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Hazard is a process that causes a catastrophic release of explosive and toxic chemicals that poses a level of threat to health, life and environment and if hazardous agent present in a material it indicates contamination which means presence of an impurity or unwanted substance in a material.
Mercury is a metallic and poisonous naturally occurring chemical element .Its largest production occurs in United States of America (USA) and ranked in third by the US government Agency for Toxic substances and Diseases. Basically, it was identified as the particular health hazard more than other heavy metals according to the study of Hong Kong’s population of hump backed dolphins.
Mercury is a neurotoxin and its exposure on human health depends on different factors which are; the health and age of the person exposed the amount and form of mercury in the exposure, how long the exposure lasts and how the person is exposed.
Elemental (metallic), inorganic and organic (methyl mercury) are the form of mercury which shows harmful effects on human health. When vapors of methyl and elemental mercury will be inhaled and absorbed through lungs it creates adverse effect on the digestive, immune and nervous system because these vapors are toxic to the central and peripheral nervous system. Sources of high level of methyl mercury are present in tissues of fish and shellfish so when humans consume these fishes they may adopt adverse health effects from these fishes. According to the U.S Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), eating mercury contaminated fish is the primary route of exposure for mercury in human. Due to consumption of the mercury rich fishes lack of coordination of movements, insomnia, neuromuscular effects, muscle weakness,headache,pins and needle like feelings in body ,respiratory failure ,kidney failure, , loss of peripheral vision, changes in nerve responses, impairment of hearing, speech and walkimg,tremors,cognitiveand motor dysfunction like symptoms occur in human being. In some cases death of an individual can also occur. Methyl mercury crosses the placental barrier and poses a risk to the developing fetus so in this way the developing nervous system can be damaged.
When the level of elemental mercury in the air is 20ug/m3 central nervous system toxicity can be seen in individuals.
Inorganic salts of mercury are another form of mercury which is corrosive to eyes, gastrointestinal tract and skin .It induced kidney toxicity and can damage kidney after ingestion. Nervous system can also be affected as well as muscle weakness, dermatitis and skin rashes also observed in human being.
Mercury contamination also shows hazards in environment because 20 acre lake can contaminate by one teaspoon of mercury.easily.Microorganisms can covert mercury into methyl mercury in water and soil and cause kidney, intestine ,nerve damage,DNA alteration, reproduction failure and stomach disruption in animals., Mercury enters in environment through forest fires, soil, disposal of wastes, volcanoes, water, canabar ,fossil fuels and cause impaired growth, weight loss, death and involuntary muscle movements who ingest mercury contaminated fish because methyl mercury build up in the tissues of fishes while birds also experience difficulty in breathing and flying with abnormal functions.. Due to paper industries, mining and hydroelectric activities mercury’s level in environment is increased day by day. In addition, 6,000 gallons of water can pollute by mercury which is emitted from one fluorescent bulb. Once mercury is released into the environment it will persist for many years. So, if we want to prevent from the hazardous effect of mercury we should reduce consumption of raw materials, end of pipe techniques, designed a waste management protocol and follow them along with different techniques.

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