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CHAPTER ONE
1.0. Introduction
This chapter focuses on the background to the study, statement of the problem, research sub questions, objectives, significance of the study, delimitations of the study, limitations, and definition of terms. A summary will follow at the end of the Chapter
1.1 Background
The study was driven by the realization that the Communicative approach is seldom, if not, used by most teachers in schools in Gwanda Zonal 1 High Schools, yet it is one of the most recommended approaches across the globe. The Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) started emerging in Great Britain in the 1960s, when the British applied linguists began to question the assumptions underscoring Situational Language Teaching, (Savignon, 2002) cited in http://facta.junis.ni.ac.rs/lal/lal201102/lal201102-06.pdf. Noam Chomsky was among the first ones to demonstrate that standard structural theories of language were unable to account for the creativity and uniqueness of individual sentences. As a result, there was a shift from the insistence on the mere mastery of grammatical structures to the emphasis on communicative proficiency, http://facta.junis.ni.ac.rs/lal/lal201102/lal201102-06.pdf.
Wilkins (1972) claims that a functional and communicative definition of language could actually help develop communicative syllabi for language teaching, while Savingnon (2002) suggests that a broader sociocultural context, which includes participants, their behaviour and beliefs, objects of linguistic discussion and a word choice, should also be taken into consideration while teaching any language, (Savignon, 2002) as cited inhttp://facta.junis.ni.ac.rs/lal/lal201102/lal201102-06.pdf. . Other theorists (Canale and Swain 1980; Widdowson 1989; Halliday 1970) also stress the importance of communicative approaches to language teaching, particularly the communicative acts underlying the ability to use language for different purposes and the relationship between linguistic systems and their communicative values in texts and discourses. A theory of language as communication lies at the very core of the CLT, (Canale, 1980) , as cited in http://facta.junis.ni.ac.rs/lal/lal201102/lal201102-06.pdf. . Hymes (1972) advances the notions of “competence” and “performance” introduced by Chomsky in the 1960s and states that the goal of language teaching is to develop ‘communicative competence’, which implies acquiring both an ability and knowledge to use language. In other words, communicative competence considers language as a tool used for communication. Not only does this competence aim to focus on the development of four language skills, but it also depends on the association between the skills, (Hymes, 1972) . Canale and Swain (1980) claim that it is common to use the term “communicative competence” to refer exclusively to grammatical competence, (Canale, 1980) as cited in http://facta.junis.ni.ac.rs/lal/lal201102/lal201102-06.pdf. Yet, it is worth observing that the phrase “communicative competence” is also used to relate to the psychological, cultural and social rules which discipline the use of speech (Hedge, 2000). Wilkins (1972) claims that a functional and communicative definition of language could actually help develop communicative syllabi for language teaching, while Savignon (2002) suggests that it is much a broader sociocultural context, which includes participants, their beliefs and behaviour, linguistic objects of discussion and choice of words, all these should be taken into consideration while teaching any language, (Savignon, 2002), as cited inhttp://facta.junis.ni.ac.rs/lal/lal201102/lal201102-06.pdf. . Other theorists (Canale and Swain 1980; Widdowson 1989; Halliday 1970) also stress the importance of communicative approaches to language teaching, particularly the communicative acts underlying the ability to use language for different purposes and the relationship between linguistic systems and their communicative values in texts and discourses. (Canale, 1980) as cited in http://facta.junis.ni.ac.rs/lal/lal201102/lal201102-06.pdf. A theory of language as communication lies at the very core of the CLT, Canale et al as cited in http://facta.junis.ni.ac.rs/lal/lal201102/lal201102-06.pdf. . Hymes (1972) advances the notions of “competence” and “performance” introduced by Chomsky in the 1960s and states that the goal of language teaching is to develop ‘communicative competence’, which implies acquiring both an ability and knowledge to use language, (Hymes, 1972). In other words, communicative competence considers language as a tool used for communication. Not only does this competence aim to focus on the development of four language skills, but it also depends on the association between the skills. Canale and Swain (1980) claim that it is common to use the term “communicative competence” to refer exclusively to grammatical competence. Yet, it is worth observing that the phrase “communicative competence” is also used to relate to the psychological, cultural and social rules which discipline the use of speech (Hedge 2000). Wilkins (1972) claims that a functional and communicative definition of language could actually help develop communicative syllabi for language teaching, while Savingnon (2002) suggests that a broader sociocultural context, which includes participants, their behaviour and beliefs, objects of linguistic discussion and a word choice, should also be taken into consideration while teaching any language, Savignon (2002) as cited inhttp://facta.junis.ni.ac.rs/lal/lal201102/lal201102-06.pdf. . Other theorists (Canale and Swain 1980; Widdowson 1989; Halliday 1970) also stress the importance of communicative approaches to language teaching, particularly the communicative acts underlying the ability to use language for different purposes and the relationship between linguistic systems and their communicative values in texts and discourses. A theory of language as communication lies at the very core of the CLT, Canale et al as cited in http://facta.junis.ni.ac.rs/lal/lal201102/lal201102-06.pdf. . Hymes (1972) advances the notions of “competence” and “performance” introduced by Chomsky in the 1960s and states that the goal of language teaching is to develop ‘communicative competence’, which implies acquiring both an ability and knowledge to use language. In other words, communicative competence considers language as a tool used for communication. Not only does this competence aim to focus on the development of four language skills, but it also depends on the association between the skills. Canale and Swain (1980) claim that it is common to use the term “communicative competence” to refer exclusively to grammatical competence. Yet, it is worth observing that the phrase “communicative competence” is also used to relate to the psychological, cultural and social rules which discipline the use of speech (Hedge 2000), http://facta.junis.ni.ac.rs/lal/lal201102/lal201102-06.pdf . Therefore, the communicative approach, challenges the prevalent audio-lingual method, promotes the idea that social and cultural knowledge are necessary requirements for understanding and using linguistic forms.
The Zimbabwe Schools Examination Board (ZIMSEC) in its O’ level English language syllabus (1122) (2015:2) explicitly recommends an approach;
which is intended to provide learners with the communicative skills necessary for the different roles and situations in which they are likely to find themselves after leaving school—– to make the learning of the English language more functional and purposeful—, Mareva, and Mapako (2012).
The syllabus in this case is referring to the Communicative Approach at times referred to as the Communicative Language Teaching (CLT), Mareva and Nyota (2011). This approach seems to be ignored by many teachers. Because of this observation, the study seeks to establish the challenges faced by teachers in trying to implement CLT.
The study focused on why English language teachers tend to ignore the execution of CLT, an approach which has been given so much recognition in the world as a new and innovative way to teach English as a Second Language (Savignon, 2003). The worrisome aspect is that CLT is taught to teachers in all Zimbabwean colleges and universities but teachers seem not to fully implement it. Could it be that teachers have a negative attitude in implementing it or they are other factors yet to be sought for?
According to Thompson (1996) if teachers do not thoroughly understand the (CLT) approach, they easily revert to traditional methods of language teaching. This shows that the attitude teachers have might be cropping from somewhere, is it that they lack understanding of the approach or the approach is not practicable in the environment they work.
This study, therefore, seeks to establish the challenges teachers in Gwanda Zone 1 High Schools face towards the implementation of the (CLT).
1.2. The Aim of the study
The aim of the study is to find out the challenges encountered by ESL teachers in implementing the (CLT) approach.

1.3 Statement of the problem
In spite of the place accorded to CLT in the Zimbabwe Language Pedagogy as the approach, teachers rarely employ it.
1.4. Research Question
In spite of the place accorded to CLT in the Zimbabwe Language Pedagogy as the approach, why do teachers rarely employ it?
1.5 Objectives of the study
The objectives of the study are:
1.5.1. To establish the extent to which CLT is used in the schools;
1.5.2. To find out if the schools have enough resource material for the effective learning and teaching of English language;
1.5.3. To establish the attitudes of both teachers and pupils to the use of CLT.
1.5.4. To offer possible solutions to the challenges encountered.
1.6 Research questions
1.6.1. Do the schools effectively use CLT in the teaching and learning of English language?
1.6.2. Do the schools have adequate resource materials?
1.6.3. What are the attitudes of both teachers and pupils to the use of CLT in the teaching and learning of English Language as a second language?
1.6.4. What are the possible solutions to the challenges encountered?
1.7 Justification of the Research
The Zimbabwe School Examinations Council (ZIMSEC) O’ Level and ZJC English language syllabus recommends that the communication Approach be used in the teaching of English as a second language (ESL), but teachers in Gwanda Zonal 1 high Schools seem to be in favor of other approaches to the CLT. This became a signal that there are challenges being faced in the use of this approach. This study was therefore, crucial as it sought to establish the challenges the teachers faced in implementing CLT.
1.8 Significance of the study
The research was meant to ascertain the challenges of using CLT and come up with possible solutions to these challenges. The study also highlights that, although there are challenges, the Communicative Approach has to be used as a means of improving teaching and learning of English as a Second Language as per the requirements of the syllabus. The study was meant to be an eye opener to teachers, to make them value the importance of CLT. The use of ICT could help the teachers to arouse interest in pupils as there would be variation in their teaching methods. Also, since the approach is internationally recognized, teachers would take pride in using it.

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