Association between sleep and smartphone addiction
Demi?rci?, Akgönül, & Akpinar (2015) conducted a research on relationship of Smartphone Use Severity with Sleep Quality, Depression, and Anxiety in 319 male & female University Students. The participants were divided into three groups – a smartphone non-user group, a low smartphone use group and a high smartphone use group. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Anxiety Inventory and the Smartphone Addiction Scale were administered to the participants. Findings of the study indicated that smartphone overuse may be associated with depression, anxiety, and poor sleep quality.
Amra, et.al (2017) conducted a study to investigate the relationship of late-night cell phone use with sleep duration and quality in a sample of Iranian adolescents. 2400 samples were chosen for the study aged between 12-18 years. Data regarding age, body mass index, sleep duration, cell phone use after 9 p.m., and physical activity were documented and sleep was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index questionnaire. Result of the study indicated that 1270 participants reported that they use their cell phone after 9 p.m and 56.1% of girls and 38.9% of boys reported poor quality of sleep. Findings of the study indicated that late-night cell phone use by adolescents was associated with poorer sleep quality and Participants who were physically active had better sleep quality and quantity.
Soni, Upadhyay & Jain (2017) conducted a study to investigate the magnitude of smart phone addiction and to evaluate the impact of smart phone addiction on the mental health and sleep quality of school students. Data was collected from 587 school students. Samples completed the Smart phone addiction scale (SAS), Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21), and Pittsburgh sleep quality inventory questionnaire. Results indicated that samples those who used smart phone excessively had high Pittsburgh sleep quality inventory scores and Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21) scores in terms of depression, anxiety and stress, indicating that smartphone addiction was significantly associated with depression, anxiety, stress, and poor sleep quality.
Association between sleep and dark triad
Akram et.al (2018) conducted a study to investigate the association between the dark triad of personality traits and insomnia symptoms amongst a sample of the general-population. Data was collected from 475 participants through online survey. They completed dark triad personality traits (SD3) and insomnia severity questionnaires. Results indicated that Machiavellianism and psychopathy were associated with insomnia symptoms, but not narcissism in univariate analyses. They used linear regression analysis and found that insomnia symptoms were predicted by psychopathy, but not Machiavellianism. The researchers explained that because psychopaths have deficits in emotion they may have disturbed sleep.
Annen et.al (2017) conducted a study to investigate the associations between Dark Triad traits and vulnerable narcissism, mental toughness, sleep quality, and stress perception in 720 samples aged between 18 to 28 years. Participants completed self-rating questionnaires of the Dark Triad traits, mental toughness, vulnerable narcissism, sleep quality, and perceived stress. Results indicated that participants who scored high on vulnerable narcissism also reported higher Dark Triad traits, lower mental toughness, poor sleep quality, and higher scores on perceived stress. This indicated that vulnerable narcissism seems to be key for more unfavourable behavior.
Sabouri, et al. (2016) examined Dark Triad traits in relation to sleep disturbances, anxiety sensitivity and intolerance of uncertainty in 341 young adults. The participants were administered tested questionnaire that assessed Dark Triad traits, sleep disturbances, anxiety sensitivity, and intolerance of uncertainty. Findings of the study indicated that specific Dark Triad traits, which include Machiavellianism and psychopathy, were associated with sleep disturbances, anxiety sensitivity and intolerance of uncertainty in young adults.
Gender difference in insomnia
Li et.al (2002) conducted a study to investigate in Hong Kong regarding epidemiology and gender difference of insomnia in Chinese adults in Hong Kong. Data was collected from 9851 normal adults aged between 18- 65 years through telephone survey. Using a structured questionnaire in which demographic details, sleep habits and problems, insomnia symptoms and lifestyle questions were asked to the subjects. Results indicated that females are at a higher risk of developing insomnia when compared with males. Researchers found that some factors were associated with insomnia in both the genders such as alcohol intake, unemployment, lower economic status, psychiatric disturbance etc.,
Gender difference in smartphone addiction
Chen et.al (2017) conducted a study to examine the prevalence of smartphone addiction and the associated factors in male and female undergraduates. Data was collected from 1441 undergraduate students. Smartphone addiction among the students was assessed using Smartphone Addiction Scale short version (SAS-SV). Associations between smartphone addiction and independent variables among the males and females were analyzed using Multivariate logistic regression models. Findings of the study indicated that smartphone addiction was prevalent among males was found to be 30.3% and for females it was 29.3%. This shows that only a small difference was found between smartphone addiction between males and females. Use of game apps, anxiety, and poor sleep quality was associated with the smartphone addiction in male students, for female undergraduates use of multimedia applications, use of social networking services, depression, anxiety, and poor sleep quality were found to be significant factors associated with smartphone addiction.
Gender difference in dark triad
Wertag & Hanzec (2013) conducted a study on examining the relationship between dark triad and life satisfaction along with the gender differences in 624 students. Participants completed the questionnaire on Satisfaction with Life Scale and Short Dark Triad scale. Findings of the study indicated that males scored higher in Machiavellianism and psychopathy than females and they were found to have lower life satisfaction. Female students with high life satisfaction scored high in narcissism while male students with higher scores on narcissism had lower life satisfaction. This indicated that there exists the gender difference in dark triad of personality.
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