GUJARAT TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY
K.J.INSTITUTE OF ENGG. & TECHNOLOGY
A Project Report ON
Power factor monitoing system Prepered as a part of the requirements for the subject of PROJECT 2(2181105)
BACHELOR OF ENGINEEERING SEMESTER 7
Name of student Enrollment no.
Patel Devang. 150640109018
Bhatt Harsh. 150640109002
Internal guid :-Sarang soni.
Head of Department:-
Mr. Yatin patel
Acadmic year (2018-2019)
K.J.INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY SAVLI, VADODARA
This Is To Certify That The Dissertation Entitled ” Power factor monitoing system ” Has Been Carried Out By Patel devang Under My Guidance In Fulfillment Of The Degree Of Bachelor Of Engineering In Electrical (7th Semester) Of Gujarat Technological University, Ahmedabad During The Academic Year 2018-19.
Internal Guide :- Sarang soni.Signature:-
Head of the Department
K.J.INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY SAVLI, VADODARA
This Is To Certify That The Dissertation Entitled ” power factor monitoring system ” Has Been Carried Out By Bhatt Yash Under My Guidance In Fulfillment Of The Degree Of Bachelor Of Engineering In Electrical And Communication (7th Semester) Of Gujarat Technological University, Ahmedabad During The Academic Year 2018-19.
Internal Guide :- Sarang soni. Signature:-
Head of the Department
K.J.INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY SAVLI, VADODARA
This Is To Certify That The Dissertation Entitled ” power factor monitoring system” Has Been Carried Out By Bhatt Harsh Under My Guidance In Fulfillment Of The Degree Of Bachelor Of Engineering In Electrical And Communication (7th Semester) Of Gujarat Technological University, Ahmedabad During The Academic Year 2018-19.
Internal Guide :- Sarang soni. Signature:-
Head of the Department
The satiation and euphoria that accompany the successful completion of the project would be incomplete without the mention of the people who made it possible. It is with a sense of gratitude, we acknowledge the efforts of entire hosts of well-wishers who have in some way or other contributed in their own special ways to the success and completion of this project work.
First of all, we express our sage sense of gratitude and indebtedness to our Professors of K.J.INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, for their immense support and faith.
Further we express our gratitude to, SARANG SONI Assistant professor, Electrical Engineering Department, K.J.INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY internal guide, for guiding us at all the stage of our project. We are grateful to MR.YATIN PATEL head of the department Electrical Engineering Department, K.J.INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, for their kind support during our project work.
DC -Direct current
AC – Alternative current
C.T- Current transformer
LCD-Liquid crystal display
I/O -Input and Output
A/D – Analog and Digital
SRAM – Static Random Access Memory
IC – Integrated Circuit
Figure number FIGURE NAME
1.1 Block diagram
1.2 Microcontroller 877A
1.4 Relay drive
1.5 5Pin out of uln2003a
NUMBER CHAPTER NAME PAGE NUMBER
1 Introduction 1.1 Power factor monitoring system 1.2 History 1.3 Types of power factor controlling 1.4 Aim and Problem summary 1.5 Block diagram and Components 1.6 Materials and tools 2 DESIGN METHOLOGY AND IMPLIMANTATION STRATEGY 2.1 Design methodology 2.2 Implementation strategy 3 IMPLIMANTATION 3.1 Blades and Motors 3.2 Troubleshooting of prototype 4 CALCULATION AND COMPARISON 4.1 Calculations 4.2 Comparisons 5 SUMMARY 5.1 Advantage and disadvantage 5.2 Future work 5.3 References CHAPTER 1
1.1 power factor monitoring system. Many types of small scale industrial in electrical over load i very common fault but this fault is very harmful electrical wiring control panel and many types of motor, furnace various types of machinery.
This project constantly load measuring By C.T transformer and when occasionally Current will be till overload then automatically Load side cut off by electrical contractor relay and same time out off LED and buzzer will be started.
In the present technological revolution, power is very precious and the power system is becoming more and more complex with each passing day. As such it becomes necessary to transmit each unit of power generated over increasing distances with minimum loss of power. However, with increasing number of inductive loads, large variation in load etc. the losses have also increased manifold. Hence, it has become prudent to find out the causes of power loss and improve the power system. Due to increasing use of inductive loads, the load power factor decreases considerably which increases the losses in the system and hence power system losses its efficiency
Power factor is defined as the ratio of real power to apparent power. This definition is often mathematically represented as KW/KVA, where the numerator is the active (real) power and the denominator is the (active + reactive) or apparent power. It is a measure of how effectively the current is being converted into useful work output. A load with a power factor of 1.0 result in the most efficient loading of the supply and a load with a power factor of 0.5 will result in much higher losses in the supply system. A poor power factor can be the result of either a significant phase difference between the voltage and current at the load terminals, or it can be due to a high harmonic content or distorted/discontinuous current waveform. Poor load current phase angle is generally the result of an inductive load such as an induction motor, power transformer, lighting ballasts, welder or induction furnace. A distorted current waveform can be the result of a rectifier, variable speed drive, switched mode power supply, discharge lighting or other electronic load.
1.3 Techniques for measuring the power factor
1.3.1 The power factor in a single-phase circuit (or balanced three-phase circuit) can be measured with the wattmeter-ammeter-voltmeter method, where the power in watts is divided by the product of measured voltage and current. The power factor of a balanced polyphone circuit is the same as that of any phase. The power factor of an unbalanced poly phase circuit is not uniquely defined.
A direct reading power factor meter can be made with a moving coil meter of the electrodynamics type, carrying two perpendicular coils on the moving part of the instrument. The field of the instrument is energized by the circuit current flow. The two moving coils, A and B, are connected in parallel with the circuit load. One coil, A, will be connected through a resistor and the second coil, B, through an inductor, so that the current in coil B is delayed with respect to current in A. At unity power factor, the current in A is in phase with the circuit current, and coil A provides maximum torque, driving the instrument pointer toward the 1.0 mark on the scale. At zero power factor, the current in coil B is in phase with circuit current, and coil B provides torque to drive the pointer towards 0. At intermediate values of power factor, the torques provided by the two coils add and the pointer takes up intermediate positions
Another electromechanical instrument is the polarized-vane type.In this instrument a stationary field coil produces a rotating magnetic field, just like a polyphone motor. The field coils are connected either directly to polyphone voltage sources or to a phase-shifting reactor if a single-phase application. A second stationary field coil, perpendicular to the voltage coils, carries a current proportional to current in one phase of the circuit. The moving system of the instrument consists of two vanes that are magnetized by the current coil. In operation the moving vanes take up a physical angle equivalent to the electrical angle between the voltage source and the current source. This type of instrument can be made to register for currents in both directions, giving a four-quadrant display of power factor or phase angle.
Digital instruments exist that directly measure the time lag between voltage and current waveforms. Low-cost instruments of this type measure the peak of the waveforms. More sophisticated versions measure the peak of the fundamental harmonic only, thus giving a more accurate reading for phase angle on distorted waveforms. Calculating power factor from voltage and current phases is only accurate if both waveforms are sinusoidal.Power Quality Analyzers, often referred to as Power Analyzers, make a digital recording of the voltage and current waveform (typically either one phase or three phase) and accurately calculate true power (watts), apparent power (VA) power factor, AC voltage, AC current, DC voltage, DC current, frequency, IEC61000-3-2/3-12 Harmonic measurement, IEC61000-3-3/3-11 flicker measurement, individual phase voltages in delta applications where there is no neutral line, total harmonic distortion, phase and amplitude of individual voltage or current harmonics, etc.
1.4 AIM AND PROBLEM SUMMARY
AIM:- In this experiment, power quality influencing aspects of power electronic equipment shall be considered by means of a comparison of power-line system perturbations of switched-mode power supplies (SMPS) with conventional single-phase uncontrolled input rectifier and SMPS including a power factor correction (PFC) unit.
How to implement such a working model which is our first attempt and how we learn from the our teachers and other patterns which are implemented before we find from implemented devices that have problems which can damage human, energy waste ,time and cost also are more so we have to work on that particular problem.
AS automatic solar grass cutter name suggest our title name we have work for it for solving above problems. We find that the problem in pushing electrical /petrol lawn mower that such an human energy is wasted so we decided to go through wireless communication with our grass cutter. This is the first problem. Second problem of current lawn mower is usage of electric energy, gas, petrol, diesel etc. can be save by using solar energy.
A switched-mode power supply is an electronic power supply that incorporates a switching regulator to convert electrical power efficiently. Like other power supplies, an SMPS transfer’s power from a source like main power to load such as a personal computer while converting voltage and current characteristics. Unlike a linear power supply, the pass transistor of a switching-mode supply continually switches between low-dissipation, full-on and full-off states, and spends very little time in the high dissipation transitions, which minimizes wasted energy. Ideally, a switched-mode power supply dissipates no power. Voltage regulation is achieved by varying the ratio of on-to-off time. In contrast, a linear power supply regulates the output voltage by continually dissipating power in the pass transistor. This higher power conversion efficiency is an important advantage of a switched-mode power supply.
1.5 BLOCK DIAGRAME AND COMPONENTS
Fig 1.1 Block diagram
As shown in figure the basic block diagram that we worked on and make one by one module with guidance of faculties and external guide. we are attempting for first time we make proto-type of this model the circuits are made as in block diagram and connection also are make as shown on block diagram. The basic technical components require in actual model and in our prototype are same as listed below.
Microcontroller 877A (40 pin).
Relay driver I.C (ULN 2003).
Full wave bridge rectifier.
Cut off contactor.
We listed the all require components for our power factor monitoring system.
1 Microcontroller 877 A :-
PIC 877a finds its applications in a huge number of devices. It is used in remote sensors, security and safety devices, home automation and in many industrial instruments. An EEPROM is also featured in it which makes it possible to store some of the information permanently like transmitter codes and receiver frequencies and some other related data. The cost of this controller is low and its handling is also easy. Its flexible and can be used in areas where microcontrollers have never been used before as in coprocessor applications and timer functions etc
1.2 Microcontroller 877A
2) LCD (Liquid Crystal Display):-
LCD panel consist of two patterned glass panels in which crystal is filled under vacuum. The thickness of glass varies according to end use. Most of the LCD modules have glass thickness in the range of 0.70 to 1.1mm.
Normally these liquid crystal molecules are placed between glass plates to form a spiral stair case to twist the light. These LCD cannot display any information directly. These act as an interface between electronics and electronics circuit to give a visual output. The values are displayed in the 2×16 LCD modules after converting suitably. The liquid crystal display (LCD), as the name suggests is a technology based on the use of liquid crystal.
1.3LCD (Liquid Crystal Display)
3) Relay Driver:
The ULN2003A are high voltage, high current Darlington arrays each containing seven open collector Darlington pairs with common emitters. Each channel rated at 500mA and can withstand peak currents of 600mA. Suppression diodes are included for inductive load driving and the inputs are pinned opposite the outputs to simplify board layout. The four versions interface to all common logic families.
These versatile devices are useful for driving a wide range of loads including solenoids, relays, DC motors; LED displays filament lamps, thermal print heads and high power buffers. The ULN2001A/2002A/2003A and 2004A are supplied in 16 pin plastic DIP packages with a copper lead frame to reduce thermal resistance. They are available also in small outline package (SO-16) as ULN2001D/2002D/2003D/2004D.
1.5Pin out of uln2003a
The relays used in the control circuit are high-quality Single Pole-Double Throw (SPDT), sealed 6V Sugar Cube Relays. These relays operate by virtue of an electromagnetic field generated in a solenoid as current is made to flow in its winding. The control circuit of the relay is usually low power (here, a 6V supply is used) and the controlled circuit is a power circuit with voltage around 230V ac.
The relays are individually driven by the relay driver through a 6V power supply. Initially the relay contacts are in the Normally Open ‘state. When a relay operates, the electromagnetic field forces the solenoid to move up and thus the contacts of the external power circuit are made. As the contact is made, the associated capacitor is connected in parallel with the load and across the line. The relay coil is rated up to 8V, with a minimum switching voltage of 5V. The contacts of the relay are rated up to 7A @ 270C AC and 7A @ 24V D
5) Full wave rectifier circuit.-
A rectifier is an electronic circuit that converts AC voltage to DC voltage. It can be implemented using a capacitor diode combination. The unique property of diodes, permitting the current to flow in a single direction is utilized in here. Now what is a bridge rectifier? Bridge rectifier is a full wave rectifier circuit using the combination of four diodes to form a bridge. It has the advantage that it converts both the half cycles of AC input into DC output.
6) Filter capacitor :-
A filter capacitor is a capacitor which filters out a certain frequency or range of frequencies from a circuit.
Usually capacitors filter out very low frequency signals. These are signals that are very close to 0Hz in frequency value. These are also referred to as DC signals
7) current transformer :-
The current transformer is an instrument transformer used to step-down the current in the circuit to measurable values and is thus used for measuring alternating currents. When the current in a circuit is too high to apply directly to a measuring instrument, a current transformer produces a reduced current accurately proportional to the current in the circuit, which can in turn be conveniently connected to measuring and recording instruments. A current Transformer isolates the measuring instrument from what may be a very high voltage in the monitored circuit. Current transformers are commonly used in metering and protective relays
Like any other transformer, a current transformer has a single turn wire of a very large cross-section as its primary winding and the secondary winding has a large number of turns, thereby reducing the current in the secondary to a fraction of that in the primary. Thus, it has a primary winding, a magnetic core and a secondary winding. The alternating current in the primary produces an alternating magnetic field in the magnetic core, which then induces an alternating current in the secondary winding circuit.
DESIGNMETHODOLOGY AND IMPLIMANTATION STRATERGY:-
2.2Product development canvas:
Empathy mapping canvas:
Automobile workshop and garage.
Small scale and leading industries.
What is power factor monitoring?
Power factor is the percentage of electricity that is being used to do useful work. It is defined as the ratio of ‘active or actual power’ used in the circuit measured in watts or kilowatts (W or KW), to the ‘apparent power’ expressed in volt-amperes or kilo volt-amperes (VA or KVA).
The apparent power also referred to as total power delivered by utility company has two components.
1) ‘Productive Power’ that powers the equipment and performs the useful work. It is measured in KW (kilowatts)
2) ‘Reactive Power’ that generates magnetic fields to produce flux necessary for the operation of induction devices (AC motors, transformer, inductive furnaces, ovens etc.). It is measured in KVAR (kilovolt-Ampere-Reactance).
Reactive Power produces no productive work. An inductive motor with power applied and no load on its shaft should draw almost nil productive power, since no output work is being accomplished until a load is applied. The current associated with no-load motor readings is almost entirely “Reactive” Power. As a load is applied to the shaft of the motor, the “Reactive” Power requirement will change only a small amount. The ‘Productive Power’ is the power that is transferred from electrical energy to some other form of energy (i.e. such as heat energy or mechanical energy). The apparent power is always in always in excess of the productive power for inductive loads and is dependent on the type of machine in use. The working power (KW) and reactive power (KVAR) together make up apparent power, which is measured in kilovolt-amperes (KVA). Graphically it can be represented as:
The cosine of the phase angle ? between the KVA and the KW components represents the power factor of the load. KVAR represents the non-productive reactive power and ? is lagging phase angle. The Relationship between KVA, KW and KVAR is non-linear and is expressed KVA2 = KW2 + KVAR2
A power factor of 0.72 would mean that only 72% of your power is being used to do useful work. Perfect power factor is 1.0, (unity); meaning 100% of the power is being used for useful work.
5.1 FUTURE SCOPE:-
The automotive power factor correction using capacitive load banks is very efficient as it reduces the cost by decreasing the power drawn from the supply. As it operates automatically, manpower is not required and this Automated Power Factor Correction using capacitive load banks can be used for the industries purpose in the future.
5.2 ADVERSE EFFECT OF OVER CORRECTION
1. Power system becomes unstable.
2. Resonant frequency is below the line frequency.
3. Current and voltage increases.
5.3 ADVANTAGES OF CORRECTED POWER FACTOR
1. Reactive power decreases.
2. Avoid poor voltage regulation.
3. Overloading is avoided.
4. Copper loss decreases.
5. Transmission loss decreases.
6. Improved voltage control.
7. Efficiency of supply system and apparatus increases.
P. N. Enjeti and R Martinez, ?A high performance single phase rectifier with input power factor correction, IEEE Trans. Power Electron.vol.11, No. 2, Mar.2003.pp 311-317?
J.G. Cho, J.W. Won, H.S. Lee, ?Reduced conduction loss zero-voltage-transition power factor correction converter with low cost, IEEE Trans. Industrial Electron. vol.45, no 3, Jun. 2000, pp395-400
V.K Mehta and Rohit Mehta, ?Principles of power system?, S. Chand & Company Ltd,?
International Journal of Engineering and Innovative Technology (IJEIT) Volume 3, Issue 4, October 2013 272 Power Factor Correction Using PIC Microcontroller
Design and Implementation of Microcontroller-Based Controlling of Power Factor Using Capacitor Banks with Load Monitoring, Global Journal of Researches in Engineering Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Volume 13, Issue 2, Version 1.0 Year 2013 Type: Double Blind Peer Reviewed International Research Journal Publisher: Global Journals Inc. (USA) Online ISSN: 2249-4596 & Print ISSN: 0975-5861
Switch gear and protection.