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Comparison between ruins of Ayutthaya “Thailand” and the Parthenon (Greece)
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TOC o “1-3” h z u Abstracts PAGEREF _Toc529965901 h 2Differences PAGEREF _Toc529965902 h 6Similarities: PAGEREF _Toc529965903 h 7Comparison of ruins of Parthenon temple and Ayutthaya PAGEREF _Toc529965904 h 8References: PAGEREF _Toc529965905 h 9
AbstractsThis study describes the main sculptures of ruin of Ayutthaya that is situated in Thailand and the ruin of Parthenon temple situated in Greece. This study describes the own style of sculpture of Ayutthaya. This study also describes the own style of sculpture of ruin of Parthenon temple. This study compares the main differences of the style of sculpture of these two ruins and describes the similarities of sculpture of these two architects.

Ruins of Ayutthaya (Greece)
Ayutthaya is situated in Thailand and it was established during the Siamese Kingdom, which had been ruling from 1351 to 1767. The meaning of Ayutthaya is invincible in Sanskrit. The ruin of Ayutthaya was so popular among the visitors who are coming from different places to visit this architect every year. This architecture of Thailand has nominated as one of the famous ruins of the world. The sculpture of Ayutthaya in Thailand is very famous that it can be compared with European sculptures (Aboga-Liao et al., 2016).

. The ruin of Ayutthaya has nominated by UNESCO and included in the list of World Heritage sites. The Siamese Kingdom was so much prosperous at their time and they were enough capable to build these types of architectures. There are many people are visiting Thailand to visit this creation of Siamese emperor (Chapman, 2015).

Figure 1Ruins of Ayutthaya
Source:  (https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/576)
Ruins of Parthenon (Greece)

Figure 4: Ruins of Parthenon temple
(Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/topic/Parthenon)
Parthenon is the world famous temple that is situated in Greece and this temple had been built in the 5th Century B.C. in Acropolis, Athens. It is one of the most famous preserved buildings that is till preserved in the form of ruins since the Greek Classical period. It is considered to be the end of the Doric (Parthenon | History & Facts. 2018). From the remains of Parthenon temple, it has been seen that the temple exhibits the best form of Greek Art. The ruin of Parthenon is still considered to be one of the most celebrated cultural monuments and there have been various attempts at reconstruction of the temple for the restoration of the ancient Greek art. The temple at the Parthenon has been built under the supervision of architects namely Callicrates and Ictinus and Phidias that had been the most famous sculptor of the time (Cartwright & Cartwright, 2018). The frieze of the Parthenon consisting of Apollo, Poseidon and Artemis is the centre of attention. In the position where Parthenon had been later constructed, there was a building that had been burned by Persians while it had been under construction in the year 480 BCE.

Parthenon as it can be seen in the figure above, is made of marble and is in a rectangular form and appears in the form of a temple. The temple had suffered damage from weather though the basic structure remains the same major part of the structure of the temple are in ruins. There is embodiment of various architectural refinements that aims giving it sculptural appearance. There is delicate convexity and intricate designing reflecting complex Greek structure. The temple is characterised by massive foundations and that it is made of limestone while it has also been analysed form the ruins of the Parthenon that the columns have been built form Pentelic marble that forms a key material in Greek construction (Helmick, 2018). The main structure that gets the most attention from the people is the statue of the God, Athena that has been made out of ivory and gold by Phidias. It has been analysed by architects and historians that the fact that the central temple of Parthenon in the Acropolis complex is still standing intact is that the temple had been constructed in perfect proportion for which Greek art is world renowned.

It was due to the classical influence on the construction of the building, it has been realised that the temple had been sued as both a church and later a mosque. This exhibits the effective cultural importance of the building of Parthenon in history and cultural studies. It can further be added that Parthenon stands as the most striking feature of the Acropolis complex standing the tests of time, erect and strong. Initially it had been ordered by the UNESCO, that there should be efforts at restructuring of the Parthenon temple however, the ruins of the temple was later left just as it is and it became renowned as the ruins of Parthenon (Ylimaula, 2015). Even in its ruins, the temple is standing strong with its massive pillars exhibiting the features of Greek and Gordic art and culture.

Both the architectures have their own characteristics and are very famous among the world visitors.

DifferencesOne of the important differences of these two sculptures is the sculpture of Ayutthaya has been representing the local culture, art, and of Thailand and on the other hand, the Parthenon is one of the finest example of local culture, the art of Athens, Greece. It is known the ancient there were world-famous architects were in ancient Athens and those famous architects to increase the cultural value of ancient Athens built this famous temple the Parthenon. This Parthenon temple is the classic example of local culture and architecture of Athens in Greece.

The main sculpture of Ayutthaya had made like paramedical shapes and on the other hand, the main sculpture of the Parthenon temple was the temple, which was surrounded by the portico with long columns. The main building of this temple held by the seven or eight columns.

The ruin of Ayutthaya was situated by Thailand it was protected from the European and Arabian culture. On the other hand, the main feature of a sculpture of Parthenon temple has made by the Europeans, the main sculpture of the temple was influenced by European culture, and later it was modified by the Arabian power.

The floor of the Parthenon temple looked like the bow and on the hand, there is no unique features are associated with the designs of the floor of Ayutthaya.

The chryselephantine statue of the goddess Athena, which was sculpted by the famous sculptor Phidias, represented the main sculptures of the Parthenon temple. On the other hand, the various Buddha statues are the main sculptures of Ayutthaya in Thailand.

The main sculptures of the Parthenon temple are made with the decorative colorful stones, on the other hand, the main sculpture of Ayutthaya was not made with such colorful stones.

The total height of the Parthenon temple was smaller than the total height of ruin of Ayutthaya.

The ruin of Ayutthaya has been representing the Buddhist cultures and on the contrary, the Ayutthaya was representing the cultures of ancient Greece.

The wall of the ruin of Ayutthaya decorated with the high quality of crafts and mural paintings. On the contrary, the wall of Parthenon temple decorated with the freeze.

The main sculptures of the Parthenon temple had been showing the lifecycle of the people in society of Athens. On the other hand, the main sculpture of ruin of Ayutthaya has been representing the various chants of Buddha.

The planning of the ruin of Ayutthaya has been showing advanced urban planning of the planners in ancient days in Thailand. On the contrary, the actual design of Parthenon temple had been representing the art of the architects in ancient Athens (Siedel, et al., 2018).

Similarities:Although the two ruins are situated in different ends of the world yet these two historical sites have many things in common. It has been found that both Parthenon temple and historical city of Ayutthaya are World Heritage sites. It has also been noted that both Parthenon temple and Ayutthaya  are part of a complex that is Parthenon is part of the Acropolis complex while Ayutthaya  is historical city in Thailand. Both the sites are of great informative value for understanding the culture, art and architecture that was prevalent in the time when the building were started to be constructed. Both the sites exhibit the use of marble and limestone in the construction in primacy and there is also construction of big and strong pillars in the construction structure of both structures. Furthermore, Ayutthaya has Buddhist monasteries ruins and Parthenon is also a temple and thus both the sites can be seen as religious centres.

Comparison of ruins of Parthenon temple and AyutthayaAs it has been mentioned, both the ruins have certain similarities and differences and that is evident in the ruins of both the sites. It has further been seen that both the ruins have historical importance and cultural significance. It has further been seen that both the ruins are part of a complex that has been declared World Heritage Site by UNESCO. The major differences that has been registered in the comparative study of the two ruins is that they represent different cultures and that they are set in different era. Furthermore, while Ayutthaya  is a historical city that had been burnt down, Parthenon had been subject to destroying by conquests and recent Venetian bombarding.

References:Parthenon | History & Facts. (2018). Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/topic/ParthenonCentre, U. (2018). Historic City of Ayutthaya. Retrieved from https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/576Cartwright, M., & Cartwright, M. (2018). Parthenon. Retrieved from https://www.ancient.eu/parthenon/Helmick, S. (2018). The Parthenon, June 13, 2018. http://mds.marshall.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1728&context=parthenonYlimaula, A. M. (2015). Application of th Venice Charter in the Restoration of the Parthenon-Too much intellect, too little emotion?. NA, 9(2). http://arkitekturforskning.net/na/article/download/641/588Aboga-Liao, A. J. M. Siam’s Foreign Policy and Diplomacy during Colonial Period.http://www.academia.edu/download/37890960/Siams_Foreign_Policy_and_Diplomacy_during_Colonial__Period.pdfChapman, W. Ancient Ruins and their Landscape Settings. NAJUA Architecture, Design, and Built Environment, 31, 39-39.https://www.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/NAJUA-Arch/article/download/78984/63194Siedel, H., Wendler, E., ; Ullrich, B. (2018). Historic Renders and Their Weathering at the Temple Wat Mahathat, UNESCO World Heritage Site of Ayutthaya. Historic Mortars: Advances in Research and Practical Conservation, 45.https://books.google.co.in/books?hl=en;lr=;id=qkpjDwAAQBAJ;oi=fnd;pg=PA45;dq=ruins+of+Ayutthaya;ots=_HEfr-FTYs;sig=Y1LRnti-OUrD0OqKHuq7wX_8p4I

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