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111 Town Square Pl, Jersey City, NJ 07310, U.S.

Adult female blackflies (Simuliids) are the significant insect pests and animals, owing to carry pathogens and the allergic expressions. Some species of female blackflies bite humans whereas others species either feed strictly on birds or other animals or do not feed on blood on at all. Male and female blackflies swig nectar as a source of energy. Since adult female blackflies lies in their roles and vectors, the study of life cycle pattern, external morphology and internal anatomy are profuctive.
Probably life cycle of blackfly species is similar and it varies with species. The female is ready to mate after emergence and oviposit usually after egg maturation, for which a blood meal or nectar are required. After mating, females lay their eggs in variety of lotic environments. They oviposit egg masses to firm substrates submerged with water like boulders, coarse particulate organic matter, pebbles, grasses, etc. Single female fly can lay 200-500 eggs. There are four distinct developmental stages, egg, larva, pupa and adult.

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