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AUTOMATIC PORTABLE STIRRUPS MAKING MACHINE
A PROJECT REPORT
Submitted by
BHIMANI BHAVIN V.

MAKWANA NAROTTAM K.

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RABARA VIMAL R.

DANGAR KANA A.

TEAM ID (15153)

In fulfillment for the award of the degree
Of
BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING
In
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING
128524021463000
34569401016000
V.V.P ENGINEERING COLLEGE
RAJKOT
GUJARAT TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY
AHMEDABAD

V.V.P ENGINEERING COLLEGE
Electrical Engineering Department
2018
CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the project entitled “AUTOMATIC PORTABLE STIRRUPS MAKING MACHINE” has been carried out by
BHIMANI BHAVINKUMAR VALAMJIBHAI (140470109007)
MAKWANA NAROTTAM KATHADBHAI (140470109037)
RABARA VIMAL RASIKBHAI (140470109048)
DANGAR KANA ABHABHAI (140470109015)
under my guidance in fulfilment of the degree of Bachelor of Engineering in ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING 8TH semester of GUJARAT TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY, AHEMDABAD during the academic year 2017-18.

DATE:
PROF. RIMA PUJARA
(Name of Guide)
DR. CHIRAG VIBHAKAR
(Head of the Department)
DECLARATION
-32385161290
This is to declare that
The project report comprises of our original work towards the degree of Bachelor of Engineering in Electrical Engineering at VYAVASAYI VIDYA PRATISHTHANS SANCH. COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, RAJKOT and has not been submitted elsewhere for the award of the degree.
Due acknowledgement has been made in the text to all other materials Used.
Mr. BHIMANI BHAVINKUMAR VALAMJIBHAI
(140470109007)
Mr. MAKWANA NAROTTAM KATHADBHAI
(140470109037)
Mr. RABARA VIMAL RASHIKBHAI
(140470109048)
Mr. DANGAR KANA ABHABHAI
(140470109015)
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The satisfaction that accompanies the successful completion of any task would be incomplete without the mention of the people whose ceaseless cooperation made it possible, whose constant guidance and encouragement crown all efforts with success.

So here were are thanking all such people who made this project possible and also made a success.

We would like to articulate our deep gratitude to our project guide Prof. Rima Pujara who has always been source of motivation and firm support for carrying out the project.

We express our gratitude to Dr. Chirag Vibhakar , Professor and Head of the Department, Electrical Engineering for his invaluable suggestion and constant encouragement all through the project work.

We would also like to convey our sincerest gratitude and indebtedness to all other faculty members and staff of Department of Electrical Engineering, who bestowed their great effort and guidance at appropriate times without which it would have been very difficult on our project work.

It is our great pleasure to present this report in front of you. We are thankful to all those who helped us in getting necessary information and making this project a success.

ABSTRACT
Nowadays the world is focusing into automation. Each and every work of human is reduced by an automatic machine.
In some of area like construction site where they use the old method for is done his work. In the construction site stirrups (which are used to withstand loads in beams and columns) making is done by manually. It required two persons are needed to carry this function.

Our aim is to design to low cost automatic portable machine for bending operation of stirrups is done by electric motors and cutting is done by die with the help of PLC and HMI. It can reduce a labour cost and increases accuracy and production rate of stirrups.
The main objective of our project is to design and develop a low cost portable stirrup making machine with increase precision in the making of rebar stirrups, save time and increase efficiency of making stirrups.

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure NoFigure Description Page No
1Types of Stirrups2
2 Bender 4
3Jig Fixture 4
4 Standard Dimension of Stirrups 5
5 Conceptual Bending Mechanism 9
6Conceptual Cutting Mechanism 9
7 Single Phase Induction Motor 14
8 Gear Box 15
9 PLC & RS-23216
10Proximity Sensor17
11Relay 18
12SMPS 19
13Working Model26
14AEIOU Canvas27
15Empathy Mapping Canvas28
16Ideation Canvas29
17Product Development Canvas30
18Business Model Canvas31
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Certificateii
Declarationiii

Acknowledgementiv
Abstractv

List of Figuresvi
Table of Contentsvii
CHAPTER: 1INTRODUCTION
OVERVIEW1
FUNCTION OF STIRRUPS1
TYPES OF STIRRUPS2
MATERIAL USED FOR STIRRUPS3
PROCESS OF MAKING STIRRUPS4
STANDARD DIMENSION OF STIRRUPS5
CHAPTER: 2 PROBLEM DEFINATION6
CHAPTER: 3OBJECTIVE7
CHAPTER: 4DESIGN 8
4.1CONCEPT GENERATION8
4.2CONCEPT SELECTION8
4.3CALCULATION OF BENDING TORQUE AND
CUTTING FORCE9
4.4DETAILS OF PARTS13
CHAPTER: 5PROGRAMMING20
CHAPTER: 6WORKING MODEL25
CHAPTER: 7DESING ENGINEERING CANVAS 27

7.1 AEIOU SUMMARY SHEET27
7.2 EMPATHY MAPPING CANVAS28
7.3 IDEATION CANVAS29
7.4 PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT CANVAS30
7.5 BUSINESS MODEL CANVAS 31
CHAPTER: 8CONCLUSION32
CHAPTER: 9FUTURE SCOPE33
CHAPTER: 10REFRENCES34

Chapter 1
Introduction

Overview
Originally construction structure was not reinforced. Using of rebar in construction started from 15th century.

Concrete is very strong in compression but it is relatively weak in tension. To balance this behavior of concrete rebar is used to carry the tensile loads. Rebar is generally used in column and beam to provide enough strength to the structure.

The engineer of record uses rebar to optimize a structure’s strength. Carson concrete has installed more than 1, 00,000 tons of rebar over the last 37 years.
Rebar or Reinforcement bar uses ridged carbon steel to create reinforced concrete structures. The ridges allow the bar to adhere to the concrete and stay in place as surrounding structures put tension on the beam, thus enabling the concrete to support increasingly heavy structures.

Function of Rebar in Construction
The main function of rebar or stirrups is to provide strength to the column and beam. It is tied to the rod which is used in columns and beams.
Poured concrete is very strong and it is very well under compression, but when it is subjected to tension load placed on it, it may fail. For example, if beam is subjected at only two ends, then the middle part is subjected to tension. This stress can be balanced by providing reinforcing of steel bars. The stirrups absorbs the tension stress and prevent the failure of beam or column.

By using rebar, thickness of concrete can be reduced. It provides the strength to the reinforcement and alternatively saves the money.

Types of Stirrups
There are various types of Stirrups used in construction. Such as square, trapezoidal, rectangular, circular etc.

Generally, in the construction sites square rebar is used due to its simplicity, high strength and easy to make than other types of stirrups. Sometimes circular stirrups are also used in circular column. Other types like trapezoidal and triangular shape are used when particularly that type of column is required. Following are the general types of stirrups which are used in construction.

Square Rectangular

CircularTriangular

HexagonalPentagonal
Fig. 1: Types of Stirrups
Material Used for Stirrups
Only one type of material is not enough to meet the required specification. In order to find the solution of this problem different types of materials are made which are as follows.

Basic rebar
This rebar is made of carbon steel. These are mostly used in structure of concrete. In this rebar there is risk of getting affected easily from rust. Concrete is generally porous thus there are chances of corrosion due to moisture.

European rebar
This rebar was earliest rebar in the history. Content of this rebar are manganese, carbon, silicon and other elements. By adopting modern technology this rebar is made strong enough to stand in earthquake also.

Stainless steel rebar
Due to corrosion free characteristic of stainless steel, this rebar is mostly used in the construction. In making process, chromium is used which increases durability than the basic European rebar.

Galvanized rebar
Same as the stainless steel bar galvanized rebar are very durable and lasting for a long time. In this rebar outer coating of zinc is used which makes it highly corrosion resistant.

Process of Making stirrups traditionally
Traditionally the stirrups are made with the help of jig fixture in bed and bender. In this method jig is fixed in the wooden bed and it is bend with the help of bender. At each and every step, the bar is fed forward and bent by required angle. In bed, the various fixtures at particular distance are fixed to increase the productivity.
150431586360

Fig.2: Bender
center92710

Fig.3: Jig Fixture

Jhjk
1.6 Standard Dimension of Stirrups
There is some particular standard dimension of stirrups which is widely used. From the various available shape of stirrups, square and rectangular shape is mostly used, so following image illustrate the standard dimensions of square stirrup.

Fig.4: Standard Dimension of Stirrups

Chapter 2
Problem Definition

Now a days in construction site rebar stirrups are made in traditional way and it requires more labor. In this method accuracy of rebar is low and rejection of the stirrups is also high due to inaccuracy.
At a large construction sites, like apartments, shopping center, bridge, dam etc. requires a large number of stirrups. In such a situation mass production of stirrups in a traditional way is difficult and rejection is also high. There is requirement of at least two labor for making stirrups so in mass production of stirrups labor cost also increases.

On the basis of this we came to conclusion that traditional method of making stirrups has better scope of modification.
By developing a portable rebar making machine problem in traditional method of making stirrups can be reduced. Also the productivity and accuracy can be improved compared to the traditional way.

Chapter 3
Objectives

The main objectives of our project are as follows:
To reduce the human effort by adopting rebar making machine instead of following traditional method.

To increase the accuracy of the stirrups.

To reduce the construction lead time by increasing the productivity.

To reduce the labour cost.

Chapter 4
Design

4.1 Concept Generation
Various methods are used for bending rod like rotating wheel, hydraulic bending, die bending etc. Among that all available mechanism and in addition to that we generate following concept for making stirrups (rebar).

Bending with the help of hydraulic mechanism
Die bending and cutting
Bending with the help of rotating wheel (3-wheel mechanism)
Bending using electric motor
Bending with the help of rotating roller by means of electric motor
4.2 Concept Selection
Among available concept we select the bending with the help of rotating roller by means of electric motor due to following reasons
In hydraulic mechanism maintenance is high as well as it require large number of components like cylinder, piston, valve, pump, motor, reservoir etc. Cost of these all components is also high and large number of components create problem in portability.

In Die bending for bending the rod a particular die is required to bend a certain angle. So in rebar making process there is a need to change die certain time as angle of stirrups changes. So this become tedious. Productivity and portability is the issue in this concept.

In 3-wheel mechanism bending is carried out with the help of rotating 3 wheel. In this method rotation and movement of the wheel has to be controlled for bending the particular angle.

All these methods required separate cutting of rod. This tends to increase the time required for making one stirrups.

By analyzing all this factor combined bending and cutting mechanism is developed and selected. In this method only one electric motor is required for bending and cutting of the rod. Also this method is most suitable for large productivity and Portability due to less number of components.
Simplified Bending and cutting mechanism is shown below.
Fig.5: Conceptual Bending Mechanism

Fig.6: Conceptual Cutting Mechanism

4.3 Calculation of Bending Torque and Cutting Force
The main two parameters for our mechanism of rebar making machine is BENDING TOURQUE and CUTTING FORCE. The calculation of this parameters are given below.

Generally, the material used in rebar is FE500 and diameters of bar are 8 mm and 12 mm in normal construction.

Ultimate strength of FE500 is 545 N/mm2
BENDING TOURQUE
The material is generally bend above the yield strength and below the ultimate tensile strength. So taking bending strength between the yield and ultimate tensile strength.

Taking the bending strength of FE500 is 525 N/mm2.

8 mm diameter
?b= MYI?b = 525 N/mm2
Y = d2 = 82 = 4 mm
I = ?64 d4 = 201.06 mm4
M = 525×?×8464×4 = 26.38 Nm

12 mm diameter
?b= MYI?b =525 N/mm2
Y = d2 = 122 = 6 mm
I = ?64 d4 = 1017.87 mm4
M = 525×?×12464×6 = 89.064 Nm
CUTTING FORCE
The shearing strength is generally 0.7 of ultimate tensile strength. Thus for material FE500 the shearing strength is 381.5 N/mm2.

8 mm diameter
?= FA? = 381.5 N/mm2
A = ?4 d2 = 50.26 mm2
F= 381.5×?×824 = 19.17 KN

2) 12 mm diameter
?= FA? = 381.5 N/mm2
A = ?4 d2 = 113.09 mm2
F= 381.5×?×1224 = 43.14 KN
4.4 Details of Parts
Following parts are used in machine.

Motor
Gears Box
Rack and pinion
Belt ; Pulley
Fixture
Shaft
Cutting Die
PLC
HMI
Proximity Sensor
Power Supply
SMPS
Relay
RS-232 Communication Cable
Circuit Breaker
Wires
MOTOR
center160655
Fig.7: Induction Motor
Induction motor is used for a bending and cutting mechanism for bending and cutting a rod(bar). It is connected to gear box for increasing the torque for required to bend and cut a rod(bar).

The controlling of the motor like start/stop, position control is done by using PLC (Programmable Logic Controller).

Type: Single Phase Induction Motor
Speed:1440 rpm
Power:1.5 HP (1.1 kW)
Current Rating:9.5-10 ampere
Voltage:220-230 volt
GEAR BOX
2368558255
264731512065
Fig.8: Gear Box
Worm drive are a compact means of substantially decreasing speed and increasing torque. Small electric motor are generally high speed and low torque, the addition of a worm drive increasing the range of torque.

The worm’s size, the gear ratio is the size of the worm gear. A 20 tooth worm gear reduces the speed by the ratio of 20:1.

In our project we will use the 60:1 gear ratio for decreasing the form 1440 rpm to 24 rpm.

PLC & RS-232
-876935347345
344741519177000
Fig.9: PLC & RS-232
Programmable logic controllers (PLCs) have been an integral part of factory automation and industrial process control for decades. These systems perform many functions, providing a variety of analog and digital input and output interfaces; signal processing; data conversion; and various communication protocols. All of the PLC’s components and functions are centered around the controller, which is programmed for a specific task. The basic PLC module must be sufficiently flexible and configurable to meet the diverse needs of different factories and applications. Input stimuli (either analog or digital) are received from machines, sensors, or process events in the form of voltage or current.

For Programming or communication of plc to pc use RS-232 cable.

For controlling bending and cutting mechanism we use PLC in our project.

Type: Transistor type
Voltage: 24 V DC
Communications: RS-232
PROXIMITY SENSOR
center10350500
Fig.10: Proximity Sensor
A sensor that can be used for detecting the presence of objects surrounding it without having any physical contact is termed as a proximity sensor. This can be done using the electromagnetic field or electromagnetic radiation beam in which the field or return signal changes in the event of the presence of any object in its surrounding. This object sensed by the proximity sensor is termed as a target.

Thus, if we discuss about different types of targets such as plastic target, metal target, and so on requires different types of proximity sensors such as capacitive proximity sensor or photoelectric proximity sensor, inductive proximity sensor, magnetic proximity sensor and so on.

proximity sensors can last for long life and have very high reliability as there are no mechanical parts as well as no physical contact exists between the sensor and sensed object
The inductive proximity sensor circuit is used for detecting the metal objects and the circuit doesn’t detect any objects other than metals.

Type: Inductive type PNP
Voltage: 24 V DC
Range: 12 mm
Color code – Red: 24 V DC Positive Input
Black: 24 V DC Output
Brown: 0 V DC Negative
RELAY
right177800044704025400
Fig.11: Relays
Relay is an electromagnetic device which is used to isolate two circuit electrically and connect them magnetically. They are very useful device and allow one circuit to switch another one while they are completely separate. They are often used to interface an electronic circuit to an electrical circuit which works at very high voltage.

A relay can make a 24 V DC battery circuit to switch a 220 V AC motor. Thus a small sensor circuit can drive say a motor.

SMPS
10001258890
Fig.12: SMPS
A switched-mode power supply (switching-mode power supply, switch-mode power supply, switched power supply, SMPS, or switcher) is an electronic power supply that incorporates a switching regulator to convert electrical power efficiently. Like other power supplies, an SMPS transfers power from a DC or AC source (often mains power) to DC loads, such as a personal computer, while converting voltage and current characteristics. Unlike a linear power supply, the pass transistor of a switching-mode supply continually switches between low-dissipation, full-on and full-off states, and spends very little time in the high dissipation transitions, which minimizes wasted energy. Ideally, a switched-mode power supply dissipates no power. Voltage regulation is achieved by varying the ratio of on-to-off time. In contrast, a linear power supply regulates the output voltage by continually dissipating power in the pass transistor.
The higher power conversion efficiency is an important advantage of a switched-mode power supply. Switched-mode power supplies may also be substantially smaller and lighter than a linear supply due to the smaller transformer size and weight.

Input: Single phase 220 V
Output: 24 V DC
Chapter 5
Programming
418465417195000-5537201809750

-553085437261000-5626102863850
-591185416242500-5727702863850
-553085422021000-5727702863850
-54356042678350-5435602863850
Chapter 6
Working
Model

Working
Required bending torque and cutting force is get from electric motor. With the help of belt and gear, the speed is reduced and torque is increased up to required level. The bar is fed from the bar supporter and it passes between the roller and fixture.

Roller is a rotating element which is connected with a block. This block is keyed to the shaft, which has required torque of bending. Roller rotates around the shaft axis by particular angle. This roller bends the bar with support of fixture and bar supporter.

For cutting mechanism die is fitted at the end of slider and another cutting die is fitted in bar supporter. Slider reciprocates with the help of rack and pinion mechanism. This pinion has enough tangential force required for shearing the bar.

center1016000
Fig.13: Small Working Model
100203026860500
Fig.13: Small Working Model
Chapter 7
Design Engineering
Canvas

right44831007.1 AEIOU SUMMARY SHEET
Fig.14: AEIOU Summery
This canvas deal with the following fields:
Activities: Bar bending, Bar cutting, Stirrups making, Electrical wiring.

Environment: All Environment condition like summer, monsoon, winter, Electricity available.

Interaction: Electrical Eng. Civil Eng. Mechanical Eng. Contractor, Builder, Labour.

Objects: Motor, Gear box, Shaft, Rack & Pinion, PLC, Sensor, Relays, Wires.
User: Worker, Contractor, Builder.

right4864107.2 EMPATHY MAPPING CANVAS
Fig.15: Empathy Mapping Canvas
right4102107.3 IDEATION CANVAS
Fig.16: Ideation Canvas
This canvas deal with the following fields:
People: Worker, Builder, Contractor, Civil Engineer, Electrical Engineer.

Activities: Bar bending, Bar cutting, Stirrups making, Electrical wiring.

Situation/Context/Location: In Construction Site likes home, building, bridge, hospitals, etc. All environment.

Props/Possible Solutions: Reduce Human Efforts, Time Reduction, More Accuracy, Efficiency Increasing, Automation, Safety.

right4673607.4 PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT CANVAS
Fig.17: Product Development Canvas
This canvas deal with the following fields:
Purpose: Reduce Human Efforts, Time Reduction, More Accuracy, Portable.

People: Worker, Less Skill People, Builder, Contractors.

Product Experience: Comfortable, Safe Functioning.

Product Functions: Bar Bending, Bar Cutting, Stirrups Making.

Product Features: Portable, More Accuracy, Various Dimension Stirrups Making.

Components: Motor, Gear box, Shaft, Rack & Pinion, PLC, Sensor, Relays, Wires, Pulley & Conveyer Belt.

Customer Revalidation: Productivity, Safety.

Retain/Redesign/Reject: Improve in Cutting Mechanism.

-1016044831007.5 BUSINESS MODEL CANVASFig.18: The Business Model Canvas
This canvas deal with the following fields:
Key Partner: Contractor, Civil Engineer, Electrical Engineer, Design Eng., Manufacture, Marketing Team.

Key Activates: Design of Machine, Testing & Analysis of Machine.

Key Resources: Civil Eng., Production Eng., Design Eng.,
Value Proposition: High Accuracy, Less Rejection, High Productivity, Less Lead Time.

Customer Relationship: Reliable, Easy to Repair, User Friendly.
Channel: Online Marketing, Advertisement, News Paper, Seminars.

Customer Segments: Construction sites, Governments Offices, Buildings, Hospitals, Bridges.
Cost Structure: Raw Material Cost, Machinery cost, Overhead Cost, Manufacturing Cost, Mechanism Cost.

Revenue Streams: Profit on Sale, Company Shares, Real Time Markets.

Chapter 8
Conclusion

At a large construction sites, like apartments, shopping center, bridge, dam etc. requires a large number of stirrups. In such a situation mass production of stirrups in a traditional way is difficult and rejection is also high. There is requirements of at least two labor for making stirrups so in mass production of stirrups labour cost also increases.

On the basis of this we came to conclusion that traditional method of making stirrups has better scope of modification.
By developing a portable rebar making machine problem in traditional method of making stirrups can be reduced. Also the productivity and accuracy can be improved compare to the traditional way.

Chapter 9
Future Scope

On the basis of theoretical calculation and small working model we come on the conclusion that the production rate of making stirrups will be higher than traditional way and by adopting this machine labour cost will be quite low.

By Adopting Stronger material, machine can be used for bending and cutting larger diameter of bar.

Machine can be made fully automatic by using PLC & HMI.

Productivity can be increased by providing automatic feeding mechanism for bar.

We can make it more user friendly by implementing GUI (Graphical User Interface)
Chapter 10
References

A.V.Vanalkar , P.M.Padole , ” Design development of coupled to uncoupled mechanical system for stirrup making machine”, 12th National conference on machine & mechanism NaCOMM, New delhi .2007.

Ahmed Ktri, Zied Antar et al, “Modeling and computation of three-roller bending process of steel sheet”, Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology 26(1) (2012)123-128.

Babaei, K. and Hawkins, N. M., 1991, “Development of Standard Specifications for Bending/Straightening Concrete Reinforcing Steel”, Washington State Transportation Center (TRAC), Seattle, Washington.

Babaei, K. and Hawkins, N. M., 1992, “Field Bending and Straightening of Reinforcing Steel”, Concrete International, Journal of ACI, Januari 1992, page 67-72.

Introduction to Programmable Logic Controllers Book by Gary Dunning.

IS 456-2000 Plain and reinforced code of practice.

M.K.Chudasama, H.K.Raval , “An approximate bending force prediction for 3- roller conical bending process” , International Journal of Material Forming, June 2013,Vol.6, Issue 2,pp 303-314.

R. Navona, Y. Rubinovitzb and M. Cofflerc, Automation and Robotics in Construction XI D.A. Chamberlain (Editor)
Electric Motor Control by Sand Hoon Kim.

Industrial Automation and Robotics by Amit Gupta.

S. Thillairaia, K Varun Yadav, “Reinforced Bar Bending Machine” Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences,9(10) Special 2015.

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