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CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES
The performance of the students in every institution plays a vital role in determining the quality of education, which eventually guarantees the efficiency and effectiveness in application of a chosen profession or career. It suggests higher standard of performance of instructional system and as a result, the performance of the students in the licensure examination reflects the institution’s efficiency as well as the intellectual capacity of the students.

According to (Professional Regulation Commission CHED, 2004). The performance in the board examinations is taken as one of the measures of the quality of a program. If the rate of the first attempt passing is high, then it is a good measure of program excellence.
Today, prospective teachers must clear a series of hurdles to obtain and maintain a teaching certificate – one of this is to pass the Licensure Examination for Teachers (Libman, 2009). Licensure Examination for Teachers (LET) is a test of the overall knowledge and proficiency of prospective teachers to provide a reliable structure, which the practice of prospective teachers can be measured and proven, and it gives access to continuing growth and development.
(Riney et al, 2006). Stated that, Licensure examinations are considered important by teacher education students in their professional development Thus, graduates of teacher education courses all aim to pass the Licensure Examination for Teachers. This will make them to be registered as professional teachers and become eligible to teach either in the public or private educational institution.

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Moreover, passing the board examination will not only give them honour and prestige but will also give them a competitive edge over those who are non-LET passers. Passing the Licensure Examination for Teachers is not a simple matter. It requires adequate preparation and readiness. More importantly, it requires good knowledge and background as they obtain a rating of at least 75% in the three areas of General Education and Professional Education for BEED graduates, and General Education, Professional Education and their Specialization for BSED graduates to pass the licensure examination.

With relation to advocating Licensure Examinations effectiveness, Mock Examinations or Comprehensive Examination was conducted by the universities in the Philippines to trace the weakness of the examinees and to analyze their performance (Montemayor et,al. 2009).

Mindanao State University General Santos City, is a tertiary educational institution established in 1967.Which envisions itself to be a globally competitive university in Southern Philippines. ( http://www.msugensan.edu.ph) As it provides quality education College of Education will going to conduct a mock board examination for graduating 4th yr. BSED and BEED students as basis for in house review and to determine the possible percentage of the LET examination passers.
The findings of this study would reflect to the institution’s efficiency and effectiveness in application of a chosen profession or career. As well as, the quality of education offered. It would also reflect to the institution’s sense of responsibility and concern towards its graduates. On the other hand, it would also give the graduates an opportunity to be better prepared for the LET and assist them pass it which would both benefit them and the institution from where they were prepared.
(Performance of SDSSU in the Licensure, 2012).stated that, the performance scores in the LET reflect the abilities of the teacher examinees. Thus, having low percentage of LET passers indicates low quality of pre-service teacher education in the country. Also, poor performance in LET may lead to further slide of the educational standards of a country.

On the other hand, high percentage of LET passers contributes greatly to the accreditation of college programs of a certain college or university. This aside from adding zest within the vicinity of school academe, it is also the reason why schools offering education courses crave for high percentage of LET passers. (Philippine Journal of Education, 2005).

LET
The Licensure Examination for Teachers (LET) is the assessment required of all applicants for registration as professional teachers as mandated by RA 7836 (Act to strengthen the regulation and supervision of the Practice of Teaching in the Philippines and Prescribing a Licensure Examination for Teachers and for Other Purposes). LET is currently the most numbered examinees being administered twice a year in places and dates determined by the Board of Professional Teachers.
LET is composed of three test components: the General Education (GE courses) comprised of the following subjects: English, Filipino, Mathematics, Science, Social Sciences, and Information and Communication Technology (ICT); the professional education courses including Child and Adolescent Development, Facilitating Learning, Principles of Teaching 1 and 2, Curriculum Development, Developmental Reading, Assessment of Learning 1 and 2, Teaching Profession, and Social Dimension of Education; and the different specialization courses in English, Mathematics, Biological Science, Physical Science, Music, Arts and Physical Education and Health (MAPEH), Technology and Livelihood Education (TLE), Social Studies, and Computer Education. The examination for secondary levels consists of these three (3) components, general education, professional education and field of specialization; though, for elementary level, LET covers only the general education and professional education courses.

The test items consist of multiple choice types of questions with four (4) options. Examinees from the elementary and secondary levels must obtain an average rating of 75%, with no rating of 50% or below in any of the component subjects. In the elementary level, 40% of the general rating comes from General Education and 60% comes from Professional Education. In the Secondary level, 20% of the average rating comes from General Education, 40 % from Professional Education and 40% from Field of Specialization (retrieved from PRC website).

The latest CHED statistics revealed that there are 119,091 BEED examinees in 2016. Out of this number, only 35,395 or 29.72% passed the LET for elementary level. On the other hand, there are 144,588 BSED examinees in the same year, only 49,966 or 34.56% successfully hurdled the board exam for secondary level (CHED, 2017).
The Philippine Regulatory Commission (PRC) promulgates the registration and issuance of valid professional license for education graduates who successfully passed the Licensure Examination for Teachers (PRC, 2000). As a partner agency, the Commission on Higher Education (CHED) monitors the performance of Teacher Education Institutions (TEI’s) to ensure competency and quality of instructions in the Philippines. In response to CHED’s mandate for quality education, the academe must assure the effectiveness of their educational programs offered through analyzing the board performance and the determinants/ predictors for success in Licensure Examination for Teachers. It is worth noting that most of the related studies mentioned above are geared towards this endeavor.

MOCK BOARD EXAMINATION
With relation to advocating Licensure Examinations effectiveness, Mock Examinations or Comprehensive Examination was conducted by the universities in the Philippines to trace the weakness of the examinees and to analyze their performance (Montemayor et,al. 2009).

According to (Geemiz, 2011). A Mock Board Examination is a simulation for the actual board examination. The Professional Regulation Commission (PRC) has nothing to do with the mock board examination. Any school or organization can conduct a mock board exam without notice or consultation with Professional Regulation Commission.

Tarun et al (2014) stated, that the result of the mock board exam along with general weighted average in the academic performance of the graduates are considered significant to the response attribute in the LET performance. 
Moreover, it is a useful tool as a learning activity to help students gain familiarity with the question formats and the overall board exam performance. This motivates the students to study and prepare them well for the national board experience. It can be a valid and effective addition to board preparation activities.
HYPOTHESIS
DEFINITION OF TERMS
the strength of an educational system largely depends on the quality of teachers. Therefore, it is critical to recruit only the most qualified for teacher-education programs and provide training to those who are already in the teaching profession.

Every teacher education graduate is required to take the Licensure Examination for Teachers (LET) to practice his/her profession. Those who passed the board examination will not only gain honor and prestige but will also have a competitive edge over non-LET passers.

To pass the LET, the examinee must obtain a general average of at least 75% in all subjects. This passing percentage is five (5) points higher than the PBET passing rate of 70% in all subjects, with no rating below 50% in any subjects. The performance of the academic institutions in the licensure examination is claimed to reflect the quality of education that the institution offers.

Testing requirements for certification and licensing have an effect on the quality and effectiveness of teachers. The examination can improve the quality of teachers if the examination is a good measure of the competencies needed for effective teaching (Mitchell et al, 2001). Relevant to this, licensed or certified teachers are found to produce stronger student achievement gains than do uncertified teachers (Hammond et al, 2005).

Licensure examinations are considered important by teacher education students in their professional development (Riney et al, 2006). Thus, graduates of teacher education courses all aim to pass the Licensure Examination for Teachers. This will make them to be registered as professional teachers and become eligible to teach either in the public or private educational institution. Moreover, passing the board examination will not only give them honour and prestige but will also give them a competitive edge over those who are non-LET passers.

Passing the Licensure Examination for Teachers is not a simple matter. It requires adequate preparation and readiness. More importantly, it requires good knowledge and background as they must obtain a rating of at least 75% in the three areas of General Education and Professional Education for BEED graduates, and General Education, Professional Education and their Specialization for BSED graduates to pass the licensure examination. Although this knowledge and background can be acquired in the four year- duration of the Bachelor of Secondary Education and Bachelor of Elementary Education programs, most examinees still feel that they need to study more and review so that they would be better prepared for the examination.

Viewed in this manner, licensure requirements hold universities and teacher education programs accountable and ensure that teachers are well trained and competent (Riney et al, 2006).

Higher education institutions offering teacher education programs, like the Batangas State University ARASOF Nasugbu, carry a challenging role of developing competent and effective teachers. They must prepare teacher education students to the monumental tasks ahead of them. They must equip them with the relevant knowledge and skills needed in the effective development of the learners. They must expose them in managing the different aspects of the teaching learning process and in dealing with the differentstakeholders to whom they are accountable to. On top of this, they must prepare their students to pass the LET.

Students, however, differ in their capability to learn and acquire knowledge. As their knowledge differs from one another, this may affect their chances of passing the Licensure Examination for Teachers (LET). The acceptance that others may be far ahead in terms of content knowledge brings the reality that there is a big need to prepare and review for the licensure examination. Through this effort, graduates may be able to pass the LET and be conferred the title of being a professional teacher.

The contributions of this study would be of interest to Teacher Education institutions in general. The data could be used in program accreditation in the area of curriculum, faculty performance and alumni. The findings can also be used as baseline information for the continuous improvement of instruction and the preparation of students for the Licensure Examination for Teachers. The study may encourage faculty to exertmore effort in enhancing their teaching effectiveness to enhance students’ knowledge.
Likewise, the study may enhance the provision of a favourable and supportive academic environment for student learning and acquisition of knowledge. This may include, but not limited to, the development and provision of instructional materials, references, books and the likes for the use of the students which would hopefully assistthem in studying and improving their content knowledge. The findings of the study may also serve as basis for conducting in-house LET review classes as an extension program for those graduates who have financialproblems and conflicts in schedule. Conducting this review as an extension program would reflect the institution’s sense of responsibility and concern towardsits graduates. It would also give the graduates an opportunity to be better prepared for the LET and assist them pass it which would both benefit them and the institution from where they were prepared. Finally, the study also contributes to the area of research on post-graduation plans and may shed light on the preparation of graduates’ relevant o licensureexamination. Further, the study also contributes to the assessment of the content knowledge of graduates and whether the efforts of a college are successful or not form the point of view of its graduates. Nonetheless, the contributions of this study are notexpected to be exclusive to the teacher education context, and should be of value to any college aiming to turn –in responsive and quality graduates.

Pachejo and Allaga (2013), in their study regarding academic predictors in LETperformance of education graduates in Rizal Technological University, found that there is a linear relationship between the overall LET ratings and the three academic courses such as general education, professional education courses and specialization. Their findings was supported by the study conducted by Rabanal in 2016 who analyzed the performance of BEEd graduates in the University of Northern Philippines. Her study likewise revealed that academic achievements in general education, professional education and major courses were significantly related to the different test components in the board examination. The findings of Garcia (2013), deviated slightly from those mentioned above in professional education courses where a weak positive correlation with LET performance was noted.

In this regard, the need to assure the supply of teachers who could live up to theexpectations and trust of society, who are not only fully prepared but also committed to do their tasks. More so, teachers whose competencies are at par with the national standards as confirmed by the results of the Licensure Examination for Teachers (LET).

the Philippines prohibits any individual from practicing or offering to service theteaching profession without having previously obtained a certificate of registration and avalid professional license from the Professional Regulation Commission (PRC) to ensure that the student teachers become competent teachers (www.pinoytest.com). This is the ultimate reason why the commission conducts the Licensure Examination for Teachers (LET) to regulate the profession and to provide license to deserving individuals who passed the LET (http:// www.pinoytest.com/teacherlicensureexam).

In the study conducted by Castro (2006), he mentioned that the present educationalsystem is confronted with teachers or teacher applicants who are graduates of coursesfrom certain colleges or universities but do not seem to have equipped themselves with the necessary skills in communication and teaching competencies. This statement issupported by the dismal performance of the takers of the licensure examination forteachers. For the past three years since 2010 which is composed of six (6) LETadministrations (April 2010-September 2012), the average national passing percentage is only 28.71%. In the 2012 LET, the national passing percentage is 41.08%, in 2011, its24.04%, in 2010 its 21.01%. These are clear indications that teacher education institutions are not producing equipped teachers. Many schools have developed and implemented elaborate school improvement plans however, there is a realization that these efforts often fall short of attaining the expected results.

As the institution endlessly offer quality education, innovating instruction practice and enhancing graduates’ performances serve up as an input for professional development (Pachejo and Allaga, 2013). In this case, Republic Act 8981 or Philippine Regulatory Commission (PRC) implements certificate of registration and valid professional license specifically for passed education graduates in Licensure Examination for Teachers (PRC,2000). The agency monitors the performance of universities and ensures the global competency and modernization of teaching interventions by teachers in Philippines and uplifts their performance for professional strategy (Castillo et al, 2000), Garcia, 2010) and (Figuerres, 2010).

In line with this, the academe assures the effectiveness of their educational programs through analyzing determinants of Education Graduates’ Performance in LicensureExamination for Teachers. Based on the study conducted by Pachejo and Allaga (2013) in Rizal Technological University, Academic Performance of examinees in thefield of Specialization (Computer Education, English, Filipino, Mathematics, Science and Social Studies), General Education (Social Sciences, Mathematics, Science, Filipino and English) and Professional Education, serves as the key factor in their L.E.T. performance. Study have been revealed that academic grades of the student serves as the predictor in achieving 90% of passing rate for 2010 board examination.

Likewise, examinees in Southern Leyte State University – San Juan from 2007-2010 have found the consistency of students’ performance conducted by Garcia (2010). Also,study conducted by Figuerres (2010) study for board examinees of University of Northern Philippines have found that institutional passing rate were higher thannational passing rate of L.E.T elementary. It has been recommended that performance of education graduates will be improve through prioritizing PRC-LET competenciesand Commission on Higher Education, Department of Education requirements, monitoring pre-service teaching and learning processes and revising specialization courses.

With relation to advocating Licensure Examinations’ effectiveness, Mock Examinations or Comprehensive Examination was conducted by the universities in the Philippines to trace the weakness of the examinees and to analyze their performance (Montemayor et al, 2009). Bachelor of Science in Basic Education Graduates of University of the Cordilleras have been studied through undergoing mock examination in the L.E.T. Imitating the actual examination, College of Education Faculty organized the comprehensive examination and it has found out that respondents gained positive impact of the said examination in their performance. It has been recommended to continually conduct comprehensive or mock examinations to education graduates before taking Licensure Examination for Teachers to increase their probability in passing the board examination (Riney et al, 2006), (Tella, 2008) and (Xu and Ye, 2014).

On the other hand, profile of respondents, level of motivation, gender, race and career preferences are personal factors that serves as the strong determinants of Board Examination Performance (Pascual and Navalta, 2011), (Goldhaber and Hansen, 2010) and (Pascua, 2011). Mental and Psychological enhancement of educationgraduates through high level of motivation, perseverance; determination and influence by the institution to pass the board examination have been shaped as one of the strongfactors affecting Licensure Examination for Teachers. Based on the study conducted by Pascual and Navalta (2011) in State University, female respondents achieved higher level of passing rate in board examination and most of them came from Music, Arts, Physical Education and Health (MAPEH) major and examinees’ Grade Point average ranged from 2.00-2.25. Likewise, institutions that achieved high level of passing rate serves as the influential factor in the personalities of examinees to pass the board examination (Pascual and Navalta, 2011), (Goldhaber and Hansen, 2010) and (Pascua, 2011).

However, several problems have been encountered by institution providing quality performances for licensure examination. Graduates with English Proficiencydecreased as the Elementary major graduates focused on Filipino language (Pascua and Navalta, 2011). Also, student teachers experienced lack of educational trainings, shortages of resources, engaging with traditional teaching interventions and loss of global competency to achieve passing board examination (Pascua, 2011) and (Figuerres,2010
Also, ineffective academic programs and in-house review implemented by the academe decreased the level of motivation of the student teachers to perceived better academic performance and high ratings of examination (Riney et al, 2006). Curriculum misalignment including failure to fulfill educational trainings and mock examinations were the problems encountered by the education graduates. Losing quality educational system largely affects the academic, social and pedagogical learning of the examinees resulting in to loss of motivation, interest and determination in their examination (Pachejo and Allaga, 2013).

Previous studies have indicated that, by and large, performance of Education Graduates in Licensure Examination for Teachers is shaped both by personal andeducational factors. As an evidence, a study conducted by Filipino researches have been found that academic performance in terms of Specialization (Computer Education, English, Filipino, Mathematics, Science and Social Studies), General Education (Social Sciences, Mathematics, Science, Filipino and English) and Professional Education serves as the strong predictor of Board Examination Performance (Pascua and Navalta,2011), (Pachejo and Allaga, 2013), (Garcia, 2010) and (Figuerres, 2010). Also, Admission Test, Degree Course, English Proficiency and Institutional Passing rate ofEducation Graduates are the factors affecting with the effectiveness of education respondents in Licensure Examination for Teachers (Pascua, 2011), (Ogena et al,2013) and (Wenglinsky, 2000). Teaching factors and implemented policies of In-house review conducted by universities and review center are the factors that largely affect their board examination performance (Youngs et al,2003), (Pecheone and Chung, 2006), (Duckor et al, 2014) and (Wenglinsky, 2000).

Meanwhile, Mock Examinations defined as one of the predictors that influenced the performance of Education Graduates (Montemayor et al, 2009). Bachelor of Sciencein Basic Education Graduates of University of the Cordilleras have been studied through undergoing mock examination in the L.E.T. Imitating the actual examination, College of Education Faculty organized the comprehensive examination and it has found out that respondents gained positive impact of the said examination in their performance. It has been recommended to continually conduct comprehensive or mock examinations to education graduates before taking Licensure Examination for Teachers to increase their probability in passing the board examination (Riney et al, 2006), (Tella, 2008) and (Xu andYe, 2014
On the other hand, profile of respondents, level of motivation, gender, race and career preferences are personal factors that serves as the strong determinants of Board Examination Performance (Pascual and Navalta, 2011), (Goldhaber and Hansen, 2010) and (Pascua, 2011). Mental and Psychological enhancement of education graduates through high level of motivation, perseverance; determination and influence by the institution to pass the board examination have been shaped as one of the strong factors affecting Licensure Examination for Teachers. Based on the study conducted by Pascual and Navalta (2011) in State University, female respondents achieved higher level of passing rate in board examination and most of them came from Music, Arts, Physical Education and Health (MAPEH) major and examinees’ Grade Point average ranged from 2.00-2.25. Likewise, institutions that achieved high level of passing rate serves as the influential factor in the personalities of examinees to pass the board examination (Pascual and Navalta, 2011), (Goldhaber and Hansen, 2010) and (Pascua, 2011).

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