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Figure 2.5. Block Diagram of Fuzzy logic controller.
The membership functions of these Fuzzy sets are triangular with two membership function N and P for the flux-error, three membership functions N, Z, P for the torque-error, six membership variables for the stator flux position sector and eight membership functions for the output commanding the inverter. The inference system contains thirty six Fuzzy rules which is framed in order to reduce the torque and flux ripples. Each rule takes three inputs, and produces one output, which is a voltage vector. Each voltage vector corresponds to a switching state of the inverter. The switching state decides the pulse to be applied to the inverter. The Fuzzy inference uses MAMDANI’s procedure for applying Fuzzy rules which is based on minimum to maximum decision. Depending on the values of flux error, torque error and stator flux position, the output voltage vector is chosen based on the Fuzzy rules. Using Fuzzy Logic controller the voltage vector is selected such that the amplitude and flux linkage angle is controlled. Since the torque depends on the flux linkage angle the torque can be controlled and hence the torque error is very much reduced.
2.6. Fuzzy logic controller (FLC)
Fuzzy logic expressed operational laws in linguistics terms instead of mathematical equations. Many systems are too complex to model accurately, even with complex mathematical equations, therefore traditional methods become impracticable in these systems.
However fuzzy logics linguistic terms provide a possible method for defining the operational characteristics of such system.
Fuzzy logic controller can be considered as a special class of symbolic controller. The configuration of fuzzy logic controller block diagram is shown in Fig.2.6

Figure 2.6 Block diagram for Mamdani type Fuzzy Logic Controller
The fuzzy logic controller has three main components
1. Fuzzification.
2. Fuzzy inference.
3. Defuzzification.
2.6.1. Fuzzification
The following functions:
1. Multiple measured crisp inputs first must be mapped into fuzzy membership function this process is called fuzzification.
2. Performs a scale mapping that transfers the range of values of input variables into corresponding universes of discourse.
3. Performs the function of fuzzification that converts input data into suitable linguistic values which may be viewed as labels of fuzzy sets.
Fuzzy logic’s linguistic terms are often expressed in the form of logical implication, such as IF-THENrules. These rules define a range of values known as fuzzy membership functions.
Fuzzy membership function may be in the form of a triangle, a trapezoidal, and a bell as shown in Fig. 2.7

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Triangle Trapezoid

Bell

Figure 2.7. (a) Triangle, (b) Trapezoid, and (c) BELL membership functions.
The inputs of the fuzzy controller are expressed in several linguist levels. As shown in Fig.2.8 these levels can be described as positive big (PB), positive medium (PM), positive small (PS), negative small (NS), negative medium (NM), and negative big (NB). Each level is described by fuzzy set below.

Figure.2.8.Seven levels of fuzzy membership function

2.6.2. Fuzzy inference
Fuzzy inference is the process of draw up the mapping from a given input to an output using fuzzy logic. The mapping then provides a basis from which decisions can be made. There are two types of fuzzy inference systems that can be implemented in the Fuzzy Logic Toolbox: Mamdani-type and Sugeno-type. These two types of inference systems vary to some extent in the way outputs are determined.
Fuzzy inference systems have been successfully applied in fields such as automatic control, data classification, decision analysis, expert systems, and computer vision. Because of its multi-disciplinary nature, fuzzy inference systems are associated with a number of names, such as fuzzy-rule-based systems, fuzzy expert systems, fuzzy modeling, fuzzy associative memory, fuzzy logic controllers, and simply, fuzzy Mamdani’s fuzzy inference method is the most commonly seen fuzzy methodology.
Mamdani’s method was among the first control systems built using fuzzy set theory. It was proposed in 1975 by Ebrahim Mamdani as an attempt to control a steam engine and boiler combination by arranging a set of linguistic control rules obtained from experienced human operators. Mamdani’s effort was based on LotfiZadeh’s 2011on fuzzy algorithms for complex systems and decision processes.
The second phase of the fuzzy logic controller is its fuzzy inference where the knowledge base and decision making logic reside .The rule base and data base from the knowledge base. The data base contains the description of the input and output variables. The decision making logic evaluates the control rules .the control-rule base can be developed to tolerate the output action of the controller to the inputs.
2.6.3. Defuzzification
The output of the inference mechanism is fuzzy output variables. The fuzzy logic controller must convert its internal fuzzy output variables into crisp values so that the actual system can use these variables. This conversion is called defuzzification.
2.7: Fuzzy Direct Torque Controller
The fuzzy direct torque control technique consists of inverter, induction motor, torque controller, flux controller, flux estimator, torque estimator and clarke’s transform. The fuzzy logic technique which is based on the language rules, is used to solve this nonlinear issue. In a three phase voltage source inverter, the switching commands of each inverter leg are matched. For each leg a logic state Ci (I = a,b,c) is defined, thatCi is 1 IF the upper switch turned ON and zero IF the lower switch turned OFF. IFCi is 0 THEN it means that the lower switch is ON and upper switch is turned OFF. Since three are independent there will be eight different states, so eight different voltages.
To study the performance of the developed DTC model, a closed loop torque control of the drive is simulated using MATLAB/Simulink simulation package. The torque error and flux errors were compared in their respective hysteresis band to generate their respective logic state as (ST) and (S?). The sector logic state (S?) is used as the third controlling signal for referring the DTC switching table. These three controlling signals are used to determine the instantaneous inverter switching voltage vector from three dimensional DTC switching lookup table. The simulation results are implemented for conventional DTC scheme and proposed fuzzy based DTC scheme. There are three non-zero voltage vectors and two voltage vectors.

Figure2.9Block Diagram of fuzzy logic DTC
The DTFC on induction motor drives is designed to have three fuzzy input variables and one output control variable to achieve fuzzy logic based DTC of the induction machine. Its functional block diagram is as shown in fig. 2.9 the three input variables are the stator flux error, electromagnetic torque error and angle of stator flux. The output was the voltage space vector. The DTF Cconsist of fuzzification, rule base, data base, decision making and defuzzification.
The input variable (?T) and (?) are fuzzified using fuzzy functions over the respective domains. The output of DTFC was also fuzzified, the all possible fuzzy rules are stored in fuzzy rule base.
DTFC takes the decision for the given input crisp variables by firing this rule base.

Figure2.10 DTC functional Block Diagram

2.8 SUMMARY
With the principle of direct torque control (DTC)of induction motor, the high ripple torque in the motor have being reduced to above 65% in the reviewed work.
These controls have being one of the best controls for driving induction motor because of its principles. Though DTC strategy is popular and simpler to implement than the flux vector control method because voltage modulators and coordination transformations are not required.
Although, it introduces some drawbacks as follows:
1. High magnitude of torque ripple
2. Torque and small errors in flux and torque are not distinguished. In other word, the same vectors are used during start up and step changes and during steady state.
3. Sluggish response in both start up and step changes in either flux or torque.
In other to overcome the mentioned drawbacks, there are difference solution like fuzzy logic duty ratio control method. In this work fuzzy logic with duty ratio control is proposed to use with direct torque control to reduce this high ripple torque and realized the best DTC improvement. 