trump- ???????????
c. Naturalization
This procedure is used to naturalize the SL word i.e., the succession and adaptation of the SL word first to the normal pronunciation of the SL word, then to the normal morphology of the TL. (Newmark, 1988:82)
For example, Democratic Party – ????????????????
Parliament – ???????
d. Cultural Equivalent
In a book “Textbook of Translation by Peter Newmark (1988:82), cultural equivalent procedure is regarded as an approximate translation. The application of this procedure is when there is a need to substitute the SL cultural words with TL ones. However, the translation does not yield full accuracy. Although their accuracy is not fully guaranteed, this procedure can be used for general texts, publicity and propaganda, as well as for brief explanation to reader who tend to ignore the relevant SL culture. Another intended purpose for this procedure is to give support or supplement to another translation procedure in using a couplet. Cultural words are classified as words used in ecology such as flora, fauna, etc.
For example, fig-leaf – ????????? (literal translation + cultural equivalent)
e. Functional Equivalent
According to Newmark (1988:83), this procedure is used to invent a new specific term for the SL cultural words as a requirement to use culture-free words for the aim of neutralization or generalization of the SL cultural words. Another time this procedure is applied is when there is no TL equivalent that matches with a SL cultural word. It is said that deculturalising a cultural word, which is called a cultural componential analysis, is regarded as the most accurate technique for translation. Functional equivalent procedure is applied when translators find a way to translate the functions of a SL word into the correspondent functions of a TL word.
For example, senate- ???????????????????
f. Descriptive Equivalent
According to Newmark (1988:83), in this procedure, the meaning of the original word in SL is explained in many words in TL. It is kind of translating a SL using the description of the concept in the TL language. In translation, description sometimes has to be weighed against function.
g. Synonymy
According to the Oxford dictionary, synonymy means two or more words having the same meaning. According to Newmark (1988:84), it means translation a SL word or expression with a TL one that is nearly the same as the SL but not totally equal. This procedure is used for SL words for two reasons-
1. where there is no exact word in TL
2. where the word is not important in the text.
For example, ???? = auntie

h. Through-Translation
According to Newmark (1988:84), a word or expression in SL is translated literally into TL. It should be used only for the terms which are already recognized like names of organizations, common collocations and phrases. It is also known as loan translation.
For example, UNHCR = ????????????????????????????????????????
i. Shifts or Transpositions
According to Catford (1965:73), transposition is a shift or change. Based on the theory suggested by Newmark (1988:86), it is a procedure of translation that involves a grammatical change from SL to TL. There are two principle classes –
1. the replacement of one grammatical form by another grammatical form
• noun to verb , verb to noun etc.
• word to phrase, word to clause etc.
• dominant to subordinate etc.
• active to passive etc.
2. the replacement of grammatical form by lexical or vice versa.
For example, ????????????? = villagers
???????????????????? = It was late in the evening and the ground was dry.
j. Modulation
According to Newmark (1988:88), modulation occurs when the message of the SL (source language) is adapted according to the norms of the TL (target language) as the SL and TL may not be the same from their viewpoint. It is a kind of expressing the same idea of SL in the TL with a change in viewpoint, thought or perspective.
For example, He always drinks.
??? ???????????????

k. Recognized Translation
Based on Newmark (1988:89), it is using a well-known or officially or generally accepted TL translation for a specific SL institutional term. If it is appropriate, we can explain about it.
For example, United Kingdom (UK) = ??????????????
l. Translation Label
According to Newmark (1988:81-91), it is a temporary translation, usually of a new institutional term. It should be made in inverted commas. It can later be withdrawn. It is an approximate or new term that is usually a collocation for a feature particularly to the SL culture.
m. Compensation
When there is loss in meaning, or effect of sound, metaphor or factual effect in a part of a sentence, but is replaced or compensated in another part, it can be assumed as compensation.
p. Componential Analysis
When there is similar meaning but different sense components with one-to-two or three-to-four translations from SL into TL, it is called componential analysis.
q. Reduction
Reduction occurs when the number of elements are reduced from SL to TL but with the principle of relevance.
r. Expansion
Expansion occurs when the number of words are exceeded in which the meaning is described in perfect explicitness from SL to TL.
s. Paraphrase
When the meaning of cultural-bound term is defined in the segment of a text, it is called paraphrase. However, it has more detailed explanation than descriptive equivalent.

t. Couplets
Combining two different procedures, especially for usage in cultural terms is called couplets.
u. Notes, Additions, Glosses
Notes, additions and glosses are used to inform a culturally-bond expression or specific terms in a domain. Sometimes, they are put into brackets in SL. Notes are put at the bottom of the page while additions are put for further information concerning the text. The procedure that is put at the end of the book or chapter is called glosses
2.3. Biographies of authors
2.3.1. Biography of the author, Ma Ko
Ma Ko is one of the famous female writers of Myanmar. She was born in Mandalay on 1 August 1965. Her real name is Phyu Phyu Win and Ma Ko is a pen name. She was graduated from Mandalay University in 1985 with B.A degree specializing in geography. She made contributions to the School Wall Posters when she was a student. She entered the Literary World with her poem, “The Blue Curtain” that came in print in Sabae Phyu magazine in 1987. She worked as a middle school teacher at No. 12 S.H.S, Mandalay. She now lives with her family in Pathein Gyi.

2.3.2. Biography of the translator, Zaw Tun
Dr. Zaw Tun was born in Monywa. He was appointed tutor in Yangon University in 1983. He was promoted to the position of Professor in 2001. He contributed six academic research papers to the university research journals, translated two English books into Myanmar and twenty four Myanmar poetry books into English and occasionally contributes English poems to the Global New Light of Myanmar. He won a prize in the International poetry Contest sponsored by the Australian Embassy in 1981.He passed the Diploma in Applied Linguistics in RELC, Singapore in 1999. He was selected among the 65 preliminary selections in ASEAN Arts Awards competition founded by Philip Morris in 2000. He attended interpreter courses sponsored by the Sasakawa Peace Foundation in Japan in 2013. Currently, he serves as Professor and head of the Department of English, Mandalay University of Foreign Languages. He now lives with his family in Mandalay.
3. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1. Research Method
The descriptive-qualitative method is used in this research. The research data has been gathered from the short story “?????????” by “????” and its translated version “Like the River Water” by “Zaw Tun”. In this research, the collected data are analyzed based on Newmark (1988) translation procedures.
3.2. Research Procedures
This research has been taken in four steps. The first stage is that the Newmark (1988) translation procedures have been thoroughly studied. In the second stage, the short story was read thoroughly so as to find the words that match with the procedures. Thirdly, the significant words from both the original version and the translated version of the short story were collected in accordance with Newmark procedures. In the last stage, each word was critically analyzed with the application of Newmark procedures to figure out the purpose of the translation work.
3.3. Research Questions
The research questions poised in this story are as follows.
• What translation procedures are used in “?????????”?
• How many selected translation words are found referring to the translation procedure?
• What translation procedures are mostly used in translating the source language into target language? Why?
4. DATA ANALYSIS
The significant words from the short story ‘?????????’ and its translated work ‘Like the River Water’ will be analyzed based on Newmark (1988) Translation Procedures. The following section is some sample analysis of significant Myanmar words which are translated into English based on the translation procedures. The detailed translation procedures can be found in Appendix.

4.1. Analysis with Literal Translation Procedure
Example 1
Source Text: ????????? ??????????????????????? ?????????????????????? ???????? ????????????? ??????? ??????????? ?? ????????????????????????? (??-???)
Target Text: When they reached the bed of pea nuts plants over the vast sand bed, he saw the sunny side of things, praising the smell of pea nut plants that were ready for uprooting. (P-476)
In this example, according to Myanmar- English dictionary, the word “????????????” means a certain kind of field where peanuts are grown. The translator directly translates the word “????????????”into “bed of pea nuts”. Literal translation procedure is applied here as the SL grammatical construction is the same as that of the TL and lexical words are translated individually with no regard for context.

Example 2
Source Text: ?????????????? ???????? ?????????????? ??????????? ??????????????? ?? ????????????? ????????? ???????????? ??????????????????? ???????? ??????????? (??- ???)
Target Text: It was all hot sand and dust. Passing the bed of red lunatus beans, they came to a small stream. There, he seemed to be hesitant. (P-477)
In this example, “??????????????” means that the sand is hot and it is dusty. The translator translates it as “hot sand and dust” in TL which is the nearest equivalent to the SL. Literal translation procedure is applied here as the SL grammatical form is converted to its nearest form as well as lexical words are translated individually.

Example 3
Source Text: ?????????????? ????????????????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????????? ????? ??????? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ????????? ????????? ?????????? ????????????? ?????????? (??-???)
Target Text: Mya Mya Shin and the other village damsels took off and held their slippers in their hands. Then, he muttered to himself, just a whisper to her, “Wonder if there are any thistles in the water. “So he didn’t take off his slippers. (P-477)
The word “???” means a kind of sharp points like thorn or spike according to Myanmar- English Dictionary. In this example, this word is translated as the word “thistles” which has the same meaning as the SL. Literal translation procedure is applied here because the grammatical form of the SL is the same as the TL and the word is translated singly.

Example 4
Source Text: ??????????????????????? ??? ????????? ????????? ???? ????????? ????? ?????? ???????? ???? (??-???)
Target Text: She distributed the three sickles to Amaw Lay, Shwe Pu and to him, as well.
(P-477)
According to Myanmar-English dictionary, the word ‘????????????????’ is three sickles. In this translated work, the translator directly renders the SL word as the word ‘three sickles’ in TL as there is a direct word in the TL. Literal translation procedure is applied here as the grammatical construction of the SL is equivalent to that of in TL, and the lexical word is translated individually, out of context.
Example 5
Source Text: ???????? ?????????? ????????????? ?????????? ???????????? (??-???)
Target Text: In the heat of the sun, the leaves wither, and do not easily break. (P-477)
In this example, the word ‘?????’ is applied to plants and flowers as ‘wither’ and colours as ‘fade’ defined by Myanmar-English dictionary. In this case, the SL, which is used to talk about plants, is literally translated in the TL by the direct equivalent ‘wither’. In this example, the translator uses literal translation procedure because the SL corresponds closely to the TL in terms of grammatical construction, and the lexical word is translated as one-to-one equivalent.

Example 6
Source Text: … ?? ?????????????????????? ???????????????????????… (??-???)
Target Text: … he couldn’t get bored, that he could get new experiences… (P-478)
According to Myanmar-English dictionary, the word ‘??????????’ is defined as ‘experience’. Literal procedure is used in this example, and translated the SL as the word ‘experiences’ in the TL directly as the grammatical construction of the SL is transferred closely to that of TL, and there is a direct equivalent word in the TL.

Example 7
Source Text: …???????????????????? ????????????????????????? (??-???)
Target Text: … that he could contribute his labour. (P-478)
In this example, the word ‘???????’ is simply explained as labour in Myanmar-English dictionary. The translator literally and directly translates the word as ‘labour’ in the TL as the direct equivalent is in the context of TL. He uses literal translation procedure as there is nearest equivalence in both grammatical pattern and lexical usage.

Example 8
Source Text: “??????????????? ????????? ?????????????????????? ????????” (??-???)
Target Text: “If your legs are aching, you might go back by cart, Ko Moe.” (P-478)
According to Myanmar-English dictionary, the word in the SL ‘?????’ is defined as a cart. In this example, the word is literally translated as the word ‘cart’ in the TL as there is a direct word in the TL. Literal translation procedure is applied here as the grammatical construction of the SL is transferred correspondently and the word is translated singly.

Example 9
Source Text: ?????????????? ?????????????????? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ??????????????? ???????????? ???????? (??-???)
Target Text: The cart path was winding a long way. So she had to put a pot of rice on the stove while waiting for the cart. (P-479)
In this example, the word in the SL ‘????????????’ is a noun phrase. The phrase is literally translated as ‘a pot of rice’ as there is no direct equivalent in the TL. Literal translation procedure is applied here as the grammatical construction is transferred to its nearest equivalent and the lexical equivalent is rendered individually.

Example 10
Source Text: …????????? ???????????? ????????? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ??? ???????????… (??-???)
Target Text: Her sixty year old father now had blurred vision and her mother was lame. (P-479)
In this example, the word ‘???????’ is an adjective in the SL. The translator literally converts this word into the adjective word in the TL ‘lame’ which means being unable to walk well. Literal translation procedure is used as there is a close correspondence of grammatical construction and word equivalent between SL and TL.

Example 11
Source Text: ?????????? ???????????? ?????????????????????? ???????????????? ??????? ??????????? ??????? ????????????? ???????????????? ??????????? ??????????????? (??-???)
Target Text: There, amid the tobacco plants still remaining intact, the tobacco leaves were unloaded, and preparations were made for beating leaves. That was done because the strong main vein of the leaves were hard to dry through dried in the sun. So that vein had to be beaten flat. About this she had to explain Mr. Curious. (P-481)
The word “?????” means curious with reference to Myanmar-English Dictionary. In this example, the word in the SL is literally converted into “Curious” which is a direct equivalent word in TL. Literal translation procedure is applied here as the grammatical construction is changed into its nearest equivalent. Besides, the word is translated singly.

Example 12
Source Text: ????????????? ?????????? ??? ??? ??? ?????????????? ????? ??????????? ???????????????? ????????????? ???? ??????? ??????? (??- ???)
Target Text: It was getting late. The cold evening set in. her father came, holding a bamboo pole hanging a shining bulb connected to a small battery. (P-483)
In this example, there is no direct equivalent word in TL for the word “????????????????” in SL. That’s why, literal translation is used here. The grammatical construction is converted into its nearest equivalent in TL. However, the lexical words are translated individually.

Example 13
Source Text: ??????? ???????? ?????? ???????????? ?????????????? ???? ????? ???? ???????????? ????????????? ???????? ????????? ????????????? (??-???)
Target Text: She turned up and shuffled the wet pea nuts dried under the guava tree beside the house. When she was having lunch together with her family, he popped up. (P-484)
In this example, the word “????????????” is a combination of two words, the adjective “wet” and the noun phrase “peanut”. There is no direct equivalent word so the translator uses literal translation procedure here so that the word in the SL can be converted into its nearest equivalent word in the TL. In this example, words are translated singly, out of context.

Example 14
Source Text: ??????? ?????????????? ???????????? ??????????? ??????? ????????? ???????????? ????????????? ????????????????? ????????????? (??-???)
Target Text: She turned up and shuffled the wet pea nuts dried under the guava tree beside the house. When she was having lunch together with her family, he popped up. (P-484)
In this example, “????????” is a kind of guava according to Myanmar- English Dictionary. The writer translates it as “the guava tree” using the nearest equivalent word. Literal translation procedure is applied here as the SL grammatical form is changed into nearest TL equivalent and lexical words are translated individually, with no regard to the context.

Example 15
Source Text: ???????? ????????? ??????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ????????????? ???????????????????? (??- ???)
Target Text: Then she asked him to take the shelter of the cart and relax. He couldn’t pretend any longer. (P-485)
In this example, the word in SL is transferred into its nearest equivalent word in TL as there is no direct equivalent word in TL. So, it can be said that in this example, literal translation procedure is applied. Each word in this example is translated singly, out of context.

Example 16
Source Text: ?????? ??????? ????????????? ????????????? ????????? ?????????????????????????????? ?????????????? (??-???)
Target Text: Now the flood seasons of Waso and Wakhaung came again. She remembered the time he first visited the village. It was last year. (P-493)
According to Myanmar-English dictionary, “??????????” is the seasons in July and August which may cause flood because of the heavy rain. In this sentence, the SL word “??????????” is translated as “the flood seasons ” in the TL which is the nearest equivalent word. Literal translation procedure is applied here as the SL grammatical construction is transferred to its nearest equivalent of the TL and lexical words are translated individually with no regard for context.

Example 17
Source Text: ?????? ?????????????????????????????? ?????????? ????????????????????? ?????????????????????? ????????????? ??????????????? (??-???)
Target Text: She saw him alone in the flooded primary school compound, feeling undisturbed, laughing at himself. (P-493)
According to Myanmar-English dictionary, “??????????????????” is the school compound attended by the children between the ages of about five and eleven. In this sentence, the SL word “??????????????????” is translated as “primary school compound” in the TL using nearest equivalent word. Thus, literal translation procedure is applied here as the SL grammatical construction is transferred to its nearest equivalent of the TL and lexical words are translated individually with no regard for context.

Example 18
Source Text: ???????????? ?????????????????? ????????????? ???????????????????? ??????????? (??-???)
Target Text: There, at a distance, the quest village lost in green foliage. (P-495)
In this example, according to the definition of literal translation procedure, the source text “??????????????????” is translated into target text “green foliage” by converting to the nearest target language equivalent but the lexical words are translated singly. Since it was translated from one word to one word and one phrase to one phrase, it can be said that literal translation procedure is used.

Example 19
Source Text: … ???????????? ??????? ?????????… (??-???)
Target Text: I bought some old issues from the bookshops. (P-495)
In this example, according to the definition of literal translation procedure, the source text “???????????”is translated into target text “the bookshops” by converting to the nearest target language equivalent but the lexical words are translated singly. Since it was translated from one word to one word, it can be said that literal translation procedure is used.

Example 20
Source Text: … ????????????????????????? ???????????? … (??-???)
Target Text: … I always pester them with the questions about you, … (P-496)
In this example, according to Myanmar-English dictionary, “???” means “ask or inquire”. Although “pester” is rarely used for daily usage, it also has the similar meaning as “ask”. Since the source text is converted into target text by converting to the nearest target language equivalent and by ranging from one word to one word, it is translated through literal translation procedure.
Example 21
Source Text: … ?????? ????????????? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ???????????… (?? – ???)
Target Text: … any hardships or barriers, here in this ever flowing river,.. (P-497)
In this example, according to Myanmar-English dictionary, “???????????” means both “hardships and barriers”. The source text is translated into the target text by getting to the nearest language equivalents and it ranges from one word to one word or one group to one group. The source text is semantically motivated and standardized. Thus, it can be said that it is translated through literal translation procedure.

4.2. Analysis with Descriptive Equivalent Translation Procedure
Example 1
Source Text: ????? ?????????? ???????????? ????????? ??????????? ????? ??????????????? ????? ??????????? ?????????????? (??-???)
Target Text: …he walked, in sweat all over but with a smile on his face over the vast land with no sight of a shady tree in the blazing summer heat of the month of Tabaung. (P-476)
In this example, the word ‘???????????????’ is the cultural word usage found in Myanmar. The translator translates it as ‘sweat all over’ in the TL as there is no direct equivalent in the TL due to cultural difference, and the SL word describes how the sweat is pouring off him and the translated TL also describes how his body is soaked in sweat. Descriptive equivalent translation procedure is applied here as it helps readers construct the sight of the beads of sweat in their mind, and the translation procedure itself puts an emphasis on descriptions of cultural words.

Example 2
Source Text: ??????????????? ???? ???????????????? ???????????????????????? ?????????? ????? ????? ???????????? ??? ??????????? ???????????????? (??-???)
Target Text: With interest, he observed Mya Mya Shin cut the broad leaves off the tobacco plants, knee high, with her sickle. (P-477)
According to Myanmar-English translation, ‘?????????????’ is divided as two parts: ‘???????’ is ‘leaves’ and ‘??????’ is ‘broad’, and this term is seen as cultural words. The translator translates it in the TL as ‘broad leaves’ to let readers picture the big broad leaf. The translator uses descriptive equivalent translation procedure as its procedure focuses on the cultural words’ description.
Example 3
Source Text: ?????????????????? ????????? ????????? ? ?????? ???????? ??????????? ?????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ????????? ????? ?????????????? (??-???)
Target Text: Of course, she lived and dressed simple and quiet, but, these guys didn’t fail to turn their eyes to her beautiful features, and were so daring to approach her. (P-480)
In this example, the word “?????????????????? ?????????” has no direct meaning in TL. So, the writer translated it as “she lived and dressed simple and quiet” based on the description. Both of the words in SL and TL express the way she behaves and lives. Descriptive equivalent translation procedure is used here as it can help the readers have the better image of the character with the words.

Example 4
Source Text: … ?????????? ???????????????????? ???? ?????????????????? ???? ????? ??????? ????????????? (??-???)
Target Text: Among the passengers there, the man wearing a flapping grey Jacket! She knew it was him. (P-495)
In this example, the source text “???????????????????? ???? ????????????????” is translated as “the man wearing a flapping grey jacket” with the use of culture-free word and includes a new specific term such as “???? ???????????” into “flapping jacket”. It is converted as a cultural componential analysis and description of the cultural word. Thus, it can be said as it is translated through descriptive equivalent procedure.

4.3. Analysis with Functional Equivalent Translation Procedure
Example 1
Source Text: ???????????????? ???????????? ???? ????????? ????????? ???????????????????????????????? ????????????? ?????????????? ???????? (??-???)
Target Text: A guy who hadn’t been brought up here quite unaccustomed to this nature of job, he must be given credit for him taking close steps and not lagging behind but following the group. (P-476)
In this example, the phrase ‘????????????’ is the cultural word used in the SL. The translator translates it as ‘taking close steps’ in the TL as there is no matching TL phrase for the SL one, and the function of SL text and TL text from the translation is identical. The SL phrase means keeping pace with Mya Mya Shin and also the translation means keeping pace with Mya Mya Shin, so the function is the same. The translation allows the readers to understand what ‘????????????’ means in the target text as ‘taking close steps’. Functional equivalent translation procedure is used as it is to replace the cultural word or phrase with that of the target language, and it is used when there is lack of direct TL equivalent. In this case, this procedure is the most appropriate for translation as it shows accuracy.

Example 2
Source Text: …????????????? ????????????? ??????????????????? ????????? ????? ??????? ??????????????????????????????? ???????????????… (??-???)
Target Text: As he swept his eyes to her, Mya Mya Shin missed a heartbeat. (P-476)
In this example, ‘??????????????’ is mostly used in SL culture. The translator translates it as ‘he swept his eyes’ in the TL as there is no matched TL words for the SL ones and the translator invented new words to neutralize the SL words. The original text means his eyes are looking at her eyes, and also the translation means the same, so the function behind this translation is the same. It enables readers to understand what ‘??????????????’ means in the target text ‘he swept his eyes to her’. Functional equivalent translation procedure is used because it is to substitute the cultural word with the word in the target language, and it is the most appropriate procedure as it shows accuracy.

Example 3
Source Text: …??????? ??????? ????????????????? ???????????????? ???????????? ??????????????? ?????????????????????? (??-???)
Target Text: …had purchased the old books and cartoons and magazines at a wholesale rate… (P-489)
In this example, “?????????????” refers to “the traditional Burmese units of mass measurement which are still used in our Myanmar’s daily life.” In ancient times, Myanmar people invented their own system of measurement to calculate the objects’ weight, length, volume and money, etc. without having adopted the International System of Units (SI) metric system. Therefore, functional equivalent procedure is used to translate this example because it is the most suitable way to describe the Myanmar culture which is unfamiliar with the target culture.

Example 4
Source Text: …????????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ??????????? ??????????? ????????????? ???????????? (??-???)
Target Text: She just secretly read his letters dropped in the absence of her mother, and felt delighted, and at the same time, sorrowful. (P-491)
In this example, the translator translates “?????????????” as “felt delighted, and at the same time, sorrowful”. Since there is no direct words of “?????????????” in the TL text, he translates the words separately by using “delighted” as “???????” and “sorrowful” as “??????”, and then attach the verb “felt” to the combination of these two adjectives with “and”. Therefore, functional equivalent procedure can only be used for these words because this is the appropriate way to describe the source words clearly.

Example 5
Source Text: ???????????????? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ????????????? ????????? ??????????… (??-???)
Target Text: Tightly tied by the strong ropes of attachment, she couldn’t budge an inch. (P-491)
In this example, the SL words “?????????????” are translated into “strong ropes” in TL text. The word “??????????” in original text is used for the attachment of feeling. Although “??????????” cannot be translated directly to the target text ,the translator uses “strong ropes” as they have the same function of attachment. Thus, it can be said that it is translated through functional equivalent procedure.

Example 6
Source Text: ????????????????????? ????????????? ?????? ????? ???????? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ???????????? ???????????? “????????” ???????????… (??-???)
Target Text: She separated the tobacco leaves, big ones, small ones, good ones, bad ones, and soaked them in water and packed them in a large basket, which is called Hse-Kai. (P-493)
In this example, the SL word “??????” is translated into “soaked them in water” in target language. This word is used to identify one of the procedures of making tobacco of Myanmar people. Therefore, functional equivalent procedure is used to translate this word because it is the most suitable way to describe the Myanmar culture which is unfamiliar with the target culture.
Example 7
Source Text: ????????? ??????????? ??????????????????? ???????????? ????????????????? ?????? ???????? ????????????????? (??-???)
Target Text: Then they went to the main river to the south of the village to collect the pieces of wood combining down adrift and fetching drinking water….Oh those memorable days. (P- 494)
In this example, the translator translates “??????????” into “fetching drinking water”. These are the words that may be unfamiliar with the target language readers so the translator makes the same sense by using the word “fetching”. So, these words refer to the functional equivalent in order to get the same function in both languages.

4.4. Analysis with Cultural Equivalent Translation Procedure
Example 1
Source Text: ??????????????? ?????????????????????? ??????????? ??????????????? ?? ????????????? ????????? (??-???)
Target Text: It was all hot sand and dust. Passing the bed of red lunatus beans, they came to a small stream. There he seemed to be hesitant. (P-477)
‘????????’ is red lunatus beans defined by Myanmar-English dictionary. This text falls under the category of Ecology of cultural words. The translator translates it in the TL as ‘red lunatus beans’ to give a better understanding about the SL culture to readers. This procedure is applied when there is a need to substitute the SL cultural words with TL ones. However, the translation does not yield full accuracy.
Example 2
Source Text: ??????????????? ?????????????????????? ??????????? ??????????????? ?? ????????????? ????????? (??-???)
Target Text: It was all hot sand and dust. They came to a small stream. There he seemed to be hesitant. (P-477)
According to Myanmar-English dictionary, the word ‘????????’ is defined as watercourse. The translator renders it as ‘a small stream’ in the TL. According to Oxford Advanced Learner’s dictionary (8th edition), watercourse means stream. The word of the SL is included in the cultural words- Ecology section. The translator’s translation helps the readers understand and recognize the culture of the SL. This procedure is applied when there is a need to substitute the SL cultural words with TL ones. However, the translation does not yield full accuracy.
Example 3
Source Text: ??????????????????????? ????????????? ???????????? ???????????? (??-???)
Target Text: Only after walking another two miles, they came to the tobacco plantations. (P-477)
‘???????’ is translated as ‘tobacco plantations’ using cultural equivalent translation procedure by translator as the original text is categorized as the cultural word (Ecology section). This text can also be literally translated as ‘tobacco plantations’. However, to let readers understand and know about the SL culture, Cultural equivalent translation procedure is applied here.

Example 4
Source Text: ???????????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ????????????? ??????????????? ????… (??-???)
Target Text: Under the scorching afternoon sun, he was wearing a pointed bamboo helmet. (P-476)
In this example, the word ‘??????’ is translated as ‘a pointed bamboo helmet’ by the translator based on the cultural equivalent translation procedure. This original text falls under the umbrella of cultural word (Material). The purpose of this translation is to enable readers expand their knowledge about the SL culture.

Example 5
Source Text: …????????? ?????????????? ????????????????????????????????????????? ???????????? ? ??????? ????????????????????????? ????????? (??-???)
Target Text: When they reached the bed of peanut plants over the vast sand bed, he saw the sunny side of things praising the smell of pea nut plants that were ready for uprooting. (P-476)
According to Myanmar-English dictionary, the word ‘?????’ is ‘pea nut’ and the word ‘???????’ is ‘plants’. The original text is translated as ‘pea nut plants’ by the translator based on the cultural equivalent translation procedure. The text is under the category of cultural words (Ecology section). This procedure is applied here in order to let the readers understand about the SL culture.

Example 6
Source Text: “????????… ?????????…?????? ????????????????????????????? ??????? ????? ????????????????” (??- ???)
Target Text: “No, Auntie, I am not good at aiming at, otherwise I hit his hand and his hand would get bruised.”(P-481)
According to Myanmar-English dictionary, this word means aunt. In most of the villages around Myanmar, the word “????” is used instead of aunt. It is according to Myanmar traditional culture. But, in the TL, the word that is nearest equivalent is aunt which is also a cultural word. So, in this example, cultural equivalent translation procedure is applied as a SL cultural word is translated by a TL cultural word.

Example 7
Source Text: ?????????????????? ???????????????? ?????? ????????????? (??- ???)
Target Text: After this, the leaves must be dried right away, and the stems must be removed, so we’d have to work late at night. (P-481)
In this example, the word “??????????” is a cultural word in which “??????” means “stems of the tree or plant” and “????” can be defined as “getting rid of something”. So, the SL word is translated into “the stems must be removed” depending on the culture of the TL. In this example, cultural equivalent is used to make readers have better understanding of source language culture.

Example 8
Source Text: … ???????? ?????????????????? ??????????????????????? (??-???)
Target Text: … dried the entangling red lunatus beans on the clean ground. (P-489)
“?????”, according to the Myanmar-English dictionary, is a plain bare ground or paddy threshing ground. Therefore, it is included in the cultural word category of ecology. In this example, “?????” is translated as “clean ground” which is the nearest equivalent word to make the readers understand more.

Example 9
Source Text: ??????? ??????????????? ???????????????????? ??????????????? ????????????? ???? ???? ???????????????? ???????? ???????????????? (??-???)
Target Text: Some people go to town and get the rice powder while most in the countryside usually get the rice powder from the traditional pounding in a wooden boom and pestle rig pressed by the leg. (P-485)
In this example, “????????????????” refers to ” the traditional pounding in a wooden boom and pestle rig pressed by the leg” in the target language. It is a kind of Burmese traditional machine which can be occupied usually in the countryside for pounding the rice for powder to make snacks. The translation procedure of cultural equivalent is applied here as there is no equivalent for “????????????????” in the target language.

Example 10
Source Text: ??? ??????? ??????? ?????????????? ????????? ????????????????????? (??-???)
Target Text: She took a quick look at her mother. Fortunately, the scene was blocked by the coconut palm. (P-490)
According to Myanmar-English dictionary,”????????” is described as coconut palm which is a large nut of a tropical tree which has a hard hairy shell containing a soft white substance that can be eaten and juice that can be drunk. Although they have the same meaning in both languages, the source text is simply translated into the target text with the cultural influences of target society. Thus, it can be said that it is translated through cultural equivalent procedure.

Example 11
Source Text: …???????? ???????????? ???????????? ???????? ????????????????? ????????????… (??-???)
Target Text: …and soaked them in water and packed them in a large basket, which is called Hse-Kai…(P-495)
In this example, according to Myanmar-English Dictionary, ?????????? has an approximate meaning as “extra medicine”. However, the source text is translated into target text as “large basket” which has a complete different meaning that was influenced by the culture of its society. Thus, it is translated through cultural equivalent procedure.

Example 12
Source Text: …?????????????? ????????? ?????????????????? ?????????? ???????? (??-???)
Target Text: …and soon it came to the big shady plum tree not far from her boat. (P-495)
In this example, according to Myanmar-English dictionary, ?????? is a tree of the rose family which has skinned edible fruits that are drupes with oblong seeds. Although they have the same meaning in both languages, the source text is translated into target text with the influences of target society. Since it has a familiar tree as “??????????” in the target language, it can be said that it is translated through cultural equivalent procedure.

5. FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION
The results obtained from the analysis will be presented and discussed in this section.
5.1. Findings
After analyzing this paper, four types of translation procedures have been structured based on the results obtained from the data analysis. The words that have been found from the short story “?????????” are as follows.
According to the findings, four translation procedures by Newmark (1988) that have been shown in the table are mainly used in the translation of the short story “?????????”. These categories are literal translation, cultural equivalent, descriptive equivalent and functional equivalent.
The total number of forty-four translation words based on the literary analysis has been collected referring to the translation procedure.
The translation of the short story focuses on conveying the words concerned with culture, love and affection, and the nature of Myanmar girls in the countryside. Based on the data analysis, out of 44 words under study, twenty-one literary words have been found which stands the highest rate (48%) among other procedures selected from this paper. So, we can clearly see that the translator mostly used literal translation procedure which supports word for word to make the sense of the original story into target language. Moreover, it can be found that the category of cultural equivalent is the second most frequently used category with the total of twelve words in the percentage of indicating to 27% because the analyzed story is based on indicating the culture of people’s lifestyles in rural areas. Additionally, in this research, the category of functional equivalent that stands the third most often used category (14%) as seven words concerned with gestures and habits. Furthermore, only four descriptive equivalent words have been found in the description of men’s appearance measuring 11%.
In the short story “?????????”, the literal translation is mostly used because the translator directly translated the cultural words in the source text which are transparent, semantically motivated and standardized, to their direct or nearest equivalent in the target language equivalent. As a result, the readers will not have to face any difficulties in reading the translating text. Moreover, the procedures of cultural equivalent, functional equivalent and descriptive equivalent are operated in translating this story to familiarize the Myanmar cultural context for the target readers. Hence, the target readers are able to read smoothly as if they are reading the original text.

6. Conclusion
This term paper aims at analyzing the words according to the types of translation procedures proposed by Peter Newmark (1988:81-91) in the translated version of the short story “????????? (Like the River Water)” by Zaw Tun. In the tra1nslation of the words collected from the short story, four types of translation procedures- Literal translation, Descriptive equivalent, Functional equivalent and Cultural equivalent are mainly focused as these are mostly used by the translator.
In a nutshell, the translation of the short story “?????????” can be said that the translator can successfully impart his intended messages thoroughly to the readers. Usually, the translator’s intention is similar with that of the original author of the source language text. Hence, their attitude of the text is to inform the knowledge of Myanmar’s culture; especially “the economical planting of the tobaccos leaves in countryside” and to understand the life of Myanmar girls who are under the control of tradition; for examples, elegance is the first priority for them and they cannot openly show their feelings for someone they fall in love. However, their target audience areas are different according to the types of readers which means while the original author just focus on the local readers, the source language text is translated mainly for the foreign readers. The readers can learn not only Myanmar’s traditional culture but also the translator’s translation method as the translator is trying to get the message of informing our Myanmar’s culture including his translation method and procedures across to the readers.
This term paper is intended to benefit university teachers and students for the study of translation and to help them get better understanding of translation procedures. Furthermore, it will be a good reference for those who are interested in the translation field.

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