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DECLARATION
MEKELLE UNIVERSITIY
SCHOOL OF POST GRADUATE STUDIES
I, Kahsay Gebremikael Gebremariam, declare that this master Thesis entitled “Community Participation in Democratic Developmental State of Ethiopian Education Sector: The case of Woreda Hawzen”, and submitted in the fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Political Economy, is my original work which has never been produced or submitted at any other institution before, and that all the sources that I have consulted, used or quoted, have been indicated and acknowledged by means of complete references.

Name of Student: Kahsay Gebremikael Gebremariam Signature__________Date__________
APPROVED OR SIGNED BY THE EXAMINING COMMITTEE:
Name of External Examiner Signature Date
_____________________________ _______________ _________________
Name of Internal Examiner Signature Date
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Name of Advisor Signature Date
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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I wish to express my heartfelt thanks and deepest appreciation to the following people who played a great role in my study:
First and foremost, to my Almighty God, for His reliable love, divine guidance and blessings throughout my studies.
Second, my supervisor,Yemane Zeray (Assistant Professor) at Mekelle University College of Low and Governance, for his effective supervision, professional advice, support, guidance and helpful censure during the research study.
Third all the participants who were involved in this research study, namely the Woreda Hawzen administrators, school directors, the teachers, students and the members of the community. My profound gratitude to all of them for their cooperation, kindness, patience and willingness to participated in this study and for sacrificing their precious time to attend to me during focus group discussions and interview sessions, and in responding to the questionnaires.
Fourth my dear friends Atsbaha Gebreslassi who works in Tigray regional state agricultural research studies and others that; they really deserve a special thank you for their encouragement, social, emotional, psychological, spiritual and financial support through out the entire period of my study, and for continually were encouraging me to soldier on during the most trying times of the long journey.
Last but not least, My wonderful parents, family members brothers and sisters, G/mikael, Medhin, Hiwot, Freweyni, Yaeqob, Eyob, Bsirat, Mhiret, Wegahta, Yordanous, Abraham, Samrawit, Hayelom, Henos, for their prayers, support, encouragement, and for being strong pillars for me to lean on during my studies.

Abstract
The main purpose of this study was to investigate the community participation in democratic developmental state of Ethiopian education sector in four selected schools and their selected Thabias in Woreda Hawzen. specifically, this study was intended: To identify the contribution of CP on DDS education sector; to analyse whether DDS effectively meets its intentions and to identify the main constraints that hold back the CP on DDS in the education sector. A total of 194 community, students, teachers, supervisors and Woreda officials have been participated. Of this 94 (48%) including FGD of community, 85 (44%) students, and 8 (4%) teachers were chosen by a simple random sampling; and 2 directors 3 supervisors, 2 Woreda officials totally 7 (4%) were selected purposefully. Four data collection methods were employed, which were questionnaire, interview, focus group discussion and documentary review. Both closed ended and open ended questions were administered to community, students, and teachers. The interview was conducted to the Woreda officials. The data collected through quantitative data (close ended questionnaires were converted into numbers, tabulation, and analysed by frequency, percentage, mean and standard deviation form. The data that is collected in qualitative ways through open ended questions of questionnaires, interview and focus group discussion were analysed through explanatory. The finding of the study indicated that the communities were participated in education through providing materials, physical forces, finance, following the activities, plans and implementations. However, the level of community participation in education is decreased; there is no transformation and the objective of democratic developmental state was not achieved in the local area. Finally, it was recommended that community is vehicle of education, in promoting capable human power, community should be motivated them selfs and through Woreda officials to participate in the education sector for economic growth based on the needs of democratic developmental state.
Key Words: Community Participation, Democracy, Economic Growth, Developmental State, and Education

Content Page
Contents Page
DECLARATION iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT iv
Abstract v
Content Page vi
List of Tables ix
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS xi
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY 1
1.2 Statement of the problem 2
1.3 Objective of the Study 5
1.3.1 Specific Objectives 5
1.4 Research Question 5
1.5 Significance of the Study 5
1.6 Delimitations of the Study 6
1.7 Limitation of the Study 6
1.8 Definition of Key Terms 6
1.9 Structure of the Study 7
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 9
2.0. INTRODUCTION 9
2.1. Community 9
2.2. Participation 10
2.2.1. Community Participation (CP) 10
2.3. Democracy 11
2.3.1. Community Participation in Democracy 12
2.4. Development 13
2.5. State 14
2.6. Education 14
2.6.1. Community Participation and Education 15
2.6.2. The Role of Community Participation in Education 16
2.6.3. Education as Process and Product 17
2.6.4. Education and Economic Development 18
2.7. Developmental State (DS) 18
2.7.1. Characteristics of the Developmental State 24
2.7.2. Developmental State and Bureaucracy 25
2.8. Democracy and Developmental State 26
2.8.1. Classification of Democratic Developmental States 29
2.9. Democratic Developmental State in Ethiopia (DDSE) 30
2.9.1. State and Development in Ethiopia 32
2.9.2. Challenges of DDS in Ethiopia 33
2.9.3. Education and Development Ethiopia 34
2.10. Constraints of CP in DDS Specifically in Education Sector 34
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY 35
3.0. INTRODUCTION 35
3.1. Description and Selection of Study Area 35
3.1.1. Description of the Study Area 35
3.1.2. Selection of the Study Area 37
3.2. Research Design 37
3.3. Data Type and Data Source 38
3.3.1. Data Type 38
3.3.2. Data Source 38
3.4. Sample and Sampling Techniques 39
3.4.1. Target Population 39
3.4.2. Sample Size 39
3.4.3. Sampling Procedures (Techniques) 39
3.5. Data Collection Tools (Instruments) 41
3.6. Data Processing and Presentation 42
3.7. Method of Data Analysis 43
3.8. Ethical Considerations 44
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 45
4.0. Introduction 45
4.1. The General Profile of Respondents 45
4.2. Results Obtained from Community Closed-ended and Open-ended Questioners 48
4.3. Results Obtained from Students Close-ended and Open-ended Questioners 55
4.4. Results Obtained from Teachers Close ended and Open ended Questioners 62
4.5. Results Obtained from Focus Group Discussion (FGD) 68
4.6. Results Obtained from Interviewee 72
4.7. Discussion 75
4.7.1. The Role of Community Participation in Education 75
4.7.2. Achievements of DDS 77
4.7.3. Hindrances of CP on DDS Specifically in the Education Sector 79
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMERY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 80
5.0. Introduction 80
5.1. Summery of the Study 80
5.2. CONCLUSION 82
5.3. RECOMMONDATION 83
References
APPENDIX- A: ENGLISH VERSION QUESTIONNAIRE
APPENDIX B: INTERVIEW CHECKLIST
APPENDIX E: QUESTIONS FOR FGD TRANSLATED IN TO TIGRIGNA LANGUAGE
APPENDIX F: QUESTIONS FOR INTERVIEW TRANSLATED IN TO TIGRIGNA LANGUAGE

List of Tables
Lists Page
Table 1 (3.1): Samples of Household Respondents 41
Table 2 (3.2): Samples of Student and Teachers Respondents 41
Table 3 (4.1) Sex of the Respondents 45
Table 4 (4.1) Age of the Respondents 46
Table 5 (4.1) Martial Status of the Respondents 47
Table 6 (4.1) Educational Level of the Respondents 47
Table 7 (4.1) Occupational Status of the Respondents 48
Table 8 (4.2) Responses of Community towards the Role of CP in Education 49
Table 9 (4.2) Responses of Community towards the Achievements of DDS 51
Table 10 (4.2) Responses of Community towards the Constraints that Holdback the CP on DDS in Education Sector 54
Table 11 (4.3) Responses of Student towards the Role of CP in education 55
Table 13 (4.3) Responses of Students towards the Achievements of DDS 58
Table 14 (4.3) Responses of Student towards the Constraints that Holdback the CP on DDS in the Education Sector 60
Table 15 (4.4) Responses of Teachers towards the Role of CP in Education 62
Table 16 (4.4) Responses of Teachers towards the Achievements of DDS 64

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS
ADLI Agricultural Development Lead to Industry
DS Developmental states
DDS Democratic Developmental states
DRC Declaration of the Rights of the Child
EADS East Asia Developmental State
ED Economic Development
EG Economic Growth
FMOE Federal Ministry of Education
GTP Growth and Transformation Plan
ICESCR International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
IMF International Monetary Fund
IBRD International Bank for Reconstruction and Development
KBE Knowledge-Based Economy
MITI Ministry of International Trade and Industry
PTA Parent Teachers Associations
SOEs State-Owned Enterprises
UN United Nation
UNCTAD United Nations Conference on Trade and Developmen
UDHR Universal Declaration of Human Rights

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Pre modern Mercantilist epoch state was played a central role in economic development. The principal reason for the intervention of state was the reality of market failure (UNCTAD, 2009). The state intervention in macroeconomic countercyclical modification, chiefly in coping with involuntary employment, became a usual norm of the 1930 Keynesian revolution. States were widely involved in national economy, with policy and institutional plan, for instance, fixing the prices of goods and services, as well as regulating labor, foreign exchange, and financial markets. The socialist thinking, also influenced many states to fabricated large SOEs in public utilities, nationalized mining, and agricultural operations partly (Routley, 2012).
The postwar Developmental State (DS) was characterized by its use of market intervening policies (Wong, 2004). Each states intervene in their economies for a variety of motives. However the concern is how and for what purpose the state intervenes. Japans quite remarkable and historically unparalleled industrial Renaissance was a consequence unlike “market rational” state, an effort by ‘plan rational’ state wanted to make and pursue substantive social and economic goals. The existence of a ‘pilot agency’ (Japan’s celebrated MITI) is vital prerequisite for managing the developmental process (Johnson, 1982).
After WW II, East Asian Developmental States (EADSs) Japan and the four little tigers showed rapid ED through their unique development models. The strong direction of the state was also an education system, it played a vital role in provide social unity skilled human resources. The expansion of speedy educational progress was a part of the developmental process (Abe, 2006). The capability expansion; and invest extremely in the expansion of education throughout the era of rapid expansion was instigate of EASs (Evans, 2011).
The EADS invests most of social capital into the circumstance of available education, which was justified as a means for human capital development and thus defined as an economic investment rather than as a social policy (Wong, 2004). The content of education has largely consistent within and across countries, and governments have shrink the role of the community. Governments have assumed responsibility to provide and regulate the education? community that plays a supportive role in provision of governmental education Williams (1994) cited in (Uemura, 1999). Community and society have to support parents and families in the care for, socializing, and educating of their children. Schools are institutions that can prepare children to supply to the betterment of the society in which they operate, by equipping them with skills important in society. According to Umura, (1999) schools cannot operate as split entities within the community.
In African DDS the national plans focused on the long-term economic revolution that have vast elite support. Education was viewed as having an important enabling role in raising a skilled workforce and elites who were able to take a long-term view and commit to reforms facilitated policy execution. In Ethiopia, it was in a strong position to execute reforms rapidly and consistently, this helped to build sustainable support for changes over long-period (Wales, 2016).
The evolving of the DDS paradigm in Ethiopia has to be viewed within two broad contexts: the country’s straight attempt to emulate the developmental paths of different countries, and the global phenomena that led to the realization of the shortcomings of the neoliberalizm paradigm in Africa. The late prim minister of Ethiopia, Meles, (2006), stressed the need for fast EG as a way of comfort Ethiopia’s survival as a country, marked the major influence. Communities have capacitated to plan, execute, and evaluate the physical, instructional support, and socio-cultural interventions made possible by the school incentive/advance award (Frank, et al, 2010).
Statement of the problem
Enhancing capabilities is the central goal of the 21st century developmental state (DS), then specific set of state capacities come to the fore. Capability expansion depends on the rider of collective goods. Education is the keystone of any kind of development (JICA, 2010).
Efficient infrastructure in expensive public transportation can be vital to rising to education, training and prospect to use the skills acquired on the job. The administrative capacity to deliver collective goods and infrastructure efficiency has political foundations. Investing vast resources without accurate knowledge of what kind of collective goods the citizenry needs and wants, government invest vast resources but fail to advance the abilities (Edigheji, 2010).
Education often prioritized, as vital element of building a skilled workforce in DS. The ability of logically plan and execute policies over long periods for long term investments were the strongest potential for civilizing educational access and quality. but it lacks the technical/financial resources crucial for the rapid change and equity of access and quality may remain a major issue, (Wales, et al, 2016). The state invested deeply in education ; human capital formation. Yet the welfare state utility has been virtually absent (Chu, 2016).
Civil servants that have clearly explicated tasks manage the Ethiopian bureaucracy. However, the institutions in which the functionaries drive are not autonomous. The functionaries recruited on meritocracy, due to the insight held by the public, willingly or unwillingly the bureaucrats anticipated to run in conformance with their ethnic link rather than in pursuit of the goals of their organization (Desta, 2010).
Policies about community contributions are not visibly articulated and they not well informed about them; the data not properly reported. Some community overburdened and/or stressed by share; the risk of “community fatigue” and a decline in their sharing may occur (MOE, 2010).
In the past two decades, the Ethiopian government has made a remarkable and rarely contested reaching is in the expansion of education. At all level education access has notably grown. However, many doubts on a number of issues related to how education and training are made to fit to contribute to the human capital need of the country. One issue often raised is that the stress has been exclusively on expanding access and does not regard to the quality of education until the quality of education is fit to the demand of the economy; it is not possible to say that the need for human capital has been satisfied, only by counting numbers. At the lower levels of education the rate of class repetition, dropout and attrition remain very high (Hassan, 2008; Ashckroft, 2010), Kebede, 2011, cited in (Woldegiyorgis, 2014).
The EADSs were gave more an attention for education and health; and the state more spent on capable expantion and qulity of education, but the government of most DS was beig authoritarian (give prioriy to ED than to CP). Ethiopia also emulated a DS ideology from the EADS and being practiced in the state, regional state, zones and local districts inculuding the Thabias and kushets. There had been some reports that examine the DDS with reference to economic development in Ethiopia, Sub Sahara and other African countries. These include; Woldegiyorgis, (2014) studies on the Indicia of the DS concept in the Ethiopian higher education; and Daba, (2010): studies on decentralization and CP in education in three Wereda as of Horro Guduru Wollaga Zone of Oromia National, Regional State.
Hawzen is one of the 38th districts located in the Eastern zone of Tigray Regional state. Both the primary and secondary schools located in the district is generally constrained with many problems including low school facility, low child enrolment, poor quality education, and lack of CP in education sector. However, the linkage between DDS and community participation (CP) and education has given much less attention. That indicates that there could bea paucity of information on DDS, CP, political and economic forces and the continuities of education. Therefore, the study was initiated to realize and crosscheck the effectiveness of DDS and CP in both primary and secondary school educations in the case of Hawzen district.
Objective of the Study
The study has both general and specific objectives.
The general objective of the study is to evaluate the effectivness and role of CP in DDS of Ethiopian education sector the case Hawzen district.
Specific Objectives
The specific objectives of the study are:
To identify the contribution of CP on DDS (education sector) in the study area;
To analyze whether DDS effectively meets its intentions in the study area;
To identify the main constraints that holdback the CP on DDS in the education sector;
Research Question
The specific questions of the study are:
What is the role of the CP on DDS specifically the education sector in the study area?
How does the DDS meet its objectives in the study area?
Why CP on DDS education sector recognize by hinderance in the study area?
Significance of the Study
By examining CP in DDS of Ethiopia specifically education sector; and with its applicability in Woreda Hawzen, the researcher believes that, the study has the following benefits; it may contribute to a better understanding about the concepts of DDS; it also helps all concerned government officials, teachers, students and community themselves to get a better picture of CP in DDS of Ethiopian education sector with its applicability in Woreda so as to deal with the matter help to bridge the knowledge gap in terms of the DDS; the impacts of political and economic forces on education, how much power and decision making in education has been left to the community level. Finally, it may also initiate other researchers and shed more light for further academic approach to the issue at hand. Identifying the revenue generating capacity of the study areas is another area of further research, which is identified by the researcher.
Delimitations of the Study
The broad concept, DDS, includes ED, economic policies, nature and types of governance, market, infrastructure, agriculture, health and many other sectors, but this study was specifically concerned with the education sector. The Education policy in Ethiopia is comprehensive but this study was begun from the current education and training policy and the introduction of DDS from the all levels of education specifically concerned with public institutions primary and secondary education. There are also many regions, Zones and Woredas but this study was conducted in Woreda Hawzen.
Limitation of the Study
The scope of the study was restricted to only public primary and secondary schools in the study area. Private basic schools were not included in the study as the study was limited to four public schools in the study area. Unavailability of respondents at the scheduled time; this was attributed to the fact that some of the respondents have no permanent offices; overcame the problem by constantly travelling to their places to meet them at their home places. There was also a problem of well organized record keeping, especially on the part of leaders at community levels. The study was overcome the problem by applying the triangulation method of data collection in order to get detailed information.
Definition of Key Terms
Community participation: – CP can be defined as the involvement/engagement of people in a community in varity activities to solve their own problems. People cannot be forced to involve in any activities which shape their lives, and seized to be a basic human right and a fundamental principle of democracy.
Development: – It has different meaning by different scholar. development in terms of substantive freedoms that entitle citizens to multiple capabilities that include: legal and political security, social mobility, access to healthcare and education services, equitably distributed national wealth, free access to information and capital markets, individual and collective voices that enable citizens to: (a) remove an incompetent government; (b) establish freedom of speech and press; and (c) create opportunty for better quality of life for all (sen, 1999).
Democracy: – It is a common knowledge that democracy is a government of the people by the people for the people. Origin of the term, democracy, is traced to ancient Greek political and philosophical thought. In the modern literature, socioeconomic, demographic, personality traits, and good governance parameters, such as socio-cultural, social capital, human capital, cognitive skills, per capita GDP, and gender equity are all identified as determinants of democracy.
Developmental State: – When the state possesses the vision, leadership and capacity to bring about a positive transformation of society within a condensed period of time is called developmental state. To be judged developmental, a state does not need to be in control of everything and successful in all spheres.
Education: – Education may be defined as a purposive, conscious/unconscious, psychological, sociological, scientific and philosophical process, which brings about the development of the individual to the fullest extent and also the maximum development of society in such a way that both enjoy maximum happiness and prosperity. In Short, education is the development of individual according to his needs and demands of society, of which he is an integral part.
Structure of the Study
The study was organized in five chapters.
Chapter one deals with an introduction which entails background of the study, a statement of the problem, objectives, research questions, significance, scope, limitations and organization of the study.
Chapter Two deal with conceptual framework and specifically assesses theoretical and conceptual findings on community participation in DDS of Ethiopia in the education sector.
Chapter three deals with research methodology, which indicates how the research was conducted.
Chapter Four presents the data presentation, analysis and findings of the study.
Finally, Chapter Five provides some concluding remarks and recommendations on the analysis, findings, interpretation and implications of the data.

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
INTRODUCTION
The intention of this study is to understand how members of the community can be involved in the DDS education sector. The previous chapter outlined the introduction and background of the study. The statement of the problem, research questions, motivation and limitation of the study was outline. This chapter, namely a review of related literature, deliberates on the concept of CP as it relates to the DDS education sector. It goes further by looking at different perspectives on the DDS internationally and within the Ethiopian context.
Community
The term ommunity used in different ways in time it has been contested, fought over, and appropriated for variety uses and concerns to justify diverse politics, policies, theory and practices. A community is a group of people who share some common interest and who therefore jointed by bonds of commitment to that interest. These bonds may be fairly weak, but they are enough to decide communities from mere aggregates or classes of person. However, communities are not agents and thus are not links: they are marked by shared concern, but not by shared structures of authority. A community depends for its existence on a common locality or ties, of blood kinship, this account of community permits for the possibility of communities that cross geographical boundaries. Thus, while it makes perfect common sense to talk of a village or a neighborhood as a community, it makes no less sense to talk about, say, the university community, the scholarly community, or the religious community (Kukathas, 2014).
According to Hillery (1955) cited in Bray (2000), illustrious ninety-four alternative definitions of community and observed that the list was still not exhaustive. What is certain is that communities can be define by characteristics that the members share, such as culture, language, tradition, law, geography, class, and race. Bray’s conception of community is applied (Hillery, 1955).
Bray (1996) identifies three different types of communities, which are particularly prominent in the field of education. These are: 1. Geographic community: This is defined according to the members` place of residence. That is individuals living in relatively small areas such as villages, districts or suburbs; 2. Ethnic, linguistic, racial and religious communities: Here membership is based on ethnic, racial, linguistic or religious identification and usually cuts across membership based on geographic location. Mostly, these are minorities and have self-help support structures. 3. Communities based on shared family or educational concerns: These include parents associations and related bodies based on adults shared concerns for the welfare of their children.
Participation
Participation like the concept of community is subject to various explanations, connotations and meanings based the context. Different degrees of participation, and provides seven possible definitions of the term, including: Involvement through the mere use of a service; Involvement through the contribution of money, materials, and labor; Involvement through attendance implying passive acceptance of decisions made by others; Involvement through discussion on a particular issue; Participation in the delivery of a particular service, often as a partner with other actors; Participation as implements of delegated powers; and Participation in real decision making at every stage, including identification of problems, the study of feasibility, planning, implementation, and evaluation (Shaeffer, 1994) cited in Uemura (1999).
Shaeffer further provides specific activities that involve a high degree of participation in a wider development context, which can also be applied in the education sector, these include: Collecting and analyzing information; defining priorities and setting goals; assessing available resources; deciding on and planning resources; designing strategies to implement these programs and dividing responsibilities among participants; managing programs; monitoring progress of the programs; and evaluating results and impacts (Ibid)
Community Participation (CP)
CP is a term often used synonymously with community engagement and involvement. CP is a concept referring to attempts to bring different stakeholders together for problem solving and decision making. In this study it refers to people’s engagement in activities within the DDS and educational system. It is realized as one of the mechanisms to empower people to take part in educational development (Aref, 2010).
There are various forms and dimensions of participation and its nature is that it could manifest in any field of human endeavor like education. Participation could be transitive, moral, free and spontaneous. However, participation acquires a moral form or desirable view without any evil or malicious ends. Free participation, opposed to forced participation ensures keenness in sharing in operations that are of vital interest to the community. Manipulated forms of participation, as oppose to spontaneous participation, make the community feel inspired, led or directed outside their mental control by government. The failures of the government programs were attributed to the fact that communities were excluded from the designs, formulations and execution processes. In order to achieve the desired objectives, there should be a bottom-up or top-down approach to incorporate the community in participatory programs. Therefore, NGOs and other spirited groups can bring about basic changes in the link between government and other stakeholders in the educational and other developmental pursuits. Excessive dependence, centralization and attention of policy or authority bring about non-participatory planning (Abbas, 2011).
Democracy
There is not inclusive and all agreed definition of democracy; the word “Democracy” can literally translate by the following terms: Government of the People or Government of the Majority. Democracy, as a state form, is to be distinguished from monarchy, aristocracy and dictatorship. In the dictionary definition, democracy is government by the people in which the supreme power is vested in the people and exercised directly by them or by their elected agents under a free electoral system. In the words of Abraham Lincoln, democracy is a government of the people, by the people, and for the people. Most definitions of democracy focus on the qualities, procedures, and institutions.
Democracy is the form of government in which political control is exercised by all the people either directly or through their elected councils. A democracy is a system where people can change their rulers in a peaceful manner and the government is given the right to rule because the people say it may. A genuine democracy today is representative. Protecting equal rights to liberty of all persons in a democracy, however, depends primarily upon constitutionalism, the indispensable guarantor of representative government and individual rights (Murali, et al, 2017).
Then, Democracy enhances the individual’s sense of dignity and self-worth. Encourage individuals to promote the well-being of their community; provide equal opportunities for individuals’ self-fulfillment; draw upon the collective wisdom of the people in making decisions; treat individuals as political and civic equals; protect the equal rights of all persons to life, liberty, and property; encourage economic productivity and a high quality of life by distributing rewards based on merit rather than inherited status; promote international peace, order, and stability, because democracies tend not to fight against each other; bring about the orderly resolution of conflict within a country; make rulers accountable to the people they rule; justify the legitimacy of government by basing it on popular consent (Ibid).
Community Participation in Democracy
Democracy is the “government of the people, by the people and for the people,” the concept of CP has, over time, been adopted as a strategic policy by progressive and democratic governments. In the first place, CP has been transformed as a political slogan. Participatory devices by the government are likely to create feelings of collusion between government and the community. Then, politicians should use these situations to give their public a sigh of relief and the notion that they are really sensitive to people’s plights. Peacefully negotiated forms of participations can take the hit out of many situations where development policies create tension and resistance on the part of their victims (Sachs, 1997).
CP offers insight into local activity and reality, which bureaucrats and politicians do not possess. It enables the concern of a net of big and varied ideas and links for the government and the community to coexist and to make continual policies succeed acceptably. participation suit both a politically designed advance and an economically attractive plan. CP is no doubt an very powerful political and economic policy based tool that has come of age but not effectively utilized to move education out of its present impasse. CP is no longer a threat to politicians and bureaucrats, provided it is transitive, institutionalized, orderly, morally and freely organized.
Sound and people-oriented education policies tend to create popular and spontaneous support with induced and addictive need to have a strong public or CP right from policy-making and implementation as well as how decisions are reached to secure mass community support for government and its programs. Bright governments, use communities in a very difficult fashion to establish control and loyalty over the people. This can only be achieved when governments are not afraid or scared by the outcomes of people’s participation in their programs (Abbas, 2011).
Development
Development is a multidimensional process involving changes in social structures, popular attitude, national institutions, economic growth reduction of inequality and the eventual eradication of poverty (Todaro, 1994). Based on UNDRD (1986) covered the term development as a broad economic, social, cultural and political process, which aims at the constant progress of the well-being of the entire population and of all individual. This definition shows that the insights of development tend towards the human intense line through the period (Ibid).
Amartia Sen (1999) also looks development in terms of the broad concept of freedom and its extent. Freedom is the ultimate goal of economic life as well as the most efficient means of realizing general welfare. Expansion of freedom is both the primary end and the principal means of development and capability in turn. The capability view of freedom emphasizes that freedom consists both pursuing what one has chosen, as well as the simple fact of having a choice to door not do a number of things, and from those choices, to construct one’s way of life. Overcoming deprivations are central to development. No freedom means there is;
hunger, famine, ignorance, an unsustainable economic life, unemployment, barriers to economic fulfillment by women or minority, premature death, violation of political freedom and basic liberty, threats to the environment, and little access to health, sanitation, or clean water etc.
For Sen welfare theory relies not on individuals’ attainments (of basic needs) but individuals’ capabilities, an approach he believes can draw on a richer information base. Living consists of the effective freedom of a person to achieve states of beings and doings, or a vector of functioning’s. Sen focuses on a small number of basic functioning’s central to well-being, such as being adequately nourished, avoiding premature mortality, appearing in public without shame, being happy, and being free. This freedom to attain, rather than the functioning’s themselves, is the primary goal, meaning that capability does not correlate closely to attain, such as income. For Sen, development involves reducing deprivation or broadening choice. Deprivation represents a multidimensional view of poverty that includes hunger, illiteracy, illness and poor health, powerlessness.
State
The state is the most universal and most powerful of all social institutions. The state is a natural institution. According to Niccolo Machiavelli (1469–1527) in Murali, et al, (2017) State is a union of persons in the form of government, governed, and united together into a politically organized people of a definite territory. State is a community of people occupying a definite form of territory free of external control and possessing an organized government to which people show habitual obedience and state as a territorial society divided in to government and subjects whose relationships are determined by the exercise of supreme coercive power.
A state is a form of political association or polity that distinguished by the fact that not itself incorporated into any other political associations, though it may incorporate other such associations. The state is itself a political community, though not all political communities are states. A state is not a nation, or a person, though it may contain a single nation, parts of different nations, or a number of entire nations. A state arises out of society, but it does not contain or subsume society. An association is a collectivity of persons joined for the purpose for carrying out some action or actions (Kukathas, 2014).
Education
Education doesn’t have one precise universally conventional definition. Williams, (2017) refer to it as formal schooling or to lifelong learning. Some authors refer to it as acquisition of knowledge, skills and attitudes. Some say that education is nothing, but training of people’s mind in a particular direction to bring about desired changes. Education seeks to nourish the good qualities and draw out the best in every individual. It seeks to develop the innate or the inner potentialities of humans and aims to provide a nourishing environment that would facilitate or bring out and develop the potentialities in an individual. In a narrow sense, education is nothing, but a purposeful activity, deliberately planned for the optimum development of an individual’s potentials (Ibid).
The broader view considers education as an act or experience that has a formative or additive effect on the personality of an individual. It is believed that education is not only an instrument of social change, but also an investment in national development. Such a view of education encompasses all life experiences, as there is a shift in emphasis from individual development to national development. It was considered that education is a lifelong process that includes all experiences that the child receives in the school or at home, in the community and society through the interactions of various sorts and activities. The broader meaning of education implies the process of development, where in the individual gradually adapts in various ways to physical, social and spiritual environments (Ibid).
Community Participation and Education
Education is a designed act in the transmission of knowledge, information and understanding. This act in itself makes education a fundamental right for every body. Since education rise social mobility and freedom of individuals from discrimination based on social status, it equally raises the community’s sense of reasoning and utility. This enables the community to acquire the right or privilege to adequate standard of living with greater access to skills and knowledge needed to productively participate in community and national development (Abbas, 2011).
CP in education has an extensive history around the globe, beginning long before the twentieth century, with educational services provided mainly by churches and voluntary agencies. Following WW II, the function of government was being expanded and came to play a dominant role in providing education. The expanded role of government in education was been supported by various international resolutions, including the 1948 UDHR, the 1959 DRC, and the 1966 ICESCR. In the last quarter of the 20thc advocacy for CP again came to the fore, as the financial and other limitations of governmental capacity gained wider recognition (Bray, 2003).
There are many connections between education and democratic participation by community members, particularly with regard to the expansion of democratic participation on the one hand and expansion of education on the other. Since education is a primary prerequisite for democratic processes and movements, its relevance,therefore, based on the degree of the expansion of democratic participation, it favors the expansion of education. In other words, education offers and expands an essential entry point as well as a route to the sharing of political power. This means that greater equality in education offers a solid base for democratic power through popular CP, which also enables the widespread of education within the community. Hence, the ability of the community to effectively participate in the democratic process is dependent upon the knowledge, information and understanding its members possess, which is equally dependent on the degree of equality in income distribution in the society as well as the degree of equality in the distribution of education in the community (Abbas, 2011).
School community links is the extent to which community members are directly involved in the governance of the schools. Thus, when students’ parents and other members of the community take active roles in the various aspects of the school’s operations, the standard and quality of education is likely to significantly improve in economy. One of the most fundamental issues bordering on participation is the nature, form and substance of integration devices the schools adopt with the community. In essence, the impact of schools on the community will largely depend on the strengthening of the community based on the established bonds, as well as on how the school system is organized and the degree to which they are organically integrated with the community needs and aspirations(Ibid).
The Role of Community Participation in Education
Parents and children are not the only ones who benefit from good schools. Everyone in a community gains from good schools. A good school increases property values and improves the quality of life for all members of the community. The local school is an integral part of the fabric of its community. Each is a mirror in to the other; the success of one entity is naturally reflected in the other. The community is filled with volunteer organizations that can provide a vast array of services and benefits to the local school. When a community is valued by its citizens, the school is valued by its community. A school can also be an invaluable resource to its community. Students can volunteer to aid community organizations with their projects and learn invaluable lessons in the process. Not only can these experiences help students choose a career path, they cement the value of volunteering in their minds. This spirit of volunteerism was being benefit the community for many years to come (http://www.mde.k12.ms.us).
According to McDonough and Wheeler, (1998), cited in Ummura (1999) communities can provide, or construct, housing for teachers who are from outside of the community. In rural areas, lack of qualified teachers is critical, and preparing a safe environment and housing is necessary to attract teachers, particularly female teachers, who otherwise tend to stay in or go to urban areas. Teachers can benefit from communities’ active participation in their children’s schools. Community can help students understand concepts which teachers teach in classrooms by having the students coming into the community, interact with community members who are knowledgeable about village history and the certain issues faced by the community (Ibid).
The efficacy of CP in education is potential in bringing members from all specifications and diversities together for the ability of a common objective. CP in education brings about stability amongst community members, thereby throwing the entire environment of social, economic and political harmony with enhanced links. With a extensive quality education in the community, enhanced social capital amongst members of the community will be guaranteed. This therefore provides sustainable and greater chance and hope for all, now and in the future. This enhances desirable change, greater participation with no group left out. Self-sufficiency in education and other services to enhance political stability with unconditional and active participation is needed. For a community to support education and governance, they must be promoted in order to achieve these multiple objectives (Abbas, 2011).
Education as Process and Product
There is always a controversy whether education is a process or a product. Mostly, we consider education as a product, that is, something that has been produced as a result of certain inputs which in this case is instruction or experiences. In this sense, it is the sum total of what is received through learning the knowledge, skills, value that are the outcomes of learning. The concept of education as the acquisition of knowledge was prevalent since the beginning of the history of education and knowledge is power and knowledge is virtue. Even now it is believed that knowledge leads to wisdom (NCERT, 2014).
Education becomes a product only when it assimilates the culture of any society, and transmitted from one generation to another. Education fosters values in people, which universally accepted as valuable at a given point of time. Transmission of knowledge or skills, which takes place as a purposeful activity in a variety of ways could be termed as the product of education. Education is an act of developing the intellect, critical thinking abilities, social and cultural understanding, and understanding of one’s own self. Education was considered as an active and a dynamic process, which takes place continuously during one’s life by way of various experiences through either in a formal or in an informal manner. Therefore, it can say that education is a product as well as a process (Ibid).
Education and Economic Development
Education is universally recognized a primary tool to promote ED. It plays a vital part in developing human capital and rises EG by civilizing skills, rising competency, and productivity. The education brings benefits for the whole society and the individuals. For developing country education plays a key role in poverty reduction, and removing both social and income inequalities (Khan.Z, 2016).
Education assists in developing the human resource needs of the country for social, political and EG. Education is therefore sited at the hub of any development plan a country can board on and it has a strong link with the economic capacity of a country. For any country to prosper in its economic and social development action, education and skills play a crucial role; means education was being as central to development.The an educated and skilled workforce is one of the pillars of the knowledge based economy. This is a result of economies, in the 21stc, moving away from natural resources and cheap labor EG. The shortage of skills and education in the labor force is unfortunate because the less skilled and poorly educated the labor force is, the smaller the role is that it can make to production (WB, 2010).
Developmental State (DS)
There is no particular, all agree on, and single all-inclusive definition of a DS. The manageable alternate clarity’s have differences curtailing from their disciplinary emphasis (as Political science, economics, management, public policy, education, sociology, etc) and differences in their respective contexts in time and geographic coverage. This depends upon the specific historical conjuncture being reflected and the particular ideological perspective adopted. Even though, it is possible to identify certain commonalities that can help magnet a general picture of what the DS looks like. It is more approachable to attempt to understand the general concept and its contexts before considering a specific definition.( )
It is necessary to understand the different political and economic climate experienced by all states today. The climate of international politics has altered drastically. With the beginning of globalization, states need to form partnerships to be able to export their goods. The larger concern the benefits EA states from the political apathy of 1950s and 1980s was influenced by the Cold War, where the focus was whether a state was capitalist or communist, the finer details of a state’s governance was not a concern. It is acknowledged that institutions do not necessarily possess the power to prevent war or murders despite their attempts, but some soft power does exist as all states make an effort to adhere to certain universal ideals such as democracy. External pressure and the desire to appease global prospect have influenced the push towards democracy in some cases. Economically, the international market was more open to the exports from EA and they practiced high demand for their products from the US (Subira, 2011).
Based on the Japanese EG strategy the concept of DS and the strategy was also used by many other countries, especially those in the east of the Asian continent as the Asian Tigers. DS theory focuses primarily on an ED model which stress the vital, leading roles of the state in the course of ED and renovation of a country. Although having its roots in ideas about economic nationalism in the 19thc, this theory is principally associated with Johnson (1982) who used it to explain the rapid ED and the role that the Japanese state assumed in its sudden post war economic recovery. It has subsequently been developed by authors analyzing the cases of newly industrializing and rising economies such as (Amsden, 1989; Wade, 1990; Evans, 1995; 2010; Leftwich, 1995; 2000; 2005; 2008; Kohli, 2004).
As one of the distinctive and prevalent features of the 20thc was the focused and careful promotion of national development, especially in the developing world where ‘the planning process became the central mechanism for defining and shaping developmental goals and activities’ (Leftwich, 2005).
According to Routely (2012) classical DS most closely assign to the ideal type of the DS Model that of industrial based economies, high EG rates and professional and autonomous state bureaucracies. For Khan, (2009) also the classical term DS has become synonymous with economic growth experienced by the NICs. Their impressive EG rates between the 1960s and 1990s had economic analysts from both ends of the continuum, offering their respective analysis of the causes and catalysts for what became known as the EA Miracle. States that had begun the industrialization process decades prior to that of EA states were surpassed (Ibid).
The “developmental,” focuses interest on processes rather than structures. Although states are facing many challenges created by globalization, there have been still a significant number of scholars arguing for the possibility of the state’s developmental functions in leading the course of ED. DS highlights the ethical dimensions of economic and social policy. The term was coined in academia to explain, after the fact, the phenomenal rise of the SEA economies. None of those countries developed along pure free market principles like the US did, yet they were undeniably successful (Njiru, 2008).
The DS as a state driven by an ideology of development where it does all it can to ris and assist growth and social development. IPE scholars use the term ‘DS’ to refer to the phenomenon of state led macroeconomic planning in EA in the late 20thc. The term has later been used to describe countries outside EA, which satisfy the criteria of a DS. DS is recognized in states that were industrialized late, the state it led the industrialization drive that is, it took on developmental functions (Johnson in 1982).Capital flows from the international financial markets are very potentially instable there may actually be a better demand for governments involvement in managing and overseeing the way for vulnerable economies to integrate into the IPE; for ED, an effective, relatively independent and non-corrupt DS is still a potentially critical part of economic progress and mechanism for mediating global forces’ (Beeson, 2006).
DS is a states whose politics have strong ample power, autonomy and capacity at the center to shape, pursue and push the feat of explicit developmental objectives, whether by establishing and help the situation and direction of EG, or by organizing it directly, or a varying mixture states whose successful economic and social development act illustrates how their political purposes and institutional structures especially their bureaucracies have been developmentally driven, while their developmental objectives have been politically-driven (Leftwich, 2008). The DS is one of the institutions that have played the most dramatic role in reshape relative national trajectories of EG in the late 20thc and is a classic example of how institutions make a difference to economic change (Chang, 2000).
A regulatory state governs the economy mainly through regulatory agencies that are empowered to enforce a variety of standards of behavior to protect the public against market failures of various sorts, including monopolistic pricing, predation, and other abuses of market power, and by providing collective goods that otherwise would be scarce by the market. In contrast, a DS intervenes more directly in the economy through a variety of means to promote the growth of new industries and to reduce the disorder caused by shifts in investment and profits from old to new industries. In other words, DS can pursue industrial policies, while regulatory states generally cannot (Njiru. 2008).
DS runs the risk of being redundant, since evidence that the state is developmental is often drawn deductively from the act of the economy. This produces a definition of a state as developmental if the economy is developing, and equates economic success to state strength while measuring the latter by the presumed outcomes of its policies. It has led to biased concentration of analysis around success to the neglect of the trial and error nature of policy making even in the most successful cases. Just as factors other than the state have accounted for success, so can these factors account for economic failure. This allows room for poor performance due to exogenous factors, miscalculations or bad luck. At times, governments, political will and technical capacity may simply prove inadequate to fend off exogenous forces (Mkandawire, 2001).
The DS model favors a strong role for a strong state in routing. Such development by provide the situations for development, i.e. health, education and infrastructure, and taking adequate assesss to protect national industries in the globalizing economy, not in order to maximize profits, but in order to promote the development of its people and to achieve sustainable national EG. Making a profit is important, but maximizing market shares even more (Tshishonga 2011).
Acceding Evans, (2008) if the DS was important to 20thc economic success, it will be much more important to 21st century success. Historic changes in the character of the economy have increased the salience of the state’s role, making it more difficult at the same time. Citizens of the South, even more than citizens of the North need aggressive action by industrial public institutions if they are to realize their potential productivity and enjoy the levels of well-being that the 21st century economy is capable of providing. Since the core 21stc challenges are issues of political economy, rebuild political links to society will be fundamental to the state’s ability to shift strategies. The basic arguments for the rising vital of the state’s role have already been set out.Accelerating EG in the 21stc requires expanding access to the existing stock of ideas, increasing effective utilization of this stock and generating of new ideas suited to a country’s specific circumstance. All of this depends on the expansion of human capabilities. Left to themselves markets will not deliver an optimal supply of capability expanding services (Ibid).
The concept of the DS originated in EA in the 20shc; it created mechanisms that enabled the state to intervene in the affairs of the private sector. The mechanisms include, inter alia the creation of an economic planning commission, the execution of market defying selective industrial policies and total state control of the banking sector. During the second half of the 20thc, the Scandinavian countries focused on selective industrial policies and the promotion of research and development. In the context of the social sciences, development in its broadest sense is a form of social change (Chang 2010).
According to Mkandawire (2001), DS has two components; one ideological and one structural. The ideology and structure nexus; distinguishes DS from other forms of states. In terms of ideology, a DS is vital one whose ideological bases are developmentalist in that it perceives its mission as that of ensuring ED, usually infer to mean high rates of accrual and industrialization. At the ideological level, the elite must be able to establish an ideological hegemony, so that its project becomes, a hegemonic project to which key actors in the nation adhere voluntarily. The state structure side of the definition of the DS focus the capacity to implement economic policies wisely and efficiently. Such a capacity was determine by various factors institutional, technical, administrative and political. It usually assumed that such a state should be a strong state in contrast to a soft state that had neither the administrative capacity nor the political ability to push through its development project (Ibid).
The importance of their ability to promote industrial prowess, it is clear in retrospect that 20thc DS were also pioneers in capability expansion. The EA Tigers were renowned for their levels of investment in human capital. They began their periods of accelerated EG with education levels that made them outliers for countries at their income levels and continued to invest in the expansion of education throughout the period of their rapid expansion. In the 21stc efficient allocation of capability expanding investment requires a much broader set of information than that required for the allocation of investments in plant and equipment. In addition, the value of a project cannot be assess on the bases of a simple technocratic measure, such as rate of return on projected market share. The skills and association required to total and assess this kind of information demand qualitatively more capable state device. Nonetheless, accurate information on collective priorities at the community level is the sine qua non of a successful 21stc DS. Without multiple channels getting accurate information, the DS will end up investing inefficiently and wasting precious public resources (Evans, 2008).
More explicitly, a dynamic picture of the leading role of the enabling state emerges over time. The state offer disciplined support for export oriented sectors by direct credit and other grant. The state also manages investment across sectors. It invests itself in areas where private risk absorption capacity is too low. This is important in building up a national system of innovation in particular. The state also steps in to manage sectorial and macroeconomic crises ensuring a relatively smooth accumulation process to proceed (Khan, 2015).
According to Edigheji, (2010) reflection a more comprehensive definition, that appears to have covered major aspects of the concept of DS was discussed as follows:
Authoritatively, credibly, legitimately and in a binding manner is able to formulate and implement its policies and programs. This entails possessing a developmentalist ideology that privileges industrialization, economic growth and expansion of human capabilities. Such a state also has to be able to construct and deploy the institutional architecture within the state and mobilize society towards the realization of its developmentalist project.
Edigheji’s definition looks both the political and institutional dimensions, and the ideological perspective. It stresses on the state power to emerge with a binding process based on its ideology. Here as well, the outcomes of the developmental projects are not used as defining factors. A DS, pre supposedly, pursues the goals of EG and social revolution. However, the rate of success in this regard is different in different cases, depending on a number of different factors. Therefore, it can be said that DS are conceptualized by their goals, institutions, and how this institution are managed; but not by their outcomes or success. This is the general idea, looking at the major features of DS will give a better understanding of what they are and how they function (Ibid).
Characteristics of the Developmental State
The main characteristics of a developmental state for Njirus, (2008) are:
Emphasis on market share over profit:
Economic nationalism – a term used to describe policies which are guided by the idea of protecting domestic consumption, labor and capital formation, even if this requires the imposition of tariffs and other restrictions on the movement of labor, goods and capital. It is in opposition to globalization in many cases, or at least it questions the benefits of unrestricted free trade. Thus, social and economic development is seen as the over-arching purpose of government:
Protection of fledging domestic industries:
The focus on foreign technology transfer: Technology transfer is the process of sharing of skills, knowledge, technologies, methods of manufacturing, samples of manufacturing and facilities among industries, universities, governments and other institutions to ensure that scientific and technological developments are accessible to a wider range of users who can then further develop and exploit the technology into new products, processes, applications, materials or services:
Large government bureaucracy:
An alliance between the state, labor and industry called corporatism:
Skepticism of neo-liberalism and the Washington Consensus:
Prioritization of economic growth over political reform:
Legitimacy and Performance:
Public and private sector elite’s work together intimately to pursue thegoals; Government assists business even with direct investment and overheads; and business assists government to meet social goals. “Crony capitalism” that became so infamous after the 1998 financial crisis in South East Asia, can be traced back to this characteristic:
A highly educated and efficient bureaucracy is created that facilitates growth and development. The Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) in Japan and the equally famously well paid and efficient civil service of Singapore can be traced back to this characteristic:
A non-challenging civil society does not interrupt the process – this is where the “strong state” element of Latin America came from. A developmental state does not necessarily prize the rule of law.
According to Tshishonga (2011) also a DS is characterized by being primarily aimed at promoting and succeeding in achieving EG by building viable institutions that assurance such growth. The DS model favors a strong role for a strong state in routing such development by providing the conditions for development, i.e. health, education and infrastructure, and taking adequate measures to protect national industries in the globalizing economy, not in order to maximize profits, but in order to promote the development of its people and to achieve sustainable national EG. Making a profit is important, but rising market shares even more. Characteristic is an intertwinement of private and public money. It represents an embeddedness of government in the economy and society and the building of social capital (Ibid).
Developmental State and Bureaucracy
The developmental degree from a state lies in the nature of its bureaucracy, not just its presence.
The bureaucracy in the DS must be ‘small, cheap, but elite’. It is constituted by the best managerial talents available in the system. To achieve this type of bureaucracy, it is necessary that the state, select its staff based on meritocratic recruitment; to fully utilize the ability and competence of the bureaucracy, it is necessary that the bureaucracy has sufficient scope of autonomy, so that the bureaucrats can take initiative and operate effectively. What the bureaucracy fears most is political interference, (Johnson, 1982).
The recent chat on developmental is worried with how sure parts of the 20thc DS could apply today and what is necessary vital today. Evans, a decade later is more optimistic about the construction of a DS in the south, but emphasizes the strength of the state. One feature of the EADS that cannot be ignored is the bureaucratic capacity of the state, investing in this was a key component of the process. He continues to maintain his premise of “Embeddedness? being a key feature of a DS (Evans, 2010).
Democracy and Developmental State
The idea of the DS has had periods when it held the attention of policy makers. The idea gained credence as theorists sought to explain the imposing rate at which EA states were developing during the 1960s and 1970s. The aim was to offer an alternative account of the economic phenomenon to that advanced by IFI. IFI claimed that the adoption of neoliberal policies had brought rapid growth whilst theorists such as Johnson, and Evans demonstrated through specific case study research that purposeful state involvement was a significant factor in their developmental success.
The state is also strongly committed to playing a big role in keeping economy viable and close to the leading border in the global development of knowledge and technology by pursuing a DDS, akin to the current experiences of similar DS such as South Africa, Botswana, Mauritius, Ghana, Brazil, among others (Habisso, 2010). However, unlike the CDS of EA, DDSs are grounded in principles of democratic governance (Edigheji, 2010).The state society link in DDS also differ from that initiate in CDSs in that they are not restricted to government private sector alliances. Therefore, within the context of DDS, the concept of ’embedded autonomy’ associated with the CDS is widened to accommodate not only the interests and views of the private sector, but also that of other key social actors. The DDS is also defined as, “one that forges broad-based alliances with society and ensures popular participation in the governance and transformation processes” (Edigheji, 2005). Even though the CDDSs were mainly pursued ED, the DDSs promote “holistic development” by pursuing both economic and democratic development (Akokpari, 2012).
Most of the EADSs may have reached their developmental aims under undemocratic conditions, yet in Ethiopia, South Africa and other African states, a constitutional democracy, the delivery of the DS will not only have to take place in the economic and social spheres, but must also deepen democracy. Some scholars remain deeply skeptical that the EADS style reforms can be copied elsewhere. Many more are unconvinced that DS can be replicated under democratic conditions. DS have mostly been authoritarian, or managed in the dominant party democratic systems. In DSs, capitals are also disciplined by the state. The state often used a combination of persuasion, coercion and incentives. Importantly, the moral authority the DS required compelling capital, citizens and civil society to support a particular growth path is only possible if the state is perceived to act at all times in the widest possible public interest. Although many of the EADSs lacked democracy, the social pacts signed between the state, civil society and citizens, in which stakeholders committed to meet specific developmental objectives and in which responsibilities, targets and punishment for lack of delivery were clearly outlined, in some respects made up for formal democracy (Leftwich, 1996).
The rises of industrialization process were that a strong social policy; it was an integral part of the EADS framework. The resources were invested both in the educational and health sector. The focus of the primary theorists of DSs was EG; the advent of a welfare DS was not consider vital, even though social policies did exist in the case of EAs. Having said this, social policy would be an important aspect of the present day DS. The facts are that the average African may not have access to health and education. The onus would be on the state to provide these services. Additionally, current discourse on development speak a lot to the fact that EG and industrialization cannot be the only determinant of development. The standards of living should improve (Edigheji, 2010).
DSs has a bearing on the option of learning and perceptive DSs in a past setting. Chang advises that the definition be widen by dropping the political condition aspect of the DS and exit it to just comprise of, a state that intervenes to promote ED by clear help certain sectors over others. The vital lay in being able to draw lessons from the EA experiences rather than adhering to the theory behind the DS. The general idea chang sought to put across by giving such varying examples of DS, is that there is not a standard advance to a construct a DS. As long as there is a will to do so, it can be possible. The issue of transferability is laid to rest here as it has been verified that by pick out aspects that can be vital to one’s state, a DS is possible (Chang 2010).
It has been highlighted that African states may not have the same financial and structural support that the EASs had received especially from the US. This is not in any way negating the ingenuity of the EASs in their ability to use their link with the domestic and international markets to their advantage (Khan 2010).
A DDS is one that not only embodies the principles of electoral democracy, but also ensures citizens’ participation in the development and governance processes. Thus, when questioning how the DDS can be placed in the African context, it is pertinent to bring citizenship back into politics. This means placing emphasis on joint work and deliberative traditions by bringing people together across party lines, racial sets, class divides and other differences, for the common good (Edigheji, 2005).
Conceiving the DDS in this way is not an effort to do away with representative democracy, but rather to recast the debate by placing a greater finest on the how participatory democracy compliments representative democracy. To be effective, however, citizens will have to organize themselves to be able to participate in review arenas of counseling decision making. Because of the divergent notices in society, citizens organize themselves into various groups, which are at times of conflict and are at other times complementary. Implicitly, the DS is not beset by picky interest groups. The point being stressed is that state bureaucratic unity is achieved by, among others, meritocratic recruitment, which in turn engenders coherent networks within the state. This enhances its capability to identify and implement independent goals. Meritocratic recruitment is complemented by predictable career paths and long term rewards for bureaucrats both of which help to generate a sense of corporate unity. Another vital feature of an autonomous state is greater skill of industrial change and economic adjustment (Ibid).
According to Njiru, (2008) the history of the post independent African state is that of vast DD failures. After almost four and a half decades of independence, most countries on the continent are characterized by underdevelopment. The evidence for this state of underdevelopment can be initiate in any social and economic pointers one cares to examine. At the economic level, Africa has been marked by: the dominance of the primary sector agriculture, oil and minerals partly as a result of the inability of the African state to foster an environment for high value added economic activities; low domestic capital formation and declining direct foreign investment, foreign aid dependence; heavy indebtedness; high unemployment and the not formalization of the economies where the majority of its people live in poverty. Consequently, at the beginning of the 21stc, Africa is unable to compete in the global economy. In fact, its marginalization has been reinforced, particularly since the 1980s.
Classification of Democratic Developmental States
According to Leftwich (1998), each democratic state exhibits various configurations of democratic politics, which determine not only the type of democracy, but also the developmental capacity and the trajectory of the particular democratic state. In this respect, Leftwich distinguishes between two forms of DDSs: Dominant party DDSs and coalitional DDS.
Dominant-Party Democratic Developmental States: – The dominant party DDS assigns most strictly to the classical DS in that power and authority is centralized within a fairly unchallenged hegemonic party. Out of the two categories, the dominant party DDS exhibits a greater developmental capacity. This is chiefly because dominant-party democracies are able to exude the required, power, authority, autonomy, continuity and political capacity needed by DS to achieve rapid EG and development.
Therefore, in the same manner in which authoritarian regimes have been able to guide growth and development in classical DSs, so too do dominant parties direct and shape the developmental trajectory in the DDS. Furthermore, Leftwich notes that the formal requirements of democratic politics have not in any way worked against the developmental capacity within a dominant party DDS but have helped to strengthen and produce a considerable measure of legitimacy. Ultimately, the success of dominant party Democratic Developmental States has been its ability to reconcile the conditions of democracy with that of economic growth by giving preference to economic growth.
Coalitional Democratic Developmental States (CDDS): – CDS arise typically during a political/economic crisis when political parties exhibit that play a vital role in resolving such a crisis. These apt to plan new rules governing domestic politics and work towards feat an catch as to development policy. Unlike dominant part DDS, the developmental autonomy and capacity within a CDDS is substantially less. In order to build any developmental capacity within a CDDS, a consent needs to be attained among all the key political parties about the developmental path of the state. Consequently, CDDS manage to settle the conditions of a merged democracy with that of EG through okay and help by help the former. Developmental strategy will persist despite of any changes in the political coalition. Although state autonomy is more restrained in this instance than in a dominant party model, CDDSs benefit more from creating a stable, consolidated democracy which may prove more lasting than a dominant party model.
Democratic Developmental State in Ethiopia (DDSE)
DDSE was being part of the large scale global reply to the failure of neoliberalism in the developing world, mainly in Africa. After the fail of the socialist camp, and there with the planned economy model, neoliberalism advocate by western countries and their extension IFIs, came out as a winning ideology that was careful a solution to the African problem. However the SAP imposed on developing countries failed to bring about the expected development and revolution. The economic policies foundation the neoliberal thought such as limited government, market fundamentalism, monetarism and egoism failed short to reflect the social and economic realities of developing societies. DS paradigm, which was proven to be successful in EA countries, appear the most promising alternative to African countries (Pender, 2001).
DDS can be defined as one that has the capacity to deploy its authority, credibility and legitimacy in a binding manner to design and implement development policies and programs for promoting transformation and growth, as well as for expanding human capabilities. Such a state takes as its overall socio-economic goal, the long-term growth and structural transformation of the economy, with equity (Meles, 2009).
Under DDS, the fruits of successful development are expected to win popular support, which is set through a series of elections. Thus, the DDS earns legitimacy and keeps its power for a long time through both economic act and democratic procedure. It has three components: the introduction of democracy, the active role of the government, and the political support base. He promoted more government intervention to adjust market failure and achieve contnieous ED with lower income inequality. Historical practice has shown that state intervention has been critical in the development process. He believed that pro poor EG state should be the main nature of DDS in developing countries in order to improve the welfare of the nation. The mass participation of EG he believed could be did with strong and stable government intervention in the economy. He had strong conviction that the invisible hand promoted by neoliberals needed an institution to get the right price and optimum output(Ibid).
Ethiopia and indeed Africa as a whole lacked comparative advantage in any productive field. African crop could not compete in international markets. ‘In these circumstances, the best way to make money is through rent: natural resource rent, aid rent, policy rent. So the private sector will be rent-seeking not value creating, it will go for the easy way and make money through rent.’ In reaction to this, Ethiopia postponed private land ownership and kept state control of the financial sector and telecoms. The argument continued, ‘If the state guides the private sector, there is a possibility of shifting to value creation it needs state action to lead the private sector from its preference to its long term interest. So the state needs autonomy’ (Meless, 2010).
The DS should, be possessed with value creation, making hurry and broad based growth a matter of national survival. If Ethiopia could sustain its growth levels which have been running at close to 10% per annum for most of the last decade it could achieve middle income status and escape from its trap. To succeed in this, the hegemony of developmental discourse, that it is an internalized set of assumptions, not an imposed order. African countries might have the trappings of human rights and democracy, but, he said, ‘there is no sustainable democracy in a society characterized by pervasive rent seeking. We need to value creation to be dominant for there to be a foundation of democracy, for politics to be more than a zero sum game, a competition to control state rents.’ Worse, he added, ‘I am convinced that we will cease to exist as a nation unless we grow fast and share our growth. Meles’ paradigm was a theory of democracy that ‘Even if a DS was to be solely concerned about accelerating growth,’ it would have to build the high social capital that is vital for its endeavors. He feared a ‘no-choice democracy’ in which factions contested for which one could best loot the state (Ibid).
DSs could come in several forms, they maintained the hegemony of value creation, were autonomous from the private sector, stamped out rent seeking and patronage, and uphold policy continuity for sufficiently long to succeed. A DS could be authoritarian, but in Africa’s ethnically diverse societies, democratic legitimacy was a sine qua non. In the Ethiopian case, ‘the peasant is the base of a stable developmental coalition’. ‘When the DS has done its job it will undermine its own social base, to be replaced by a social democratic or liberal Democratic coalition’. Development and a strong state were prerequisites for human rights, and Ethiopia needed to establish these first. Justifiable or not, this is a serious argument that deserves serious assessment, (Ibid).
State and Development in Ethiopia
Ethiopia, since the fall of the Dergue in May 1991 and particularly the period of revitalization that lined the way for the successful takeover of power by the evolution elements of the EPRDF in 1994 E.C. (2002/2003) had enabled the party to modify its previous political program and economic strategies. The event was considered as a turning point in the party history and for the first time it has clearly declared DS ideology as both party and state ideology. A clear national vision which aimed to extricate the citizens from extreme poverty and establish rule of law and democracy; Since then various social, economic and political reforms have been undertaken followed by the promulgation of pertinent policies and strategies. The reforms were aimed to achieve the national vision and mission to release the nation from poverty and attain the ranks of middle income and high income economies as stipulated in the consecutive long term development plans (Tamrat, 2013).
The unique role of the state in the economy of African DSs is clear and evident. The weak private sector, which is by and large developed out of rent seeking political economy, is not in a place to accept the aggressive investment capital demand of the economy. Key development sectors in Ethiopia are still being kept in the hands of state like what had been the case in Japan and EADSs, in order to assist the share of the existing meager rent to the productive sectors of the economy. The prime objective of this involvement is nothing but to induce social development and industrialization in the rising infant private sector (Ibid).
The DS ideology in Ethiopia is dependent on the manner that the political power base of the ruling party, the EPRDF, is rural. Equally vital in caring the program of revolutionary democracy are the political views of the regime about complex issues such as cultural and ethnic self determination and its link to political and economic power and the proper role of the state in the economy. The state can be characterized as developmental in the sense that its attitude and activities are strongly driven by the desire to lay the basiss for long term ED. The state has shown resolute and credible loyalty to industrial change, technical and vocational education and training, and science and development. There is a strong policy focus on rising health and rural infrastructure, provide micro finance, uphold land policies that protect the livings of the poor, and decentralization of government power to the ethnic regions and the community at woreda level (Tesfaye, 2017).
The role of the state in the economy needs to be clearly defined and agreed upon. For a country that came out of a planned economy that was authoritarian and repressive, which also suffered under a stateled economy that largely funded war efforts in the face of extended civil wars, the idea of a strong state posing as the main actor in the economy is not something that sinks in easily (UNDP, 2012).
Challenges of DDS in Ethiopia
In Ethiopia, the current party and government have explicitly committed themselves to building a DDS that efficiently guides the national socioe-conomic and political development of the country by rising the human and material resources of the state and directing them towards the insight of common goals. The needs of the poor and social issues such as health care, housing, infrastructure, education, poverty alleviation and reduction as well as a social safety net at the top of the national agenda. The country is led by a dedicated, radical and committed leadership bestow with the vision and strategy to vitally alter the socioe conomic face and makeup of the nation in a fairly short period of time. Starting from a very dismal and pitiably low base of economic and human development, considerable achievements in a large number of socioe conomic and political spheres have already been registered all over the country (Habisso, 2010).
The vigorous struggles to advance the living standard and overall wellbeing of the rural and urban people across the country, to ensure the rule of law and to maintain human and democratic rights are continuing undoubtedly. Although a lot remains to be done when compared to the constitutional democracy that the country and state boast of, today, peace and stability reign throughout the country, attracting many foreign and local investors to start new businesses in Ethiopia. We also observe the current regime relentlessly striving to root out, rent-seeking, predatory behavior, corruption and other malpractices in the public bureaucracy, to build an ethical, customer-friendly, efficient and meritorious public service, a well-functioning public-private sector alliance and collaboration, creating an investor friendly environment, supporting small business development and peasant agriculture productivity as well as commercialization of small-scale agriculture, generating massive employment opportunities for the urban youth and women, encouraging export-led growth of the agricultural sector, and using state owned enterprises effectively and driving strategic investment initiatives (Ibid).
Education and Development in Ethiopia
The role of CP in education is vital efforts that have been exerted to intensify the involvement of the society in the sector. The achievements earlier summarized are all, in part, attributed to the involvement of the society in the sector. Their input in the repair and upgrading activities of schools, the construction of new ones in remote rural areas and applying various strategies to motivate parents to send their daughters to the schools areall worth mentioning. In other words, the overall success presented earlier would not have been possible if the communities did not send their children to school. Therefore, this is witness to the attention given to CP in expediting educational development, chiefly at the primary level (IBE, 2001).
Constraints of CP in DDS Specifically in Education Sector
CP in variety education activities is not an easy task. Historically, CP in education is concerned up on by a number of negative factors. Though the factors that influence CP may vary with different settings, some of the major factors that affect CP are:The degree of CP is particularly low socially and economically marginalized regions. This is because such regions tend to have the following elements: 1. Lack of appreciation of the overall objectives of education. 2. A mismatch between what parents expect of education and what the school is seen as providing. 3. The belief that education is essentially the task of the state. 4. The length of time required to realize the benefits of better schooling, 5. Ignorance of the structure, functions and constraints of the school challenges may vary from one stakeholder to another. The barriers could either relate to the community or from the school itself or related to both (Shaeffer, 1992).
The existing institutional display is other factor that affects CP for education. Teachers expect that CP in schools will increase accountability and control on them, and lose freedom if the community gains power over school decisions. All parents don’t get involved in education since parents have different view about schools and consequently they could think that they have no control over school, may not want to talk to and interfere into teachers business. The cost and benefit of help education is other detrimental factor for CP in education (Uemura, 1999).
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY
INTRODUCTION
This chapter contains the material and methods of the study. Description of the studyarea, selection of the studyarea, study design, data sources, sampling size determination, sampling procedures, data collection instruments and data analysis were included.
Description and Selection of Study Area
Description of the Study Area
The study was conducted in WoredaHawzien: in the selected Thabias and schools (Degum and 01Hawzen town) Hawzien, Tigray Ethiopia. Hawzen is one of the woredas in the Tigray Region of Ethiopia. Part of the Misraqawi Zone, Hawzen is bordered on the south by KilteAwulaelo, on the west by the Mehakelegnaw (Central) Zone, on the north by GantaAfeshum, and on the east by SaesiTsaedaemba (Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia). The administrative centre of this woreda is Hawzen; other town includes Hawzen and Megab; villages include Koraro.
Hawzen town has a latitude and longitude of 13°58?N 39°26?E with an elevation of 2105 meters above sea level. Its market day is Wednesday. It is the largest settlement in Hawzen woreda. Tradition states that Hawzen was founded by the Sadqan, a group of Christian missionaries who came to Ethiopia during the reign of Kaleb of Axum. Four ancient stelae, similar to the Gudit Stelae outside Axum, can be found in the marketplace. The Church of Hawzen Tekle Haymanot, although a modern structure, encloses “a small rock-hewn church thought to be one of the oldest in Tigray based on the finely carved capital and column” (Philip Briggs, 2002).
Based on the 2007 national census conducted by the central stacitical agency of Ethiopia (CSA), this woreda has a total population of 117,954, an increase of 26.42% over the 1994 census, of whom 56,415 are men and 61,539 women; 7,553 or 6.40% are urban inhabitants. With an area of 1,892.69 square kilometers, Hawzen has a population density of 62.32, which is greater than the Zone average of 56.93 persons per square kilometer. A total of 25,067 households were counted in this woreda, resulting in an average of 4.71 persons to a household, and 24,105 housing units. The majority of the inhabitants said they practiced Ethiopia Orthodox Christianity, with 99.4% reporting that as their religion (CSA, 2007).

Figure 1: Administrative map of Ethiopia, Tigray Regional State, Hawzen.
Selection of the Study Area
The study was conducted in Wereda Hawzen (Dgumand Hawzen primary, Maso high school and preparatory school and the Kebelles communities),Tigray-Ethiopia. It selected because of the availability of data for the intended work; the researcher was very familiar with the area; and there was no research conducted in the study area through this title. Therefore, an extensive investigation of the role of CP in DDS specifically education sector of the Woreda is not an option rather it is essential. For this reason,Woreda Hawzen (Dgumand Hawzen primary, Maso high school and preparatory school and the Thabias communities),was selected as an appropriate study area of this study, which aimed on CP in DDS education sector of Wereda Hawzen.
Research Design
According to Creswell (2010) research designs are plans and procedures that span the decisions in conducting research, from broad assumptions to detailed methods of data collection and analysis. This means that a good research cannot bedoing randomly. Rather it has to done systematically. Therefore, there is need for proper and careful planning.
The researcher was used both descriptive and explanatory research design. The reason why the researcher used the descriptive one is in order to list and describe the statistical facts in detail and explanatory research type also used to answer the why question and to explain the facts behind the presented statistical data. Concurrent triangulation mixed method research type was used that the method helped in giving equal priority for quantitative and qualitative data collection and to answer the why and how research questions and to triangulate the research result. The research design was a survey type to gather data through questionnaire, interview and FGD from the respondents to answer questions concerning the existing status of the subject under the study.
This study was used cross sectional data in the sense that all relevant data was collected at a single point in time from a particular set of population. The reason for using a cross sectional study is due to the vast nature of the study and the limitation of time. According Zikmund (2010) obtaining information from a cross section of a population at a single point in time is a reasonable strategy for pursuing many explanatory researches.
Data Type and Data Source
Data Type
A mixed methods approach is one in which the researcher tends to base knowledge claims on pragmatic grounds (consequence-oriented, problem-centered, and pluralistic). It was employed strategies of inquiry that involve collecting data either simultaneously or sequentially to best understand research problems. The data collection also involves gathering both numeric information on instruments as well as text information on interviews so that the final database represents mixed information (Creswell, 2003). Then both quantitative and qualitative data types was used to look into the research problem, because their combination could help the researcher triangulate the relevance and accuracy of the data gathered through various measuring tools as well as to provide greater analytical power than had been available with either of these methods. In quantitative method the data was collected and transformed into numbers which are empirically tested to see if a link could be found in order to be able to draw conclusions from the results gained. The type of research approach to select depends on the kind of studies that are conducted. A qualitative approach was also suitable in order to fulfill the gap where quantitative survey misses to touch. Thus, triangulation of data presentation from the two source lead towards sound analysis and research findings.
Data Source
The data for the study was generated from both primary and secondary data so as to address the overall objective of the study and research questions. The primary data sources was employed to gather firsthand idea through questionnaire, interview, and FGD to achieve the objective of the research from the following identified group: Woreda administrators, supervisors, directors, community, teachers, and students’ of the WoredaHawzen (Dgum, Hawzen, Maso high school and preparatory school and theThabias communities), and concerned officials in the study area.The Secondary source was used for gathering certain secondary information, especially relating to the site annual plan, human resource profiles, performance reports of the selected sites, local level guideline documents, national and regional policy documents, web sites and other relevant materials will also part of the source for the research to undertaken.
Sample and Sampling Techniques
Target Population
Target population refers to the group of people whom the researcher desired to investigate. In the selectedThabias(Degum and 01Hawzien) of WoredaHawzien: from Dgum primary school grade eight, from Hawzien primary schoolgrade eight, fromMaso high school grade ten and and from Mesenadopreparatory school grade twelve,there are 3,721household heads including Woreda administrators, supervisors, directors, teachers and students in study area. Of these, 194 peoples were used.
Sample Size
In this research, the populations of interest were the stakeholders of WeredaHawzien (Degum, Hawzien primary school, Masho high school and preparatory school and theThabias communities). These comprise 82 residents, 79 students, 8 teachers total 169 as questionnaire respondents. In addition, 2 Wereda administrators, 2 supervisors, 3 Thabias administrators total 7 for interviews and three (3*6=18) FGD; totally 194 respondents was selected as sample size.
Sampling Procedures (Techniques)
Concerning the selection of sample respondents, both probability (simple random sampling) convenience and non-probability sampling (judgmental) techniques was used. Simple random sampling technique was used for household heads of the Thabias community, students, and teachers. The reason for taking sample random sampling was due to the fact that they were large in number as well as it gives an equal chance. All of the directors, supervisors, and woreda administrators, were porpusively selected as respondents, because they were small in number and the immediate role players of DDS and education. Then in order to interview different officials directly related to the subject matter judgmental sampling method were used.
In the beginning of the sampling, Woreda Hawzen was purposively selected because of the fact that Degum the model school and Hawzien primary school the first school,Woreda Hawzen, Masho the first high school and Mesenadeo also the first preparatory schools in the Wereda. So the researcher believes that these Thabias and schools were important to cross-check the the role of community, continuities of education and the effectiveness of DDS.
The selection of the sites is mainly due to their the number of students that unsuccessful in grade eight and grade ten increased from time to times, the contribution of the Woreda as DDS in persuading the community for capable human capital also low. The sample sizes of household respondents have been determined using statistical formula. Different authors use different formulas to determine the sample size of study. The sample of this research was calculated by using (Taro Yamane, 1967) formula. In this scenario the researcher was assume the confidence level, the degree of variability and the sampling error as follows:
Confidence Level = 93%
Degree of Variability = 50% (Maximum Variability)
Sampling Error = ± 7%
Total Population = 3,721
The sample size is computed as follows:
n=N/((1+N(?e)?^2))
Where:
n= Sample size N= Populatione= error
n=3721/((1+3721(?0.07)?^2 ) e = (7%)
n=194
A total of questionnaires were distributed 82 for household heads, for 79 students, and 8 for teachers total 187 and 12 community and 6 students for FGD were selected through quota system due to number differences in students, community, teachers and 7 Woreda officials purposivelyselected. Out of 3,721 household heads totally 194 respondents were selected through simple random sampling. This sample size was allotted to the three sites using proportionate sampling formula and a respondent from each site was selected based on simple random sampling technique. By using proportionate sampling formula each site were fairly represented as follows.
Table 1 (3.1): Samples of Household Respondents
Hawzien 01 Kebelle Dgum Total
Total Household 1,184 745 1,929
Sample Size= (T*n)/N 58 36 94
Source: computed from own survey data (2018)
Table 2 (3.2): Samples of Student and Teachers Respondents
Preparatory School Masho
High School Hawzien Primary School Degum
Primary School Total Student and Teachers Total
SG12 TT SG12 TT SG12 TT SG12 TT TS TT
Total student 152 24 1212 76 173 30 104 21 1641 151 1,792
S.S=(T*n)/N 8 1 63 4 9 2 5 1 85 8 93
Source:Own survey data (2018)
SG=Students grade TT= Total Teachers TS=Total Students SS=Sample Size
NB: All directories, Kebelleadministrators, Wereda administrators and work in the study area were included in the study as respondents.
Data Collection Tools (Instruments)
To collect relevant data from the respondents about the study, the researcher was used, questionnaires, in-depth interviews, focus group discussion, and document analysis. Questionnaires: – The questionnaires were prepared for the sample respondents of the sites. Closed ended and open ended questions were administered among Communities, teachers and students of the selected sites. The questionnaires were first prepared in English then translated to local language (Tigrigna) and back translated to English to maintain the consistency of the questionnaire by local language translator expertise.
Interview: – Interview is a systematic way of talking and listening to people through conversation. As such the researcher was made an interview method of data collection to explore the feeling, opinions and suggestions of the key informants of the Woreda towards the community participation in education, their level of understanding and their alignment to the general policy directions and its contributions in reducing the drawback. It was prepared in a way that the researcher could enable to receive information widely about the past and existing practical challenges of Community participation in education. Therefore, semi-structured in depth interview was employed to gather information from the key informants. A key informantinterviews were conducted with that comprises Woreda administrators, Kebelle administrators, supervisors, directors, community leaders, and other officials.
Focused Group Discussion (FGD): – With regard to the collection of qualitative data, the focused group discussion was conducted by representatives from each sample selected sites schools and communities. The maximum number of participants in the focus group was six in order to make it manageable size. The information which is extracted from the group was used to elaborate the qualitative data result.
Document Analysis: – Woreda annual plans, human resource profiles, performance reports of the selected sites, local level guideline documents and administrative manuals were reviewed. Related journal articles, books and other relevant materials were also be part of the sources in the research undertaken.
Data Processing and Presentation
After the data was gathered from primary and secondary sources, it would be checked, edited and coded. The methods of data processing in this study were manual and computerized system. In the data processing procedure editing, coding, classification and tabulation of the collected data was used. The researcher was used data processing through two phases, namely: data clean-up and data reduction. During data clean-up the collected raw data was edited to detect errors and omissions in responses and checking that the questions were answered accurately and uniformly. The process of assigning numerical or other symbols come next which was used to reduce responses into a limited number of categories or classes. After this, the processes of classification or arranging large volume of raw data into classes or groups on the basis of common characteristics were applied. Data having the common characteristics were placed together and in this way the entered data was divided into a number of groups. Finally, tabulation were used to summarize the raw data and displayed in the form of tabulation for further analysis.
Method of Data Analysis
After all the relevant and available data were collected, the analysis process were done using a number of relevant techniques. Data Collected from the survey respondents were entered in to the computer for analysis. Tables of count, percentages and qualitative descriptions for the data secured from FGD and semi structured interview were used to describe and summarize the results of the investigation.
The data collected from the sample population through the questionnaire, interviews, focus group discussion and document review applying through the presentation, analysis and interpretation of data. Both quantitative and qualitative data analysis techniques were used. The data obtained from questionnaire were analyzed using frequency, mean, standard deviation. Then 169 questionnaires were distributed to the Woeda Hawzen community, students and teachers respondents and all were properly filled and returned. From those the 82 (42%) were community, the 79 (41%) were students, 8 (4%) were teacher respondents. In addition with 7 (4%) Woreda administrators’ and supervisors was heldinterview; and FGD was held with three group (three times six) 18 (9%) respondents. Moreover documents were also analyzed. The questions were similar to the groups and the data gathered were organized using tables followed by discussion. For the sake of convenience, clarification and comparison related question were treated together. The presentation and analysis of the data begins with background characteristics of the respondents.The information gathered by employing interview, focus group discussion and document were analyzed or explained textually (qualitatively).
Ethical Considerations
Ethics as scholarly argue it is the cornerstone for conducting effective and meaningful research. As such three important ethical considerations were given due attention by the researcher. The first consideration was ‘voluntary participation’ that there should be no coercion or the feeling of such act by the interviewee from the researcher. The Second one was ‘informed consent’ which was to say that the participant or the interviewees fully understand what they should been asked to do and that they should be informed if there is any potential negative consequence for such participation, third the researcher was taken into consideration ‘Confidentiality’ of respondents to keep their safety.

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
Introduction
This section contains of data analysis, presentation and interpretation of the finding and to answer basic research questions raised in chapter one it includes seven components. The first part deals with back ground information of the respondents. The study was all inclusive in which respondents from sexes, educational level and age level were entertained from the sample Kebelles. The second part deals about the results obtained from community questioners. The third part also deals with the results obtained from students. The fourth part also deals with the results obtained from teachers. The fifth part also deals with the results obtained from FGD.The sixth part also deals with the results obtained from interview the last part also deals with the discussions parts.
The General Profile of Respondents
The social and demographic characteristics of the target population give some basic information about age, sex, marital status, occupation, and education level of the respondents. Then the listed below table contain the general characteristics of respondents involved in the study as follows;
Table 3 (4.1) Sex of the Respondents
Variable Levels Community Student Teacher Total
N % N % N % N %

Sex Male
Female
Total 52
49
101 51
49
100 43
42
85 51
49
100 4
4
8 51
49
100 99
95
194 51
49
100
Source: survey result, (April, 2018)
Where N=Number of respondents
As indicated in table 3 (4.1) above, around half 52 (51%) of the community was male respondents, and 49 (49%) of them were female respondents; 43 (51%) of the students respondents were male, and 42 (49%) of the students respondents were femals; 4 (51%) of the teachers respondents were males and 4 (49%) of them were female respondents.
Then, from the total respondents male respondents consists of 99 (51%), and 95 (49%) were male respondents. Visa vise to the number of participants half of respondents were females; which mean regarding to sex there was no gender based biased or gender related discrimination in this research.
Table 4 (4.1) Age of the Respondents
Variable Levels Community Student Teacher Total
N % N % N % N %

Age 20-29
30-39
40-49
>=50
Total 21
51
24
5
101 21
50
24
5
100 85



85 100



100 2
4
2

8 25
50
25

100 108
55
26
5
194 56
28
13
3
100
Source: survey result, (April, 2018)
Where N=Number of respondents
Table 4 (4.1) depicts all 85 (100%), students respondents those their age category is grouped between 20 and 29 years old; 21 (21%) and 2 (25%) of community and teachers were grouped under 20-29 ages respectively. Halfe of 51 (50%) and 4 (50%) community and teachers respondents were grouped under 30-39 age respectively; 24 (24%) and 2 (25%) community and teacher respondents were grouped under 40-49 age respectively; and 5 (5%) of the community were greater than fifty (>50) years old.
Then, more than half 108 (56%), of total respondents were grouped under 20-29 years old; 55 (28 %) of respondents were grouped between 30 and 39 years old, 27 (13%) of the respondents’ age were between 40 and 49 and 5 (3%) of the respondents were 50 and above years old.

Table 5 (4.1) Martial Status of the Respondents
Variable Levels Community Student Teacher Total
N % N % N % N %
Martial Status Single
Married
Divorced
Widow/ed
Total 32
69


101 32
68


100 85



85 100



100 2
6


8 25
75


100 119
75


194 61
39


100
Source: survey result, (April, 2018)
Where N=Number of respondents
Table 5 (4.1) above shows the martial states of responders, 32 (32%), 85 (100%) and 2 (25%) of community, student and teacher the respondents were single respectively; 69 (68%) 6 (75%) of community and teachers were married respectively. Therefor the majority, 119 (61%) of total respondents were single, 75 (39%) of respondents were married.There was no divorced and widow or widowed respondent.
Table 6 (4.1) Educational Level of the Respondents
Variable Levels Community Student Teacher Total
N % N % N % N %

Educational Level Read& write
Grade 1-4
Grade 5-8
Grade 9-12
Certificate
Diploma
Degree & above
Total 21
45
24
5

3
3
101 21
44
24
5

3
3
100 —

14
71



85 —

16
84



100 —





8
8 —






100 21
45
38
76

3
11
194 11
23
19
39

2
6
100
Source: survey result, (April, 2018)
Where N=Number of respondents
As depicted in Table 6 (4.1) above, the community respondents level of education that,21 (21%) of the respondents can write and read, the most 45 (44%) of the community from 1-4 grade, 24 (24%) of the community from 5-8 grade, 5 (5%) of the community from 9-12 grade; 3 (3%) of the community have cetificay and 3 (3%) of the community participants were dgree and above. In addition 14 (16%) of the student respondents were 7-8 grade and 71 (84%) of the students respondents were 9-12 grade. All 8 (100%) teacher respondents were dgree and above.
Then, the majority 76 (39%) of total respondents from 9-12 grade, 21(11%) and 45 (23%) of respondents were write and read and 1-4 grade; 38 (19%) of respondents were 5-8 grade, 3 (2%) of the respondents were certificate 3 (2%) of the respondents were diplomas, 8 (4%) of the respondents were degrees and above.
Table 7 (4.1) Occupational Status of the Respondents
Variable Levels Total
N %

Occupation Farmer
Student
Teacher
Merchant
Administrator
Total 80
85
8
14
7
194 41
44
4
7
4
100
Source: survey result, (April, 2018)
Where N=Number of respondents
Based to occupational status showed in table 7 (4.3) that, 80 (41%) respondents were farmer, 85 (44%) respondents were student, 8 (4%) respondents were teacher, 14 (7%) respondents were merchants, and 7 (4%) respondents were Woreda administrators.
Results Obtained from Community Closed-ended and Open-ended Questioners
There were evidences that show the role of the community participation in education. In this study an attempt has been made on the role of community participation DDS related problem at the expense of education sector in relation with the shares of community their skills through mentoring or assisting the school; promoting student learning, develops child higher standardized test score outcomes and school success outcomes, link between community and government officials, partnerships, helping the academic performance, and develops its own important ideas. In addition, the study shows the linkage between education and economic growth, the achievements of DDS and challenges community participation as follows;
Table 8 (4.2) Responses of Community towards the Role of CP in Education
Options: Extensively=5, Frequently=4, Occasionally=3, Rarely=2, Not Occurring=1
No.
Item related to community Rating and %
5 4 3 2 1
As community are you shared their skills through mentoring or assisting the school freely 10
(12%) 14
(17%) 22
(27%) 36
(44%) —
As community are you participated in accepting and opposing the procedures that came from above freely — — 18
(23%) 47
(57%) 16
(19%)
Is that community Participation efforts also include a volunteer program 12
(15%) 12
(15%) 43
(52%) 13
(16%) 2
(2%)
The community develops its own important idea for education 34
(41%) 12
(15%) 15
(19%) 21
(25%) —

Source: survey result, (April, 2018)
As item one table 8 (4.2) indicates that, 36 (44%) of thecommunities were responded the community rarely shares their skills through mentoring or assisting the school freely. The 22 (27%) respondents were responded that the community occasionally shares their skills through mentoring or assisting the school freely; 14 (17%) respondents were responded that the community frequently shares their skills through mentoring or assisting the school freely; and 10 (12%) respondents were responded that the community extensively shares their skills through mentoring or assisting the school freely. Besides, even the participation was not free and at minimal level the participation of community was helped development of education.
Based to the data given in item two Table 8 (4.2) above, 18 (23%) communitieswereresponded that the communities occasionallyparticipated in accepting and opposing the procedures that came from above freely, 47 (57%) participants responded that the communities wererarelyparticipated in accepting and opposing the procedures that came from above freely, 16(19%) of respondentsresponded that the community participation in accepting and opposing the procedures that came from above freely did not occurring.
Similarly the item three Table 8 (4.2) shows that, more than half of the respondents,43(52%)responded that the communityparticipation efforts occasionally includes a volunteer program towards school facility; 13 (16%) also responded that there is rarely the community participation efforts includes a volunteer program towards school facility; 12 (15%) and 12 (15%) extensively, frequently responded the community participation efforts includes a volunteer program towards school facility respectively;2 (2%)responded that the community participation efforts includes a volunteer program towards school facility did not occurring.
As item four Table8 (4.2) above examines, 34 (41%) of the respondents said that the community extensively develops its own important idea for education, 12 (15%) of the respondents said that the community frequently develops its own important idea for education, 15 (19%) of the respondents said that the community occasionally develops its own important idea for education, 21 (25%) of the respondents said that the community rarely develops its own important idea for education.
The response obtained from open ended questionnaires regarding the fifth question, on the major factors that have contributed to the success of community participation efforts in schools. Most community replied that when the contribution of community was successfully reported, documented, motivated and the increasing the success of student results, capacities improvements and acknowledgements. Some also responded that the responses/answer gained for the question of the community was successfulness of community participation. Other also replied that the existence of comprehensive plan by the plants means the objective, mission; vision of school encompasses the community participation and effectiveness and gave trainings for the increment of community capacity building.
Concerning the sixth question, on the happiness of current academic performance that the school that the students attend. Most participants replied that they were not happy on the current academic performance that the school that the students attend. Because, visa-vise the past the current students academic performance was too weak. The current targets of the students were money in short method; they compared the government officials with the traders then they limited their hops by the teachers these lives in rent house. A few participants also replied that as they were happy the current academic performance that the school that the students attend. Because, education was more expanded now, every individuals were learned with out any discrimination that not seen before.
Generally, 58 (71%) of the community replied that community were not extensively and frequently shares their skills through mentoring or assisting the school freely rather occasionally and rarely; 63 (76) participants responded that the communities were rarely and occasionally participated in accepting and opposing the procedures that came from above freely; 56 (68%) responded that the community participation efforts occasionally and rarely includes a volunteer program towards school facility; 46 (56%) of the respondents said that the community extensively and frequently develops its own important idea for education; most community respondents replied that when the contribution of community was successfully reported, documented, motivated and the increasing the success of student results, capacities improvements and acknowledgements. How ever, community respondents replied that they were not happy on the current academic performance that the school that the students attend.
Table 9 (4.2) Responses of Community towards the Achievements of DDS
Options=Strongly Agree=5, Agree=4, Do not know=3, Disagree=2, Strongly Disagree=1
No
Items related to community Rating and %
5 4 3 2 1
13. The government constructs roads transporting for both the community, students and others are benefited; and they travel by car or other modern transportation 8
(10%) 14
(17%) —
— 49
(60%) 11
(13%)
The school produced strong and visionary students 5
(6%) 6
(7%) —
— 16
(20%) 55
(67%)
The community also benefited from the creativity of students 3
(4%) 5
(6%) 17
(21%) 41
(50%) 16
(19%)
Source: survey result, (April, 2018)
The result from item thirteen Table 9 (4.2) above, revealed that 14 (17%) and 8 (10%) of the respondents were responded as they were agreed and strongly agreed on government constructs roads for transporting and all peoples are benefited. However, 49 (60%) 11 (13%) of the participants were responded as they were agreed and strongly agreed on government constructs roads for transporting and all peoples are benefited.
Table 9 (4.2) item fourteen presents 55 (67%) and 16 (20%) of the participants were strongly disagreed and disagreed on strong and visionary students produced in school respectively. However, 5 (6%) and 6 (7%) of the participants were strongly agreed and agreed on strong and visionary students produced in school respectively. As a result the majority of respondents were dissatisfied on the strong and visionary students in the local area.
As shown item fifteen in Table 9 (4.2) above, from the total 82 respondents engaged in to questioners, 41 (50%) and 16 (19%) of them were disagreed and strongly disagreed on community benefited from the creativities of students respectively. And 17 (21%) of them was no now the benefits of community from the students. However, 5 (6%) 3 (4%) of them was agreed and strongly agreed on the idea.
According, question sixteen with the position of community on regarding to the effectiveness of democratic developmental state many communities was replied that the effectiveness of democratic developmental state in the local area was too low. Anyway there was been a good beginning, but it asks broad efforts by both the community and the government officials commonly without inferiority and priority for some one else.Oneof the members of the community participant wasresponded that as follows;
????? ????? ??? ??? ???? ???? ????? ??? ????? ?? ?? ??? ??? ?? ?? ?????? ??? ?? ?? ????? ????? ?? ????? ????? ??? ?? ?? ?????? ??? ????? ??? ???????? ?? ??? ???? ????? ????? ????? ??? ??? ??? ???????? ?????? ??????? ?????
Democratic developmental state is the legacy of our late Prime Minister Melles, it is also in our hand, in the hand of the community, in the hand of students, in the hand of government officials, and in the hand of administratorsno thing is difficult for us,it must be started from us, we should inspect our selves, we should be understand, accepted and implemented it honestly.
Same participants responded that democratic developmental state was not clear for the community but they replied as they were heard in different Medias the aim was achieved.
With regarding to seventeen open-ended questions, all 82 (100%) participants responded that there was no training that given to the community to promoted community participation effectively in the education sector in the study area.
Generally, the majority CP replied that there was no road constructed by the government; the expansion of standard transportation in the Woreda was to weak and most students and communities were traveled by foot and used pack animals for their expeditiousness. There was no creativity the students in the local area the communities were not benefited. This indicates that the students were not attend or the objective education did not achieved the attempt of democratic developmental state was too weak. In addition the community was not satisfied by democraticdevelopmental state effectiveness in the local area.Trainingwas not given for the community to promote their participation in the education sector effectively.

Table 10 (4.2) Responses of Community towards the Constraints that Holdback the CP on DDS in Education Sector
Options=Strongly Agree=5, Agree=4, Do not know=3, Disagree=2, Strongly Disagree=1
No. Items Rating and %
5 4 3 2 1
Hopelessness community on the school activities and student results 19
(23%) 39
(48%) —
— 14
(17%) 10
(12%)
Week local leader to motivate the community to share their skills 14
(17%) 48
(58%) —
— 16
(20%) 4
(5%)
Lacks on reporting that what the Community works and not works 31
(38%) 43
(52%) —
— 5
(6%) 3
(4%)
Source: survey result, (April, 2018)
Regarding item eighteenTable 10 (4.2) above, the hopelessness of community on the school activities and student results, about 14 (17%) and 10 (12%) of reporters were disagreed and strongly disagreed there is ahopelessness of community on the school activities and student results. The majority 39 (48%) and 19 (23%) of participants were agreed and strongly agreed on the hopelessness of community on the school activities and student results.
Item nineteen in similar Table above shows, 48 (58%) and 14 (17%) of the respondents were agreed and strongly agreed on the existence of week local leader to motivate the community to share their skills in school on their local area. More ever, 16 (20%) and 4 (5%) of the participants were disagreed and strongly disagreed on the idea.
In the same Table item twenty above respondents from what the community works had expressed their opinion on the reporting and not reporting. More than half 43 (52%) of participants were agreed on the reporting problem that what the community works and not works; and about 31 (38%) of the community reporters were also strongly agreed on the existence of reporting problem. However, 5 (6%), and 3 (4%) of participants were disagreed and strongly disagreed on the reporting problem that what the community works and not works.
All participants agreed that there was major hindrance of community participation. There was no transparency and honesty means here was corruption, false report in education and agriculture.In order to tackle the barriers of community participation, the Woreda officials has intended to mobilize the community with their schools it plane to organized community based on their interests in different local cooperatives have also planned to meet their students who dropout the class and lower grade outcomes in education and for further economic growth repeatedly. Even though, the plan was remain paper value or not effective.
Generally, as can been seen from Table 11 (4.2) the community have not confident and anticipant on their student results attend and the practical activities of the school. The majority 75% of the communities were relay on the idea that there was been week local leader to motivate the community to share their skills in school on their local area. Most 90% participants were relied on the existence of report problems. There fore, what the community did was no reported honestly, the student capacity was low, due to weak capacity and unproductive of students, the government was more dependent on numerical report, the participation of community was decreased until that no exact solution was given by the Woreda.
Table 11 (4.2) Responses of Community in Descripitive Stastics
Code N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation
Role of community participation in education
Achivment of DDS
Hindrance of CP on DDS education sector
Valid N (listwise) 82

82
82

82 2

1
1 4

5
5 2.98

2.13
3.77 .539

.677
.708
Source: survey result, (April, 2018)
Table 11 (4.2) indicates that respondents are agreed with the participation of community was occational (2.98) and (.539) mean and std.deviation respectively, and followed by the achivment of DDS with a mean and standard deviation of 2.13 and 0.677 respectively. Inaddition to that most respondents are srongly agreed with the communities are hindered to participat in education sector with standard deviation of 3.77and 0.456 respectively.
Therefore, it may be concluded from the above table that hindrance of CP on DDS education sector has the highest mean value, role of community participation in education intermediate mean value and achivment of DDS have the least mean value.
Results Obtained from Students Close-ended and Open-ended Questioners
Table 12 (4.3) Responses of Student towards the Role of CP in education
Options: Extensively=5, Frequently=4, Occasionally=3, Rarely=2, Not Occurring=1
No.
Item related to students Rating and %
5 4 3 2 1
Community Participation in education seeks to promote student learning through partnerships with local finance 45
(57%) 21
(27%) 8
(10%) 5
(6%) —

Community participation develops child higher standardized test score outcomes and school success outcomes 33
(42%) 29
(37%) 12
(15%) 5
(6%) —

The community participation helps the academic performance of the school that the students attend 35
(44%) 30
(38%) 6
(8%) 8
(10%) —

Source: survey result, (April, 2018)
As can be seen in item one Table 12 (4.3) above the majority, 45 (57%) participants replied that the community extensively participated in education seeks to promote student learning through partnerships with local finance; 21 (27%) replied that the community Participation in education frequently seeks to promote student learning through partnerships with local finance; 8 (10%) and 5 (6%) respondents replied that the community participation in education occasionally and rarely seeks to promote student learning through partnerships with local finance respectively.
As it indicated item five Table 12 (4.3) above, 33 (42%) respondents agreed on the idea that to develop child higher standardized test scores outcomes and higher grade outcomes the community extensively participated; 29 (37%) respondents agreed on the idea that the community participation develops child higher standardized test scores outcomes and higher grade outcomes was frequently. 12(15%) and 5 (6%) respondents agreed on the idea that the community participation develops child higher standardized test scores outcomes and higher grade outcomes was occasional and rare respectively.
With regard item three Table 12 (4.3)above, the majority 35 (44%) of students replied that the community participation extensively helps the academic performance of the school that the students attended; and the 30 (38%) of the community participation frequently helps the academic performance of the school that the students attended; 6 (8%) of participants replied that the occasionally participation of community helps the academic performance of the school that the students attended; 8(10%) of participants replied that the rarely participation of community helps the academic performance of the school that the students attended.
According number four open ended question, most students responded there was of community participation in the school. Though, communities were not honestly and transparently participated in the school.Their participation was used to escape from political discrimination and they attached with their temporary payments. Because, their evaluation to work in safety net and other daily payments were visa vise to involvement of community parent gala and their free service gave to their school, health station and other government plants.
Regarding question fife, the majority of students were not happy on the current academic performance that the school that the students attend. Because there were students of grade ten and twelve that did not read and write and did not multiplying, divide, and subtract, then there was no quality education rather educational expansion and coverage; the quality education was decreased.
Generally, communities were extensively participated in education seeks to promote student learning through partnerships with local finance.The majority of students were replied community was extensively and frequently participated to develop child higher standardized test scores outcomes and higher grade outcomes and helps the academic performance of the school that the students attended. Even though, their participations were not emanated from their hearts, rather than from the fear of the ruler or benefit based participation, and there was no quality education rather educational expansion and coverage’.
Table 13 (4.3); Responses of Students to wards the school facility
Options=Strongly Agree=5, Agree=4, Do not know=3, Disagree=2, Strongly Disagree=1
No Facility Rating and %
5 4 3 2 1
1 Blackboard 21 (27%) 41 (52%) 12 (15%) 5 (6%) —
2 Textbooks 63 (80%) 12 (15%) 4 (5%) — —
3 Desks 28 (36%) 34 (43%) 12 (15%) 5 (6%) —
4 Library 6 (8%) 10 (13%) 6 (7%) 21 (26%) 36 (46%)
5 Toilet 9 (12%) 17 (21%) — 38 (48%) 15 (19%)
6 Classrooms 6 (8%) 21 (26%) — 30 (38%) 22 (28%)
7 Court yard — — — 64 (81%) 15 (19%)
Source: survey result, (April, 2018)
The above question nine Table 13 (4.3) students revealed that 21 (27%), 68 (80%) and 28 (36%) of the respondents became strongly agreed on the high level of satisfaction by the blackboards, text books, and desks respectively, 41 (52%), 12 (15%), 34 (43%) the respondents became agreed on the idea. However, 12 (15%), 4 (5%) and 12 (15%) of the respondents didn’t now the facility; and 5 (6%), and 5 (6%) didn’t agreed on the high level of satisfaction by the blackboards, and desks respectively. Even though, majorities of the respondents were strongly agreed and agreed by the above three school facilities, significant number of students also became dissatisfied by these facilities. This may play its own part in pushing pupil to drop out from school.
According to the open ended question the same table above questionnaire the student respondents in rateor degree of satisfaction regarding totheschool facility on library. Accordingly, 36 (46%), and 21 (26%) of participants were strongly disagreed and disagreed, 6 (7%) of them were they didn’t now, and 10 (13%) and 6 (8%) of them were agreed and strongly agreed (from 48 respondents). This shows that large number of respondents expressed their dissatisfaction regarding to the condition of library.
The same to above the data collected through open-ended questionnaire revealed degree of agreement on the high facility of toilet, classrooms, and court yard, 38 (48%), 30 (38%), and 64 (81%) of respondents were disagreed, 15 (19%), 22 (28%), and 15 (19%) of them were strongly disagreed on the idea. Even though, 17 (21%), and 21 (26%) of them were agreed and 9 (12%), and 6 (8%) of respondents were strongly agreed on toilet and classrooms.. Therefore, the respondents were not satisfied by the school facility such as toilet, classrooms, and court yard in the local area.
Table 14 (4.3) Responses of Students towards the Achievements of DDS
Options=Strongly Agree=5, Agree=4, Do not know=3, Disagree=2, Strongly Disagree=1
No.
Item related to students Rating and %
5 4 3 2 1
10. The students are free and autonomous to learn 21
(27%) 8
(10%) —
— 35
(44%) 15
(19%)
There are complete school material such as; printer, computer, duplicator and other teaching materials. —
— 5
(6%) 20
(25%) 44
(56%) 10
(13%)
The library has important, enough books and to the target. 16
(20%) 40
(51%) 12
(15%) 7
(9%) 4
(5%)
The student develops their knowledge and get Higher grades Outcomes 3
(4%) 13
(16%) 5
(6%) 40
(51%) 18
(23%)
Source: survey result, (April, 2018)
Regarding item ten Table 14 (4.3) above on the freedom and autonomous of students, 35 (44%) and 15 (19%) of respondents were disagreed and strongly disagreed on students freedom and autonomous in the local area. Moreover, 8 (10%) and 21 (27%) of participants were agreed and strongly agreed on the idea freedom and autonomous of students. There fore the majority of students were not free and autonomous.
The result of the study in item eleven Table 14 (4.3) shows that an estimate of 44 (56%) and 10(13%) respondents responded as they were disagreed and strongly disagreed on the school material such as; printer, computer, duplicator and other teaching materials. Similarly about 20 (25%) of respondents didn’t now school material such as; printer, computer, duplicator and other teaching materials. However 5 (6%) of participants were agreed on the idea. Therefore, the larges percentage of responses replied that, there is no school material such as; printer, computer, duplicator and other technological teaching materials.
Concerning to the library capacity in item twelve Table 14 (4.3) above, 40 (51%) and 16 (20%) of the participant were agreed and strongly agreed on the idea. Around 12 (15%) of the participant didn’t now that the library ether has important, enough books and to the target or not. Besides, about 7 (9%) 4 (5%) of respondents also reported that there is no enough, important and to the target books library.
As shown in item thirteen in the same Table above about 40 (51%) and 18 (23%) respondents were disagreed and strongly disagreed on the student develops their knowledge and get Higher grades Outcomes. About 5 (6%) respondents were they do not now ether the students were develops their knowledge and get higher grades outcomes or not in the local area. Even though 13 (16%) and 3 (4%) of the respondents were agreed and strongly agreed on the student develops their knowledge and get Higher grades Outcomes respectively.
With regarding to fourteen open-ended questions, all 79 (100%) of participant students respondedthere was no regular training that given to the students and community for promoting community participation effectively in the education sector in the study area.
Generally, the majority 63% of respondents replied that the student in the local area was not free and autonomous. About 69% students were replied that there was no enough school material such as; printer, computer, duplicator and other teaching materials, and about 25% of respondents didn’t now school materials. The most 71% of students were responded as there was enough, important and to the target books library.About 74% respondents were relied their idea that the students were not develops their knowledge and get Higher grades Outcomes no regular training was given for the empowerment of community participation in education.
Table 15 (4.3) Responses of Student towards the Constraints that Holdback the CP on DDS in the Education Sector
Options=Strongly Agree=5, Agree=4, Do not know=3, Disagree=2, Strongly Disagree=1
No.
Item related to students Rating and %
5 4 3 2 1
15. Students do not believed on the current quality education and success of student 18
(23%) 35
(44%) 6
(7%) 11
(14%) 9
(12%)
16. Environmental effect such as; long distance from school and the topographical problem 20
(25%) 37
(47%) 6
(8%) 9
(11%) 7
(9%)
Source: survey result, (April, 2018)
Regarding to item number fifteen Table 15 (4.3) above the majority 35 (44%) and 18 (23%) of the students were agreed and strongly agreed Students do not believed on the current quality education and success of student respectively. about 6 (7%) respondents were did not know whether the students believed on the idea or not. About 11 (14%) and 9 (12%) disagreed and strongly disagreed on the students do not believed on the current quality education and success of student
According to item sixteen in the same Table shows, 37 (47%) and 20 (25%) of the reporters were agreed and strongly agreed on the existence of environmental effect such as; long distance from school and the topographical problem was hindrances of community participation in school and the students attend. About 6 (8%) also neither disagreed nor agreed on the idea. However, 9 (11%) and 7 (9%) of participants were agreed and strongly agreed on the existence of environmental effect such as; long distance from school and the topographical problem that influenced the community participation, economic growth and student results.
Concerning open ended question number seventeen the students were reviled on the activities of community in school to perform wisely. Communicating with the community regularly is an important way to engage community in the life of a school. This is also supported by the government and included in the school plans. Out of the total 85 sample size respondents from the selected kebelles and schools the 20 (24%) of participants responded that the communities were performs their activity wisely in the school. They were explained that the majority of the people was educated at least finished grade eight or grade ten. However, the majority 65 (76%) answered that the community did not performs their activity wisely in the school. Because, the commitment of the community was very low, the willingness of teachers, the target of the government, and the capacity of students were decreased from time to time.
According to question number eighteen all participants agreed that there was being many hindrance of community participation in education of the local area. Besides, the rules and regulations of the schools were eroded (not strongest as before), most of the time contact with a community occurs only when a student is in trouble or does poorly in class. Instead, work closely with education to increase strategies for communicating more often with families and community members. Whether it’s greeting parents daily as they drop off students or regularly involving community members in decisions about student learning, they were making an important connection with parents and asking them to help shape the school’s direction. That’s not to say this effort is not without its challenges. In lower income community, struggling parents may manage two jobs or care full time for young children with little time left over for school activities or meetings. Some families may be wary of public schools because their own experience in school was not good.
Generally about 67% of the reporter students replied that the students did not believed on the current quality education and success of student. The long distance from school and the topographical problem also hindrance of community participation and the students attend. Most participants agreed that due to the weakness of government officials, weak commitments of community and teachers the community did not performs their activity wisely in the school. The effectiveness of rules and regulations in the school was eroded now the community, students and teachers were done in casual manner or dependent on report than fact and transparency. Problems or hindrance of community participation student’s performance were not solved.

Table 16 (4.4) Responses of Students in Descripitive Statistics
code N Mean Std. Deviation
Role of community participation in education 79 4.22 .611
Achivment of dds 79 2.77 .606
Hindrance of CP on DDS education sector 79 3.61 .950
Valid N (listwise) 79
Source: survey result, (April, 2018)
Table 11 (4.2) indicates that respondents are agreed with the frequently participation of community (4.22) and (.611) mean and std.deviation respectively, and followed by DDS nether achieved nor failed with a mean and standard deviation of 2.77 and 0.606 respectively. Inaddition to that most respondents are agreed with the communities are hindered to participat in education sector with standard deviation of 3.61 and 0.950 respectively.
Therefore, it may be concluded from the above table that role of community participation in education the highest mean value, hindrance of CP on DDS education sector has intermediate mean value, and achivment of DDS have the least mean value.
Results Obtained from Teachers Close ended and Open ended Questioners
Table 17 (4.4) Responses of Teachers towards the Role of CP in Education
Options: Extensively=5, Frequently=4, Occasionally=3, Rarely=2, Not Occurring=1
No.
Item related to Teachers Rating and %
5 4 3 2 1
Community meet the teacher and attend parent meetings regularly —
— —
— 2
(25%) 2
(25%) 4
(50%)
The link between Community and government officials in your school —
— —
— 3
(38%) 5
(62%) —

The community participation helps the academic performance of the school that the students attend 2
(25%) 3
(38%) 2
(25%)
1
(12%) —

The community develops its own important idea for education 3
(38%) 2
(25%) 2
(25%) 1
(12%) —

Source: survey result, (April, 2018)
As can be seen in item one Table 17 (4.4) above, 2 (25%) of the teachers said that the community meet the teacher and attend parent meetings occasionally, 2(25%) of the respondents responded that the community meet the teacher and attend parent meetings rarely. However, 4(50%) of the respondents indicated that community meet the teacher and attend parent meetings regularly did not occurring.Therefore, there is no extensively and frequentlycommunity meets the teacher, and attends parent meetings regularly.
The above table 17 (4.4) item two indicates that about, 3(38%) of teachers gave their response that the linkage between community and government officials is occasionally and 5 (62%) responded that there is rarely linkage between community and government officials. All 8 (100%) of participants responded that the community and government officials were no extensively and frequently is linked together.
With regard item three Table 17 (4.4) the majority, 2(25%) of teachers replied that the community participation extensively helps the academic performance of the school that the students attended; and the3 (38%) of the community participation frequently helps the academic performance of the school that the students attended;2 (25%) of participants replied that the occasionally participation of community helps the academic performance of the school that the students attended; 1 (12%) of participants replied that the rarely participation of community helps the academic performance of the school that the students attended.
As item four Table 17 (4.4) above examines, 3 (38%) of the teachers said that the community extensively develops its own important idea for education, 2 (25%) of the respondents said that the community frequently develops its own important idea for education, 2 (25%) of the respondents said that the community occasionally develops its own important idea for education,1 (12%) of the respondents said that the community rarely develops its own important idea for education.
The response obtained from open ended questionnaires regarding the fifth question, on the major factors that have contributed to the success of community participation efforts in schools. A vast participant teachers replied that when the contribution of community was successfully reported, documented, motivated and the increasing the success of student results, capacities improvements and acknowledgements. Some also responded that the responses/answer gained for the question of the community was successfulness of community participation. Other also replied that the existence of comprehensive plan by the plants means the objective, mission; vision of school encompasses the community participation and effectiveness and gave trainings for the increment of community capacity building. However, it was failed in the ground, because there was no practical, transparently and honestly contribution to the success of community participation efforts in schools.
Concerning the sixth question, on the happiness of current academic performance that the school that the students attend. Most participants replied that they were not happy on the current academic performance that the school that the students attend. Because, visa-vise the past the current students academic performance was too weak. The current targets of the students were money in short method; they compared the government officials with the traders then they limited their hops by the teachers these lives in rent house. A few participants also replied that as they were happy the current academic performance that the school that the students attend. Because, education was more expanded now, every individuals were learned with out any discrimination that not seen before.
Generally, the most teachers responded that community was not extensively and frequently meets the teacher, and attends parent meetings regularly rather than rarely or some times occasionally. The majority of teachers were responded community and government officials were no extensively and frequently is linked or tied together. About 63% of participant teachers replied that the community participation extensively and frequently helps the academic performance of the school that the students attended and63% of teacher respondents said that the community extensively develops its own important idea for education. The contribution to the success of community participation efforts in schools failed practically. Most teachers participants replied as that they were not happy on the current academic performance that the school that the students attend.
Table 18 (4.4) Responses of Teachers towards the Achievements of DDS
Options=Strongly Agree=5, Agree=4, Do not know=3, Disagree=2, Strongly Disagree=1
No.
Item related to Teachers Rating and %
5 4 3 2 1
11. The Woreda offer special incentives for good maintenance of school facilities 2
(25%) 1
(12%) —
— 3
(38%) 2
(25%)
The school produced strong and visionary students —
— 1
(12%) 3
(38%) 4
(50%) —

Source: survey result, (April, 2018)
According to the data item elevenTable 18 (4.4) above, 3 (38%) and 2 (25) of respondents responded that as they were disagreed and strongly disagreed on the special incentives offer for good maintenance of school facilities by the state to Woreda and by the Woreda to education/schools. About, 1 (12%) and 2 (25%) teachers were agreed and strongly agreed on the special incentives offer for good maintenance of school facilities by the state to Woreda and by the Woreda to education/schools in the local area.
As Table 18 (4.4) item twelve presents 4 (50%) of the participants were disagreed on strong and visionary students produced in school and 3 (38%) teachers were replied as they did not understand on strong and visionary students produced in school. However, 1 (12%) of the participants were agreed on strong and visionary students produced in school in the local area.
On regarding to open ended question thirteen the achievement of the quest of a democratic developmental state based on education achievements. A large number of participants responded that Ethiopia didn’t achieve the quest of democratic developmental state. Because the developmental state needed capable human power means; committed leadership; identified business elite; peace and the like. Even though, Ethiopian started democratic developmental state but its achievement is in infant stage.There was being some improvements in the making as Renaissance damp, even though the achievements have not been finalized. Other a few participants were also responded as Ethiopia achieved developmental state visa vise to the two digit of annual economic growth.
According to question fourteen open ended questions all 8 (100%) participants responded that there was no training that given to the community to promoted community participation effectively in the education sector in the study area.
Generally, there was no special incentives offer for good maintenance of school facilities by the state to Woreda and by the Woreda to education/schools in the local area and the majority ofrespondents were dissatisfied on the strong and visionary students in the local area. The democratic developmental state was not achieved based on education sector in the local area and no training was given to motivate community through participation.
Table 19 (4.4) Responses of Teachers towards the Constraints that Holdback the CP on DDS in the Education Sector
Options=Strongly Agree=5, Agree=4, Do not know=3, Disagree=2, Strongly Disagree=1
No.
Item related to Teachers Rating and %
5 4 3 2 1
15. The existence illusive administration system in the kebelle and in the Woreda 3
(38%) 4
(50%) —
— 1
(12%) —

16. The backwardness of Community to Participate in education 2
(25%) 2
(25%) 2
(25%) 2
(25%) —

17. Strong political control and involvement of politics in the school activities. 4
(50%) 3
(38%) —
— 1
(12%) —

Source: survey result, (April, 2018)
Regarding item fifteen in Table 19 (4.4) above respondents of the study had expressed their level of agreement to the administration system of the kebelle and the Woreda. About 4 (50%) and 3 (38%) of reporters were agreed and strongly agreed there is an illusive administration system in the kebelles and the Woredas’. Even though 1 (12%) of participants were disagreed on the illusive administration system in the kebelles and the Woredas’ in the study area.
Table 19 (4.4) item sixteen provides details on the backwardness of community to participate in education. Out of 8 participants 2 (25%) and 2 (25%) of them were disagreed and strongly disagreed on the idea; and 2 (25%) of them didn’t now the existence of backwardnes of Community to Participate in education. Even though, 2 (25%) of them were agreed on the existence of backward of community to participate in education.
The above Table 19 (4.4) item seventeen shows the hindrance of community participation in education. Hence this indicates that half of the respondents were strongly agreed on the existence of strong political control and involvement of politics in the school activities; and 3 (38%) of the respondents were agreed on the idea. However, 1 (12%) of them were disagreed on the existence of strong political control and involvement of politics in the school activities.
Question number eighteen open ended question reviles on the activities of community in school to perform wisely. Communicating with the community regularly is an important way to engage community in the life of a school. This is also supported by the government and included in the school plans. However, almost all teachers responded that the community did not perform their activity wisely in the school. Because, there was very low commitment of the community, low willingness of teachers, the target of the government and the capacity of students were decreased from time to time.
According open ended question number eighteen most participants agreed that there was being many hindrance of community participation in education of the local area.TheWoreda officials has intended to mobilize the community with their schools it plane to organized community based on their interests in different local cooperatives have also planned to meet their students who dropout the class and lower grade outcomes in education. Even though, the plan was remain paper value or not effective. Besides, the rules and regulations of the schools and its practicalities were different; most of the time contact with a community occur only when a student is in trouble or do poorly in class. One participant teacher in the open ended questionnaires responded as follows;
?? ?? ?????? ??? ?? ???? ??? ??? ????? ???????? ??? ??? ??? ????? ???? ?? ???? ??? ?? ?? ???? ??????? ????? ??? ??? ????? ???? ????? ???? ???? ???? ??? ???? ??? ???? ??? ?? ??? ????? ????? ??? ?? ????? ?????? ?? ???? ?? ?? ????? ???????? ???? ??????? ???? ?? ??? ??? ?? ?? ?? ?????? ??? ??? ?????? ??? ?? ???? ?? ????? ????? ??? ??? ???? ???? ?????? ?? ?????? ?? ?? ??? ????? ?? ?? ?? ???? ?? ????? ???? ???? ???? ??? ?? ?? ????? ??? ????
Politics to be one and number one of the barriers to effective community participation in implementation, but we do not see further. Because, in one pat it said education for all, student should not be detained rather suffice, in the other hand also targeted in quality education. In this if one student is failed the teacher will be asked evaluated by the in competence of the one student. If the teacher said I did a truth he also evaluated by his misguided by the outlook problem.
There fore, what the community did was no reported honestly, the students’ capacity was low, due to weak capacity and unproductive of students, the government was more dependent on numerical report, the participation of community was decreased until that no exact solution was given by the Woreda.
Generally, there was an illusive administration system in the school, kebelle and in the Woreda level; half teachers were responded as there was no backwardness of community to participate in education and Strong political control and involvement of politics in the school activities were the hindrance of community participation in education. The community did not performs their activity wisely in the school and the rules and regulations of the schools and its practicalities were different; most of the time contact with a community occur only when a student is in trouble or do poorly in class.

Table 20 (4.4) Responses of Teachers in Descripitive Statistics
N Mean Std. Deviation
Role of community participation in education 8 2.94 .347
Achievement of DDS 8 2.69 1.033
Hindrances of CP in DDS education sectore 8 3.96 .653
Valid N (listwise) 8
Source: survey result, (April, 2018)
The above Table 20 (4.4) shows that respondents are agreed with the community was occational participation with (2.94) and (.347) mean and std.deviation respectively, and followed by the achivment of DDS with a mean and standard deviation of 2.69 and 1.677 respectively. Inaddition to that most respondents are srongly agreed with the communities are hindered to participat in education sector with standard deviation of 3.96 and 0.653 respectively.
Therefore, it may be concluded from the above table that hindrance of CP on DDS education sector has the highest mean value, role of community participation in education intermediate mean value and achivment of DDS have the least mean value.
Results Obtained from Focus Group Discussion (FGD)
Regarding to the first question, FGD discussant relied on the idea that communities were participated in education in different activities of the school. From the initial stage, community was participated in school by sent their children’s to school and follow up them. Community participation was shown when the parents enrolment their children at the school, agree to pay the school fees, provide learning materials for their children, like exercise books, pens, buy uniforms, etc. In addition, they were participated by gave force, idea, payments/finance, advised, in planed, in implemented, sponsor, the public and privet properties.
However, community participation in relation to productive and competitive education in the Woreda was low. The second FGD participants were expressed as follows;
????? ???????? ????????? ????? ?? ???? ???? ???? ??? ??? ??? ???? ???? ????? ?????? ?? ?????? ?? ???? ??? ??? ??? ??? ??? ???? ???? ???? ??? ?? ????? ?????? ?? ??? ???? ?? ?? ??? ??? ????? ?? ?? ????? ?? ????? ???? ??????? ??? ???? ???? ???? ????? ???? ???? ?????? ???? ???? ?????? ??? ???? ????? ???? ????? ????? ??????? ?? ?? ??? ??? ????
In relation to productiveness and competitiveness of education the participation of community in our Woereda; it is possible to say no at all because parents mostly deal with construction related activities such as fetching water, collection of sand gravels, and building itself. All these are if the local administrators or leaders or school managements ordered them only. But, they failed to asking what kind of teacher, what kind of student, what kind of administrations exist; the failed to asking what looks like the result of students and they failed to asking are the students inventor and researcher.
Accordingly, all discussants were agreed the community was participated in education, but visa-vise to expected productiveness and competitiveness of the education of the state it was failed in the local area.
Concerning, second question on the presence of safety environmental, social, economic and political condition for teaching and learning process; discussant responded that no. The following are statements by the FGD two representing their understanding of the idea;
?? ???? ??? ???? ??? ?? ????? ???? ????? ????? ??? ?? ????? ????? ?? ???? ?? ????? ??? ????? ?? ????? ?????? ?????? ????? ??? ?????? ??? ????? ???? ????? ??? ?? ?? ????? ??? ?? ???? ??? ?? ??? ???? ???? ???? ?? ???? ?? ??? ??? ?? ???? ??? ????? ????? ???? ????? ???? ???? ??? ???? ??????? ??? ?????? ?? ?? ??? ?? ??? ?? ??? ?? ???? ???? ??? ???? ???? ?????? ??? ??? ?????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ???? ???????? ?? ??? ?? ?????? ???? ???? ????? ????? ????? ?? ??????
As it is known Hawzen complete primary school simply called Daabeyti is the first school in the Woreda. But, we see the school not as first school even when we take as new school it has many uncompleted things. When we started from the external facilities the school hasn’t court yards then many peoples including animals were crossed by any where to enter to school; internally also it covered by pricly cactus or fig then many rats and snacks were living in. the process of teaching and learning and the capacity of students attend also decreased from time to time. Hence, this as indicates the absence of safety environmental, social, economic and political condition for teaching and learning process; if it continues as it is the dream/wants for the success of democratic developmental state remains question.
Though, in all the three focus-group discussions the discussants were agreed on the idea that students were learning, but from the willingness and capacity of students, satisfaction of the community and teachers there was not conducive and safety environment for teaching and learning process.
According, question four, on economic transformation the FGD a few discussants were agreed on the idea that there was economic transformation in the local area. There was educational expansion, the one times of collecting agricultural production changed in to two or three times of collecting production through irrigation, it was the new and never seen was before in other governments. This implies that due to expansion of education economic transformation.
However, most discussants were disagreed in the above idea, because the community was not involved wisely in education, quality of education was too low, no increment in the school facility, there was political domination than economic domination in different meetings, conferences, discussions, new idea was interpreted politically by local leaders even Woreda officials and other leaders, government was over promised and failed to implement it. In addition, the dignity of community was deprived, decision making was held relatively or friendly “instead of asking do we have true justice, do we have relatives” was very common in the Woreda.
On regarding question five most participants were agreed disagreed on the existence of democratic developmental state. Because, they did not knew the further or detail explanation of democratic developmental state mean and they described it “development is development and democracy is democracy that what we want it the state is state we live in” simply. Some participants were also knew as individual leaders expression talk about it and they were accepted as it is. One discussant of the FGD expressed that democratic developmental state was a state that committed and strongly participated on development but practically failed in there local area.
The sixth question, discussants agreed that the most communities were have not any knowledge on the idea of democratic developmental state, some educated peoples were expressed that, democratic developmental state means that the state was plays a crucial role in every activities of the state, and they added that as it comes from far East Asian states specially from Japan, China and Korea. Anyway the idea was not clear to community.
According, to question seven, all discussants were agreed that it was not on the achievement of democratic developmental state, but there was paucity of information on the highlight meaning and idea democratic developmental state. In addition to question seven in questions eight also reporters were agreed that as there was not training was gave to empowerment of community participation in the Woredaevn on the meaning of the model or the ideology the ruling party used here.
On ninth question, all discussants agreed that the general hindrances of community participation in the Woreda was false information, exaggerated report, such as in agriculture or irrigation, student results, quality education, leadership, government over promised and failed to implement it. The most distinguished political problems are weak commitment to the democratization process, corruption and weak civil liberties.In addition, one participant in the study was expressed the problem as follows:
???? ?? ??? ?????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ?? ???? ???? ???? ?? ?? ???? ??? ??? ??? ???? ??? ????? ????? ????? ??????? ????? ???? ??? ??::
No where was the community excluded to participate principally or on paper, but it lefts in practices remains paper value. Therefore, what we need is strong, committed and precisely leader to put into effect.
The most prominent problem were unemployment, lack of economic transformation, capable human power, poverty, weak private sector and the structure of the economy remains practically unchanged. Unemployment is another disturbing challenge in the Woreda because a number of educated and capable youngster peoples were lived in Mekelle, AdissAbeba, and abroad for job finding. The education and economy was not linked together and there was no industry in the Woreda.
According question ten, most discussants were agreed that even it was exaggerated more in reporting the Woreda tried to help the community participation partly in agricultural/irrigation sector through technical methods, advising, introduced new seeds and animals like hen and cows etc; but the Woreda failed in helping the community participation in education, in students performance, (students pass rate example grade eight, ten, and twelve). In addition the Woredas solving system was reported/information based which means the problem was not solved.
Generally the community was not happy by the achievements the goal of democratic developmental state such as administration, economic growth, quality education, the nexuses between education and economic growth, political leadership, community participation and until that their problem was not solved.
Results Obtained from Interviewee
Interviewee was conducted with Woreda Hawzen officials, supervisors, and directors in regard to community participation in democratic developmental state of Ethiopia specifically education sector. The interview was employed in order to cross check the data gathered through closed ended questionnaires, open ended questionnaires and focus group discussion. Accordingly the result obtained from WoredaHawzien interviewee was presented as follows:
In relation to the first question, all interviewee replied that community was the vehicle or engine of education, no where was excluded the community participation in education. Hence, community was been participated in education through supporting by force to construct class (hammering, haulage stone, giving wood, building wall and the like), financial support, in planning and implementing the plan, following the student and teachers activities were participated. However, the community was participated if they were ordered by their administrators’ ether to payable or none payable works including mental and physical or material work participation.
On regard to the second question, degree of community participation that contribute in reducing dropout of students and improving/increasing enrollment of students in Woreda, all interviewee responded that the community participated to reduced the dropout of students and to improved/ increased the enrollment of students. However, the level of participation was decreased time to time. This, indicates that the drop out of students were increased, the students capacity, wants and hopes were too lowest than as before. But, that didn’t mean there was no community participation at all.
Concerning to the third question, the majority of participants responded that as they had great responsibility the extent of community participation on discharged their responsibilities were very weak. In addition to this community exploited the students force, they didn’t gave time for study and they concerned only on their own students. Some interviewee also responded that community was highly contributed their responsibilities, even with simple payment no school was built with out community participation.
Regarding question four, all respondents replied that training was not given so as to develop effective participation of community in education.
The fifth question, deals about the relationship between the education and community. Most participants responded that education was built by the government for communities were benefited even little use, but currently pupils benefited in trade, irrigation, traditionally gold mining than education, they compared the status of students that was failed in grade ten and twelve involved or participated in trade and construction other than education and the government officials who had diplomas degrees even masters on their living or breathings. They described as there was been high gape on the linkage between community and education.
Regarding, question six, all interviewee replied that principally the community/parent with teachers/staff members were conducted or met one time monthly. But, practically the people that come to school in the end of semester to seen the students result was few (around 40-50 parent of students more than eighty times lower than the students) in number.
Question seven, focused on the nexus education, economic growth and democratic developmental state. Accordingly, most of the reporters replied that generally all the education, economic growth and democratic developmental state had linkages and they were ingredients of economic development. Even though in its effectiveness their linkage was complex, because there was no clear procedure on the idea that who comes first or how horizontally implemented. The interviewee further confirmed that education in our local area is not responsive to the skills shortage challenge. On paper the desire to bring about education policies that respond to skills shortage is clear but on the implementation level not much is showing. The community also didn’t now specifically what democratic developmental state mean; rather they were accepted as it is that what the leader said.
Similar to the seventh question on question eight, also all participants replied that there were no radical changes due to strong linkage between education and economic growth in the Woreda. The people understand that education was all about school activities and economic growth also all about the agriculture. Thus, education and economic growth in the Woreda was implemented parallel this was the obstacle of the transformation in the local area.
Concerning question nine, any democratic developmental state is a country or a state in which more spending is on education and health by the government or state, all the respondents were disagreed on the idea in practical sense. Because, developmental state needed visionary, missionary, goal oriented, committed leadership, capable human power, targeted on import substitution, motivate infant industries and the like, but, from these no one was been putting in to effect. In addition they said that, the government was more spending on agriculture specifically on irrigation. Hence, there was been an attempt of democratic developmental state in the study area, but still now it was failed practically.
Regarding tenth question, most respondents responded that the Woreda was not provided capital funds for school construction and renovation. Even though, the Woreda was provided capital funds for construction and renovation of the all sectors (education, health, agriculture, transportation, tourism etc) in general.
As question eleven, indicates in the promotion of generic schools, few participants replied that the Woreda did not promoted the use of generic schools at least in a simple communication. However, majority of reporters responded that the government was participated in coverage or expansion of school still now there was not been promoted a generic schools in the Woreda There were none governmental organizations that participated in gave donations for the school. But, similar to question number four there was no intentionally or deliberate and regular training was given for the community.
On regarding to the last but not list question twelve, most of the interviewee responded that the Woreda assess problems but didn’t take timely measures to improve community performance rather “we will solve it next”. The communities were always mumbling, grumbled, jeremiad and haste on meetings they went to their home, because the problem that asked before was not solved until that.
Discussion
The Role of Community Participation in Education
The data collected through interview, all interviewee revealed that community was the vehicle or engine of education, no where was excluded the community participation in education. Hence, community was been participated in education through supporting by force to construct class (hammering, haulage stone, giving wood, building wall and the like), financial support, in planning and implementing the plan, following the student and teachers activities were participated.
The data collected through FGD validates from the initial stage community was participated in school by sent their children’s to school and follow up them. The parent enrolment their children at the school, agree to pay the school fees, provide learning materials for their children, like exercise books, pens, buy uniforms, etc. In addition, they were participated by gave force, idea, payments/finance, advised, in planed, in implemented, sponsor, the public and privet properties.
The data collected from students, through close ended questioners the majority students participant replied that the community extensively and frequently participated in education seeks to promote student learning through partnerships with local finance; developed child higher standardized test score outcomes and school success outcomes, andcommunity participation extensively and frequently helped the academic performance of the school that the students attend, 56% of respondents were replied communities were developed its own important idea for educationthrough extensively and frequently participation.
However, the data collected from community, through questioners the majority (71%) community respondents replied that community were occasionally and rarely shares their skills through mentoring or assisting the school freely; 81% participants validated that the communities were rarely and occasionally participated in accepting and opposing the procedures that came from above freely; 68% responded that the community participation efforts occasionally and rarely that includes a volunteer program towards school facility; 56% of the respondents said that the community extensively and frequently develops its own important idea for education; most community respondents replied that when the contribution of community was successfully reported, documented, motivated and the increasing the success of student results, capacities improvements and acknowledgements.
In addition, the data collected from teachers through questioners the majority the most teachers responded that community was not extensively and frequently meets the teacher, and attends parent meetings regularly rather than rarely or some times occasionally. The majority of teachers were responded community and government officials were no extensively and frequently is linked or tied together. About 63% of participant teachers replied that the community participation extensively and frequently helps the academic performance of the school that the students attended and 63% of teacher respondents said that the community extensively develops its own important idea for education. The contribution to the success of community participation efforts in schools failed practically. Most 67% teacher participants replied as they were not happy on the current academic performance that the school that the students attend.
The data collected through interview supported that the data collected through questionnaire that community was participated if they were ordered by school management, or by their local leader or administrators’ ether to payable or none payable works including mental and physical or material work participation.
In addition, the data collected through opened ended questionnaire most participants replied that they were not happy by community participation in education and on the current academic performance that the school that the students attend. A vast participant replied that the community participation plays a great role when the question of community was fairly answered and contribution of community was successfully reported, documented, motivated and the increasing the success of student results, capacities improvements and acknowledgements. The existence of comprehensive plan by the school means the objective, mission; vision of school encompasses the community participation and effectiveness and gave trainings for the increment of community capacity building but it remains paper value.
More to the point, a study result obtained from closed and open ended questioners, interview and focus group discussion indicates both agreed on the community participation plays a significant role in education. However, the community, students and the teacher respondents replied as they were not happy on the current academic performance that the school that the students attend. The student respondents added that, the participation of communities was not emanated from their hearts, rather than from the fear of the ruler or benefit based participation, and there was no quality education rather educational expansion and coverage; reporters validated that the communities were not willingly participated in the school program; community participation to meet the teacher and attend parent meetings regularly was rare or not occurring.The willingness participation of community was decreased from time to time due to false information became the description of the lower and upper leaders and decreased the quality of education and students potential to do so further. In addition, the leaders were taught dishonesty and false information for students, community and even the lower leaders and teachers. The expected productiveness and competitiveness of the education was failed in the local area.
Achievements of DDS
From the interview the interviewee replied that a democratic developmental state was a country or a state in which more spending is on education and health by the government or state, all the respondents were disagreed on the idea in practically sense. Because, developmental state needed visionary, missionary, goal oriented, committed leadership, capable human power, targeted on import substitution, motivate infant industries and the like, but, from these no one was beenputting in to effect. In addition they said that, the government was more spending on agriculture specifically on irrigation.
From the community questioners, the majority of community participant replied that there was no road constructed by the government; the expansion of standard transportation in the Woreda was to weak and most students and communities were traveled by foot and used pack animals for their expeditiousness. There was no creativity in the local area, the students and the communities were not benefited. This indicates that the students were not attend or the objective education did not achieved the attempt of democratic developmental state was too weak. In addition the community was not satisfied by effectiveness of democratic developmental state in the local area. Training was not given for the community to promote their participation in the education sector effectively.
Most of students were responded as there was enough, important and to the target books library. However, the majority of student respondents replied that the students in the local area were not free and autonomous; there was no enough school material such as; printer, computer, duplicator and other teaching materials, and the students were not develops their knowledge and get Higher grades outcomes no training was given about democratic developmental state for the empowerment of community participation in education.
In addition, the teachers were responded as there was no special incentives offer for good maintenance of school facilities by the state to Woreda and by the Woreda to education/schools in the local area and the majority of respondents were dissatisfied on the strong and visionary students in the local area. The democratic developmental state was not achieved based on education sector in the local area and no training was given to motivate community through participation.
In addition from FGD, discussants were agreed that the most communities have not any knowledge on the idea of democratic developmental state, some educated peoples were expressed that, democratic developmental state means that the state was plays a crucial role in every activities of the state, but there was paucity of information even on the highlight meaning and idea democratic developmental state and they were reported as it was practically failed in the local area.
Hence, from the community, students, teachers and leaders agreed that there was been an attempt of democratic developmental state in the study area, but unstill that it was failed practically.
Hindrances of CP on DDS Specifically in the Education Sector
As inferred from community questioners, the community has not confident and anticipant on their student results attend and the practical activities of the school. The majority of communities were relay on the idea that there was been week local leader to motivate the community to share their skills in school on their local area; what the community did or did not was no reported honestly and transparently, the student capacity was low, due to weak capacity and unproductive of students, the government was more dependent on numerical/exagurated report, the participation of community was decreased until that no exact solution was given by the Woreda.
From the student questioner, most of the reporter students replied that the students did not believed on the current quality education and success of student. The long distance from school and the topographical problem also hindrance of community participation and the students attend. Most participants agreed that due to the weakness of government officials, weak commitments of community and teachers the community did not performs their activity wisely in the school. The effectiveness of rules and regulations in the school was eroded now the community, students and teachers were done in casual manner or dependent on report than fact and transparency. Problems or hindrance of community participation student’s performance were not solved.
In addition the teachers were relied on the idea as there was an illusive administration system at the school, Thabia and Woreda level half teachers were responded as there was no backwardness of community to participate in education and strong political control and involvement of politics in the school activities were the hindrance of community participation in education. The community did not performs their activity wisely becuase the school and the rules and regulations of the schools and its practicalities were different; most of the time contact with a community occur only when a student is in trouble or do poorly in class.
From interviewee majority of reporters responded that the government was participated in coverage or expansion of school until that there was not been promoted a generic schools.
The communities were always mumbling, grumbled, jeremiad and haste on meetings they went to their home, because the problem that asked before was not solved until that.
From FGD, most discussants were agreed that even it was exaggerated more in reporting the Woreda tried to help the community participation partly in agricultural/irrigation sector through technical methods, advising, introduced new seeds and animals like hen and cows etc; but the Woreda failed in helping the community participation in education, in students performance, (students pass rate example grade eight, ten, and twelve). In addition the Woreda solving system was report/information based which means the problem was not solved.
Finally, week local leader, false report or exaggerated report, low quality education, weakness of government officials, weak commitments of community and teachers, and political domination was the hindrance of community participation. There was no exact solution was gave from the local leaders or woreda officials.
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMERY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
Introduction
The chapter has three subsections; the summary, conclusion and recommendations of the study. The summary provides an overview of the entire research report (study aims and objectives, literatures used, data collection methods and techniques, and research findings), while conclusion and recommendation ties together the research findings in a coherent whole.
Summery of the Study
The study aimed at investigating the CP in DDS of Ethiopia specifically education sector: The case of four schools and their Kebelle selected communities in Woreda Hawzen.
The study sought to:
Identify the contribution of CP on DDS specifically education sector in the study area;
Analyze whether DDS effectively meets its intentions in the study area;
Identify the main constraints that holdback the CP on DDS in the education sector;
The study made use of the system approach in analyzing the degree of the CP in DDS of Ethiopia specifically education sector. The research was conducted purposively on four schools with their respective Kebelle communities were conveniently selected to participate in the study.Fromthem 101 communities, 85 students, 8 teachers’simple random and 7 Woredaofficialscomprised the purposefully selected participants. In terms of study coverage, the study confined itself to the CP in DDS of Ethiopia specifically education sector.
Both the quantitative and qualitative case study design and descriptive and explanatory was employed, wherebyclose-ended questionnaires, open-ended questionnaires,structured and unstructuredinterviewandfocus group discussions were the data-collection instruments.The selected research tools enabled researcher to collect information with minimum inconveniences.
In the first research question, the research findings revealed thatall the community, students, teachers and official participants on the tools such as close ended, open ended, interview and FGD discussants communities were significantly participated in education sector to build democratic developmental state. However, their participation being limited to pursue the child results and empowerments,fortheirtemporary payments or individual benefits, fear of local leaders and the like.
In the second research question, the research findings revealed that the objective of democratic developmental state was not achieved in the local area education sector.
In the third research question, the research findings revealed that week local leader, false report or exaggerated report, low quality education, weakness of government officials, weak commitments of community and teachers, and political domination was the hindrance of community participation. There was no exact solution was gave from the local leaders or woreda officials. Hence, the democratic developmental state was not achieved or in infant level in the local area.
Finally, community was participated in education; their level of participation was rare and occasional. There was no economic transformation in the study area; the objective of democratic developmental state was failed practically in education sector, the participation of community was hindered by the false report or an exaggerated report, weak local leaders and by their weak commitment; the problem was no exactly solved.
CONCLUSION
The following conclusions are made based on the data analysis and interpretation.
1. The participation of community had been an essential role in education sector.Communities were the vehicle or engine of education, no where was excluded the community participation in education. Hence, community was been participated in education to pay the school fees, provide learning materials for their children, like exercise books, pens, buy uniforms, etc. In addition, they were participated by gave force(hammering, haulage stone, giving wood, building wall and the like),, idea, advised, in planed, in implemented, sponsor, the public and privet properties financial support, in planning and implementing the plan, following the student and teachers activities were participated.
In fact, communities were not happy on the current academic performance that the school students attend. The participation of communities was not emanated from their hearts, rather than from the fear of the ruler or benefit based participation, and there was no quality education rather educational expansion and coverage; reporters validated the communities were not willingly participated in the school program; community participation to meet the teacher and attend parent meetings regularly was rare or not occurring.The willingness participation of community was decreased from time to time due to false information became the description of the lower and upper leaders and decreased the quality of education and students potential to did so further.
In addition, the leaders were taught dishonesty and false information for students, community and even the lower leaders and teachers. The expected productiveness and competitiveness of the education was failed in the local area.
2. A democratic developmental state is a country or a state in which more spending is on education and health by the government or state. But the most communities have not any knowledge on the idea of democratic developmental stateand all the respondents were disagreed on the idea in practical sense. Because, developmental state needed visionary, missionary, goal oriented, committed leadership, capable human power, targeted on import substitution, motivate infant industries and the like but the government was more spending on agriculture specifically on irrigation and the community was not satisfied by effectiveness of democratic developmental state in the local area. Training was not given for the community about democratic developmental state to promote community participation in the education sector effectively.
3. The community has not confident and anticipant on their student results attend and the practical activities of the school. There was been week local leader to motivate the community to share their skills in school on their local area; what the community did or did not was no reported honestly, the student capacity was low, due to weak capacity and unproductive of students, the government was more dependent on numerical report, the participation of community was decreased until that no exact solution was given by the Woreda.
Due to the weakness of government officials, weak commitments of community and teachers the community did not performs their activity wisely in the school.There was an illusive administration system in the school, kebelle and in the Woreda level; no backwardness of community to participate in education rather strong political control and involvement of politics in the school activities. The government was participated in coverage or expansion of school until that there was not been promoted a generic schools.
Finally, the commitment of community was decreased, there was week local leader, false report or exaggerated report, low quality education, weakness of government officials, weak commitments of teachers, and political domination was the hindrance of community participation. The communities were always mumbling, grumbled, jeremiad and haste on meetings they went to their home, because the problem that asked before was not solved until that.
RECOMMONDATION
Based up on the finding of the study, the researcher suggests the following recommendations;
1. Communities were the vehicle or engine of economic growth and education. To promote democratic developmental state through education the community should be motivated to participate in education sector and they should not always anticipated to command by local/other leaders and should be selfe motivated and committed to participate. This enables the community to develop its own important idea for education; to shared their skills through mentoring or assisting the school freely; to promote student learning; todevelops child higher standardized test score outcomes and school success outcomes; tohelps the academic performance of the school that the students attend.
2. The government should gave general/deep training for community students and others about what democratic developmental state mean in Ethiopian understanding and about what it wants. The government should give training about the contribution of education or human capacity on democratic developmental state. This enables the school to produce strong and visionary students; the state and community also benefited from the creativity of students; democratic developmental state also achieved its objectives.
3. Community, students and teachers should be free from political domination and selection of leaders through political loyalty; the government officials including local leaders, school administrators and Woreda administration should be refrain his hands from false reports.The officials should be solve the problem and answer the question rised by community. This enables to avoid hopelessness on the school activities and student results;to help local leader to motivate the community to share their skills;to report the exact reporting works and not works;avoidillusive administration in local kebelle and in the Woreda levels
Finally, the community should be honestly and willingly participated in education to link education and economy; to achieve goals of democratic developmental state and to solve the hindrances of community participation.

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