Site Loader

i

OSH for Demolition Works in Construction Industry:
Development of DEMOLITION GLASS for safety
Inspection

By
Ho Fai TONG

Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Bachelor of
Engineering (Honours) in Construction Engineering and Management

Department of Architecture and Civil Engineering
City University of Hong Kong
March 2018

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DECLARATION

I declare that this thesis represents my own work, except where due acknowledgement is made, and
that it has not been previously include in a thesis, dissertation or report submitted to this University
or any other institution for a degree, diploma or other qualification.
I give consent to CityU to present this project and related details (including images, audio/video
files) in websites with public access and in institutional activities like exhibitions and demonstrations

Signed ______________________________
Tong Ho Fai Kaden

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Acknowledgements
This research was supported and supervised by Dr. Ivan Wing Hong, FUNG, Assistant Professor of
Department of Architecture and Civil Engineering at City University of Hong Kong. I would like to
express my sincere gratitude to him for his valuable advice, guidance and encouragement throughout
the whole study of my research. He provided insight and expertise that greatly assisted the research.

Moreover, I thank Dr. Fung’s research team for their assistance and guidance during the
development and design stage of my project. Their comments improved the initial idea of my design.
Moreover, I would like to show my special gratitude to all experienced professionals as follows who
share their wisdom with me during the course of the research dedicated their precious time to provide
opinions and resource support on my study.

Mr. Paul Chan, Project Director, CR Construction Company Limited
Ms. TANG Mung Yi, Dreams Managing Director, Construction Safety ; Engineering Consultants
Limited
Mr. Peter Lai General Manager, Safety Specialist Service Limited
Mr. Vincent Ng General Manager, Login US (Hong Kong) Limited
The Institute of Safety and Health Practitioners

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Abstract
Construction industry is regarded as a high hazard industry. Safety practice in Hong Kong construction
industry still has room for improvement despite of great efforts from different sectors. Besides, ageing
building problem is the concern in Hong Kong which urban renewal and demolition works are the only
ways to solve. So, demolition works will be the focus in the report among all the construction activities.
Under Code of Practice for Demolition of Building (2004), all parties are obligated to follow the
engineering practice and safe procedures guidelines. It is to minimize the damages to public, site
personnel and surrounding environment.
Modern technologies are now applied widely in different industry around the World so as to enhance
safety more effectively and efficiently, such as Mixed Reality (MR) in training, Radio-frequency
identification (RFID) in inventory tracking, Building Information Modeling (BIM) in virtual building
stimulation, etc. This research study focuses on increasing demolition site safety by applying an
advanced technology system. The project is to design and create a DEMOLITION GLASS for safety
inspection and monitoring in demolition work. This system combines Virtual Reality (VR),
Augmented Reality (AR) and advance sensor technology to helps the main contractor and safety
officer monitoring the work sites. DEMOLITION GLASS provide an advanced technological way for
government official, supervisor and client to monitor the working process and safety performance of
the demolition work.

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Table of Contents
DECLARATION ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. ii
Acknowledgements ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. iii
Abstract ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. iv
List of Tables …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ix
List of Figures ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. x
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 1
1.1 Background of Study ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 1
1.2 Research Objectives …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 6
1.3 Research Outline Methodology ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 6
1.4 Research Study Structure ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 7
CHAPTER 2 – LITERURE REVIEW …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 8
2.1 Introduction ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 8
2.2 Safety management in Construction Industry ………………………………………………………………………………….. 8
2.2.1 Safety Management System (SMS) in Construction Industry ………………………………………………………….. 8
2.2.2 Safety Management in Demolition Works ………………………………………………………………………………….. 13
2.2.2 Risk Management ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 13
2.2.3 Types of demolition work accidents …………………………………………………………………………………………… 16
2.2.5 Safety Inspection in Demolition Works ……………………………………………………………………………………… 17
2.3 Development of VR technology …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 18
2.3.1 Principle of VR technology ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 19
2.3.2 Application of VR technology …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 20
2.4 Development of AR technology …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 23
2.4.1 Principle of AR technology ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 23
2.4.2 Application of AR technology …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 24
2.5 Development of DR technology …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 26
2.5.1 Principle of DR technology ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 26
2.5.2 Application of DR technology …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 27

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2.6 Development of MR technology ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 27
2.6.1 Principle of MR technology ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 28
2.6.2 Application of MR technology ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 28
CHAPTER 3 – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ………………………………………………………………………………… 30
3.1 Framework of research methodology ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 30
3.2 Literature review ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 31
3.3 Idea development……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 32
3.4 Preliminary Design …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 33
3.5 Testing and Commissioning ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 34
3.6 Commenting ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 35
3.7 Discussion and Conclusion ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 35
CHAPTER 4 – DESIGN DEVELOPMENT OF DEMOLITION GLASS ………………………………………………. 36
4.1 Introduction ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 36
4.2 Proposed DEMOLITION GLASS Model and Equipment …………………………………………………………. 36
4.2.1 Revit Model ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 36
4.2.2 Immerse – Unity ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 38
4.2.3 Toolkits ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 41
4.2.4 Alternative Technology – Lead-8 …………………………………………………………………………………………… 42
CHAPTER 5 – PROPOSED AND FUTURE APPLICATIONS OF DEMOLITION GLASS …………………… 45
5.1 Proposed Applications of DEMOLITION GLASS …………………………………………………………………………. 45
5.1.1 Government Inspection ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 45
5.1.2 Client’s Monitoring …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 46
5.1.3 Supervisor’s Monitoring …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 46
5.1.4 Excavator Operator ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 46
5.2 Future Application of DEMOLITION GLASS ………………………………………………………………………………. 47
5.2.1 Demolition Simulation …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 47
5.2.2 Case-based safety training and Education …………………………………………………………………………………… 47
5.2.3 Safety Walk ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 48

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CHAPTER 6 – RESULTS AND ANALYSIS FOR INTERVIEWS ………………………………………………………. 49
6.1 Introduction ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 49
6.2 Interview with Mr. Paul Chan ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 49
6.2.1 Normal Practice in Demolition Industry …………………………………………………………………………………….. 49
6.2.2 Asbestos Handling …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 50
6.2.3 Comment on DEMOLITION GLASS ………………………………………………………………………………………… 52
6.3 Interview with Ms. TANG Mung Yi, Dreams ………………………………………………………………………………… 52
6.3.1 Incorrect Practice in Demolition industry …………………………………………………………………………………… 52
6.3.1.1 Incorrect Practice in Asbestos Handling ………………………………………………………………………………….. 52
6.3.1.2 Incorrect Practice in Demolition Sequence ………………………………………………………………………………. 53
6.3.2 Comment on DEMOLITION GLASS ………………………………………………………………………………………… 53
CHAPTER 7 – Discussion ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 54
7.1 Introduction ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 54
7.2 Opinion on adoption of DEMOLITION GLASS ……………………………………………………………………… 54
7.3 Function and applications of DEMOLITION GLASS ………………………………………………………………. 54
7.4 Benefits of DEMOLITION GLASS ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 55
7.5 Limitation of DEMOLITION GLASS ……………………………………………………………………………………. 55
7.6 Safety concerns about DEMOLITION GLASS ……………………………………………………………………….. 55
7.7 Suggested improvements for DEMOLITION GLASS ……………………………………………………………………. 55
CHAPTER 8 – Conclusion and Recommendation ……………………………………………………………………………….. 57
8.1 Summary ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 57
8.2 Research Objectives Review ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 57
8.3 Research Findings ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 57
8.4 Limitations ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 58
8.4 .1 Limited time ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 58
8.4.2 Limited resources ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 58
8.4.3 Technical Limitations ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 59
8.5 Recommendation ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 59

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8.5 Further Study …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 59
REFERENCES ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 61

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List of Tables
Table 1.1: Research Study Structure ……………………………………………………………………………………… 7
Table 2.1: Example of SRM Checklists……………………………………………………………………………….. 15

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List of Figures
Figure 1.1: Number of occupational injuries by major sector, 2005-2015……………………………2
Figure 1.2: Fatalities of major types of construction accidents per year, 2005-2015…………………2
Figure 1.3: Learning Pyramid…………………………………………………………………………4
Figure 1.4: Function of DEMOLITION GLASS …………………………………………………….5
Figure 2.1: WSB Flow Chat…………………………………………………………. ………………11
Figure 2.2: Safe Working Cycle……………………………………………………………………………….12
Figure 2.3: Design For Safety Process……………………………………………………………….12
Figure 2.4: 7 Elements of The Systematic Risk Management……………………………………….14
Figure 2.5: Principle of VR technology…………………………………………… …………………18
Figure 2.6: Principle behind Augmented Reality…………………………………………………….23
Figure 2.7: Working Principle of Diminished Reality………………………………………………..26
Figure 2.8: A representation of Milgram and Kishino’s Virtuality Continuum………………………28
Figure 3.1: Research methodology framework……………………………………………………….30
Figure 3.2: AR Driving technology…………………………………………………………………..33
Figure 3.3: Alignment Checking and Warning System Example………………………………….…33
Figure 3.4: EPSON MOVERIO BT-300……………………………………………………………..34
Figure 3.5: Meeting With safety specialist, ISHP Meeting…………………………………………..34
Figure 4.1: Proposed Virtual Building Layout ………………………………………………………37
Figure 4.2: Proposed Virtual Building Inside ………………………………………………………..37
Figure 4.3: Step 1 of creating MR scene …………………………………………………………….38
Figure 4.4: Step 2 of creating MR scene …………………………………………………………….39
Figure 4.5: Step 3 of creating MR scene …………………………………………………………….39

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Figure 4.6: Step 4 of creating MR scene …………………………………………………………….40
Figure 4.7: Step 5 of creating MR scene …………………………………………………………….40
Figure 4.8: Step 6 of creating MR scene …………………………………………………………….40
Figure 4.9: The Mixed Reality Toolkit ………………………………………………………………41
Figure 4.10: The Asset Store from Unity ……………………………………………………………41
Figure 4.11: The Unity VR Sample asset ……………………………………………………………42
Figure 4.12: The VRToolKit …………………………………………………………………………42
Figure 4.13: Lead-8 simulation ………………………………………………………………………43
Figure 4.14: Lead-8 Capture …………………………………………………………………………44
Figure 4.15: Lead-8 BIM Model…………………………………………………………… ……….44
Figure 6.1: Interview photo with Mr. Paul Chan, 9/3/2018 …………………………………………49
Figure 6.2: Main Parts of Demolition Project ……………………………………………………….50
Figure 6.3: Normal Practice of Asbestos Handling in Demolition Industry …………………………51

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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of Study
Construction is a high hazard industry with comprises a wide range of activities involving
construction, alteration or repair. Among all the industry, only construction industry resulted in
increasing trend of occupational injuries from 2009 to 2015. Figure 1.1 This shows the high level
of hazardous in construction industry when comparing to other industry.
Among all the construction activities, demolition is one of most dangerous work task in
construction industry. The common practice of demolition in Hong Kong are Top Down- Manual,
Top Down-Machines, Saw Cutting, Explosion, Implosion and Wrecking Ball. Detailed method
statement and procedure should be included in the BD submission document. However, accidents
are still happening time and time. The common accidents of demolition work are structural failure,
fire and explosion, contact of electric cable or gas pipe, explosion of compressed gas cylinders,
exposure of asbestos, fall from height etc. (Yeung, Y., 2008) All the mentioned accidents are fatal
which made demolition work more dangerous than other industry or construction activities.
In 2010, a tenement building collapse in Ma Tau Wai Road in Hong Kong. It caused 4 deaths and
2 injuries. Although the building owner finished the maintenance work which referred to repair
order by The Building Department, building still collapsed in 2010. And this accident was caused
by the demolition work. A worker misjudged the structural wall as illegal structures. After
damaging the structural wall, it affects the stability of the building which further lead to a building
collapse. (Building Department, 2008) It shows the importance of safety measure and
dangerousness in demolition work.
Besides structural failure, working at height is another hot topic around Hong Kong. Between 2005
and 2015, falling from height was the most serious type of construction accidents per year. It was

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averaging 11 deaths and 30% of the total fatalities in overall construction accidents per annum
during 2005 to 2015. More advanced technology should be put into supervising and monitoring
workers working at height, so as to prevent tragedy from happening.

Figure 1.1: Number of occupational injuries by major sector, 2005-2015,
Source: Occupational injuries in Hong Kong, 2016

Figure 1.2: Fatalities of major types of construction accidents per year, 2005-2015
Source: Occupational injuries in Hong Kong, 2016

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Furthermore, ageing building problems are also a concern in Hong Kong. General design life span
of reinforced concrete in Hong Kong is 50 years. According to the Development Bureau and
Buildings Department, there were about 4,000 building aged 50 or above in 2010. (Occupational
injuries in Hong Kong, 2016) And the figure will be increased by 500 every year. In this case, Hong
Kong now has approximately 7,500 building aged 50 years or above. Proper action should be taken
or else the ageing building may rapidly endanger public safety. Although proper maintenance may
help with the building value, the ultimate procedure will be demolition and urban renewal. So,
there is no doubt that demolition work will be the focus in the future of Hong Kong construction
industry. And its safety measure need to be made and improve as soon as possible.
Due to all the above factors, workers and general public are being threatened. An advanced safety
management system should be introduced to minimize the risk and facilitate work in demolition
work. To assist working in demolition site compliance to the guidelines and to monitor the safety
performance of a company to follow the Code of Practice for Demolition of Building (2003) and
other safety regulation, it is essential to apply an innovative design of safety management tool to
monitor demolition site safety in a more efficient and effective way.
In recent construction industry, there are already many advanced technologies implicated into the
site in order to monitor work and design building more efficiently and effectively, such as Radio-
frequency identification (RFID), Building Information Modeling (BIM), Virtual Reality (VR),
augmented reality (AR). However, Hong Kong is still behind schedule who still using traditional
method to carry out construction work. Therefore, we should catch up and follow the trend that
developing more advanced technology to assist construction activities.
Nowadays, the most successful technology applied in the construction industry should be virtual
reality (VR). It includes the implicating Building Information Modeling (BIM) into the design and
planning stage, and applying in safety training to allow people “learn by doing”. According to
National Training Laboratories, the memory retention rate can be reached to 75% which is the

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second highest among all learning methods. Figure 1.3 VR technology create a virtual
environment for people to check the details of the building and also to have safety training. The
VR technology receive great success in the construction industry not only because of its
effectiveness but also the efficiency of the stimulation. However, a construction site is always
changing which VR technology may not be able to keep track to its changes. And also, there is no
doubt that cost will be another major consideration.

Figure 1.3: Learning Pyramid
Source: Valerie, V. S., 2013
Apart from virtual reality (VR), augmented reality (AR) is being developed around the world, such
as medical AR uses, navigation AR uses, military AR uses, etc. And AR technology is now
implementing into construction industry. It mainly helps track the progress of construction project,
and system operation and maintenance. AR technology is not yet well developed in the
construction industry because of its uncertainty and safety concern raised.
To combine the benefit of VR and AR in demolition safety and risk assessment, mixed reality (MR)
technology will be studied in this research. An innovated MR design, i.e. DEMOLITION GLASS ,
will be proposed. The purpose of the research is to explore the feasibility of DEMOLITION
GLASS in demolition work to improve site safety and assisting safety inspection.

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Under Cap. 123C Building (Demolition Works) Regulations section 4A, any demolition works
required a registered specialist contractor to ensure and control any collapse or fall of a part of the
building in the design plans for demolition works does not endanger any person. Detailed
precautionary and protective measures for demolition works should be submitted along with site
safety supervision plan (BUILDING (DEMOLITION WORKS) REGULATIONS, 1997). In
addition, video record for demolition process should be provide as a safety measure and location
of camera should be demolition plan.
The proposal of DEMOLITION GLASS is to assist safety inspection to ensure site safety and
correct working procedure is carried. With the DEMOLITION GLASS, safe site condition and
correct working sequence can be secured. Virtual Reality (VR), Augmented Reality (AR) and
Diminished reality (DR) all combined to become the DEMOLITION GLASS to carry out different
functions. Figure 1.4

Figure 1.4: Function of DEMOLITION GLASS

Process
monitoring
Working
Procedure
Unautorized
Building Work
Check
Alingment
Checking
Warning
System

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1.2 Research Objectives
The research aims to explore and develop the MR technology (DEMOLITION GLASS) with the help
of sensor to minimize the risk or hazards caused by demolition works. Not only minimizing the risk
but also providing safer and healthy environment to workers in demolition works in cost effectiveness
way. To achieve the above goals, the research will be divided into different section and the following
objectives will be focused.
1. To identify the main causes and types of demolition accidents
2. To review the risk assessment system in demolition works
3. To suggest the usage of DEMOLITION GLASS in demolition works
4. To develop the DEMOLITION GLASS for demolition site safety
5. To review the concept, benefits and limitation of MR technology
6. To design a prototype of DEMOLITION GLASS
7. To identify the future development of DEMOLITION GLASS
1.3 Research Outline Methodology
In this specific research study, following approaches are adopted so as to reach the objectives and
ultimate goal. Review relevant materials from different sources, such as books, journals, government
publication, academic paper, website and video for better understanding current demolition works
development in Hong Kong as well as the development of MR technology around the world.
? Develop a DEMOLITION GLASS after identifying the problems and limitation of MR
technology as well as the hazards in demolition works. In addition, design program for
DEMOLITION GLASS and seek advice from technological specialists.
? Conduct face to face interviews with safety professional for in-depth data collection and
comprehensive understanding. The interview will be conducted throughout the planning and
designing stage of the DEMOLITION GLASS.
In Chapter 3, detailed research methodology will be explained.

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1.4 Research Study Structure
Chapter 1
Introduction
Introduce the background of study and analysis the performance of
demolition work in Hong Kong with the brief elaboration of the major
causes and accidents. This chapter also include research objectives,
research methodology outline and research study structure.
Chapter 2
Literature Review
This chapter gives an overview of development of demolition works, and
VR, AR, DR and sensor technology. Furthermore, VR, AR, DR and MR
technology is also compared.
Chapter 3
Research Methodology
It describes the method to achieve objective of this research study which
includes the design of DEMOLITION GLASS and face to face
interviews.
Chapter 4
Design Development of
DEMOLITION
GLASS
It describes the principles and design of DEMOLITION GLASS, and
also design prototype of DEMOLITION GLASS.
Chapter 5
Proposed and Future
Applications of
DEMOLITION
GLASS
It introduces various applications of DEMOLITION GLASS and its
future development
Chapter 6
Results and Analysis
for interviews
It concludes the findings and analysis of the interviews.
Chapter 7
Discussion
It discusses if the DEMOLITION GLASS is practical in demolition
works and the limitations in applications of DEMOLITION GLASS.
Chapter 8
Conclusion and
Recommendations
It summaries the research study and provides direction for future
research.
Table 1.1: Research Study Structure

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CHAPTER 2 – LITERURE REVIEW
2.1 Introduction
This chapter summarizes the information of construction safety in Hong Kong and variety technology
development found on books, journals, government publication, academic paper, website and video.
In the chapter 2 Literate Review, it divides into 6 aspects, reviews on current safety management in
Construction Industry, and development of virtual reality technology, augmented reality technology,
diminishing reality and mixed reality technology. It aims to achieve basic understanding to build a new
topic above.
2.2 Safety management in Construction Industry
Safety management have played its vital role in construction industry. Nowadays, construction
companies and government around the world are developing safety management system to provide a
safe environment for workers to work in construction site so as to avoid accidents from happens and
also minimize risk of injuries.
2.2.1 Safety Management System (SMS) in Construction Industry
In construction industry, most accidents can be prevented by taking simple measures. (Practice Note
for Authorized Persons and Registered Structural Engineers, 2009) Safety management can always
help as a preventive measure. According to Civil Aviation Safety Authority from Australian
Government, safety management system defined as “a systematic approach to managing safety,
including organizational structures, accountabilities, policies and procedures.” (What is safety
management and safety management systems, 2016) A safety management system should be
introduced so as to maintain certain level of safety.
Accidents can be caused by many factors, which it is well known that nature of construction lead to
higher opportunity of work-related accidents and injuries. Accidents like falling from height, exposure

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or contact with harmful substance, struck by falling object and heavy machine are happening time to
time in Hong Kong construction industry. (Occupational Safety and Health Statistics 2014 ,2015) The
high accident rate in construction industry brings damages to workers and also the clients, either direct
loss of compensation, fine, damages to finished works, or indirect damages like stoppage of work,
increase of insurance premium and loss of reputation. Therefore, an effective safety management
system need to be implemented into construction industry for the sake of all parties.
In Code of Practice on Safety Management (2002), there are 14 elements of a safety management
system and which are (Code of Practice on Safety Management, 2002):
1. A safety policy which states the commitment of the proprietor or contractor to safety and health
at work
2. A structure to assure implementation of the commitment to safety and health at work
3. Training to equip personnel with knowledge to work safely and without risk to health
4. In-house safety rules to provide instruction for achieving safety management objectives
5. A programme of inspection to identify hazardous conditions and for the rectification of any such
conditions at regular intervals or as appropriate
6. A programme to identify hazardous exposure or the risk of such exposure to the workers and to
provide suitable personal protective equipment as a last resort where engineering control methods
are not feasible
7. Investigation of accidents or incidents to find out the cause of any accident or incident and to
develop prompt arrangements to prevent recurrence
8. Emergency preparedness to develop, communicate and execute plans prescribing the effective
management of emergency situations
9. Evaluation, selection and control of sub-contractors to ensure that sub-contractors are fully aware
of their safety obligations and are in fact meeting them
10. Safety committees

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11. Evaluation of job related hazards or potential hazards and development of safety procedures
12. Promotion, development and maintenance of safety and health awareness in a workplace
13. A programme for accident control and elimination of hazards before exposing workers to any
adverse work environment
14. A programme to protect workers from occupational health hazards
In 2009, Occupational Safety and Health Council introduced an idea called Work Safe Behavior (WSB)
Figure 2.1. “It is well documented that WSB can improve safety performances as well as productivity”
according to OSHC saying. (Yu Pak Kuen, Y., 2009) The WSB are then implemented in Safe Working
Cycle Handbook. The basic objective of Safe working cycle is to improve construction safety as well
as construction quality. It mainly divides into 3 cycles, daily safe working cycle, weekly safe working
cycle and monthly safe working cycle. Each cycle clearly describes responsibilities of different parties
so as to combine quality and safety together Figure 2.2. The type of cycles is determined by the
urgency and importance of construction program.
In 2006, The Development Bureau had taken the model, Design and Management, as an example to
introduce an idea of “Design for Safety”. The basic concept of “Design for Safety” is to consider actual
potential hazards and risks while designer doing their work. Designers need to quantify the risks and
develop a system or framework, the design, specification and planning of activities, that hazards can
be prevented or minimize their effects. Figure 2.3
The main objectives of “Design for Safety” are introduced and which are to (Guidance Notes of Design
For Safety, 2006):
? “Promote early involvement, effective cooperation and communication of all stakeholders
through the timely provision of relevant and necessary information.”
? “Improve clarity on the demarcation of the roles and responsibilities of the parties responsible for
coordinating and providing relevant project data on risks at all stages of a project.”

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? “Identifying the outputs of the "Design for Safety" application process and the specific risk
reduction measures. Hazard identification and mitigation should be initiated at the early design
stages to eliminate or minimize the risks of injury and be continued through the subsequent stages
of project development, implementation, maintenance and demolition for better safety
management in the whole project life cycle.”

Figure 2.1: WSB Flow Chat
Source: Yu Pak Kuen, Y., 2009
1. Identifying Critical Behaviours
?Opeartion Process Analysis
?Risk Assessment
?Accident Investigation
2. Communication and Support
?Briefings
?Fully explain to all concerned
?Encourage Participation
3. Target Setting and Training
?Forming working task group
?Recruiting and training observers
?Developing baselines
4. Work Safe Behabiour (WSB)
Observation
?Developing WSB Checklist
?Implementing Observation
Process
?WSB Analysis
5. Intervention
?Reinforcement training
?Award Scheme
?Changing of operation design and
process
6. Review and feedback
?Evaluating the extent of change
?Correcting deviations
?Monitoring

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Figure 2.2: Safe Working Cycle
Source: Safe Working Cycle Handbook, 2016

Figure 2.3: Design For Safety Process
Source: Guidance Notes of Design For Safety, 2006

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2.2.2 Safety Management in Demolition Works
Demolition is the most dangerous construction activity. It is carried out in a weakened structure or the
structure were damaged by natural force like storms, floods, fire, etc. Accidents may happen and which
are usually fatal, such as falls from height, being struck or buried in falling material or by collapse of
structure, exposure to hazardous materials, etc. There is no plan that can ensure all part of structure are
collapsing as expected. So, safety management need to be implemented into demolition industry so as
to protect workers and also surroundings.
Currently, there is no specific safety management system in demolition work. But, Code of Practice
for Demolition of Building (2004) had outlined good practices for the planning and implementation of
demolition works for different types of building which aim at minimizing the damages to public, site
personnel and surrounding environment. Training and communication, equipment maintenance,
electrical safety, fire, occupational health, emergency exit requirement and vibration are stated under
area of “special safety considerations”. However, they are only simple description but not specific
requirement of each section. Furthermore, detailed planning of temporary structure, protection and
method of demolition are required to submit to Building Department for approval. In light of that, a
specific safety management technology, DEMOLITION GLASS, are going to be developed
throughout this research study.
2.2.2 Risk Management
Systematic Risk Management (SRM) is one of the risk management techniques provided as the User
Manual of Risk Management for Public Works and developed by the Environment, Transport and
Works Bureau in June 2005. It has been applied into public work programme projects with cost more
than $200 million. (Guidance Notes of Design For Safety, 2006) Under this system, project team
members are required to prepare a Project Risk Management Plan during the early stage of the project
and the Project Risk Management Plan will be the definition of SRM of the project.

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The major objective found on the Risk Management User Manual are mainly financial concerns so
recommendations have been made that designers should expand the SRM to include more of “Design
for Safety” to achieve best project outcomes. (Guidance Notes of Design For Safety, 2006) And the
SRM developed by the Environment, Transport and Works Bureau has aim to minimize or the below
risk (Risk Management for Public Works, 2005):
? Over-budgets
? Programme delays
? Achieve of functional requirement
? Achieve of required quality requirements
? Environmental damages
? Health and safety of personnel involved in the project
? Exposure to litigation
? Reputation damages
All 7 elements in SRM Figure 2.2 have played a vital role in risk management. The risk management
system would not be completed without either one of them. In all 7 elements, “Monitor, Review and
Report’ is the actual works that will be carried under risk management in a project. Risk management
is a dynamic process and continuous process. (Young Pc, Y. P. ; Tomski M., T. M., 2002) Most of the
people are only concerning the previous stages which is the risk management plan. However, it is hard
to winning a war with words. It is essential to keep the risk management process relevant and effective
throughout the project. As such, continuous monitoring of project and review of risk management
system is essential to ensure the risks management plan remain effective. A construction site is
comparable dynamic to other industry, so it is a must to eliminating all risks with continuous update
of risk management system.

15

Figure 2.4: 7 Elements of The Systematic Risk Management
Source: Risk Management for Public Works, 2005

Table 2.1: Example of SRM Checklists
Source: Risk Management for Public Works, 2005

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2.2.3 Types of demolition work accidents
Demolition should be planned as carefully as possible. Detailed surveying, planning and drawing
should be carried before the structure demolish, so as to gather as much information as possible.
Besides, asbestos is usually found in old building and other structures that are going to be demolished,
which requires specialists to handle. Furthermore, the first step of safe management should be to
identify possible hazards. And there are some general hazards (Klaus Kuhl, K. K. ,2006):
? There are often more than one company to be involved in large demolition work. It includes party
like client, main contractors, sub-contractors and specialized sub-contractors. Communication
problems always exist in this case. Communications between parties are usually unclear which
can put workers at higher risk because of unclear instruction are given to them.
? Demolition usually carried because of instable structure by causes of natural force or ageing
problems. However, the structures may collapse unexpectedly and bury workers due to structure
instability. Furthermore, there can be falling objects either small or larger parts of building or
tools, which can cause serious injury or even death when it struck workers or pedestrian.
? Old building usually consists of different hazardous substances, such as asbestos, PCBs, wood
preservatives, etc. Among all these hazardous substances, asbestos and PCBs may causes cancer.
So, specialist contractor need to be hired to handle above hazardous substances.
? Demolition works also include of demolishing or cutting of supply of gas, water, sewerage,
electricity, fuel and refrigerant in pipe. Accidents may happen if there is improper cut off of pipe,
which may cause electric shock, burns, fires, explosion, etc.

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2.2.5 Safety Inspection in Demolition Works
Under Code of Practice on Safety Management (2002), inspection defined as “an active monitoring
programme.” Inspection is an essential to monitoring construction activities. It is one of the best tools
to identify problems and evaluate the risks before accidents happen. And inspection should be
implemented and regularly reviewed so as to (Code of Practice on Safety Management, 2002):
? Identify potential problems that are not anticipated during the design or planning stage
? Identify equipment deficiencies, such as problems caused by normal wear and tear and abuse or
misuse of equipment
? Identify improper worker actions, malpractices, etc.
? Identify changes in processes or materials which may have adverse effect on the safety and health
of workers
? Identify inadequacies in remedial actions
? Provide management with information to assess the organization’s own safety and health
performance
? Demonstrate management commitment
A suitable inspection programme can help minimizing potential risks and satisfying legal requirement.
And an inspection approach has been suggested (Code of Practice on Safety Management, 2002):
1. A well-designed inspection form to help plan and initiate remedial action by requiring those doing
the inspection to rank any deficiencies in order of importance
2. Summary lists of remedial action with names and deadlines to track progress on implementing
improvements
3. Periodic analysis of inspection forms to identify common features or trends which might reveal
underlying weaknesses in the system
4. Information to aid judgments about any changes required in the frequency or nature of the
inspection programme

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In demolition work, Building Survey are the first inspection need to be carried out. Building Survey
are defined as an “inspection on the building and its surroundings aiming at spotting any potential
problems that may arise during demolition and developing a method statement for demolition”. (Code
of Practice for Demolition of Buildings, 2004) Under Code of Practice for Demolition of Building
(2004) and Code of Practice of Site Supervision (2009), site inspection should be performed by the
Authorized Person or his experienced and competent representative, the Registered Structural
Engineer or his experienced and competent representative and the Registered Demolition Specialist
contractor at a frequencies not less than the requirement of different grade of Technically Competent
Persons (TCPs). (Code of Practice for Site Supervision, 2009) And if unsafe condition are presents, all
unsafe conditions should be reported to Authorized Person and all demolition activities need to be
suspended until all unsafe condition are rectified. Besides, it is required to inspect and maintain the
scaffolding regularly, and special inspection is also required before and after typhoon or after fire
accidents. (Code of Practice for Demolition of Buildings, 2004) However, there is no specific
requirement on inspection towards temporary structure of demolition work. It may be very dangerous
if the temporary structure collapse.
2.3 Development of VR technology
During the past two decades, virtual reality has been developed well along with active 3D graphics,
user interfaces, and visual simulation. In 1997, National Research Council (NRC) released a
publication titled ‘Modeling and Simulation—Linking Entertainment and Defense’, VR had been
developed into entertainment field and now also influencing the industry also. And research has
conducted that VR has positive effect on training skills and reduce error risk in different industry.
(Seymour, N. E., Gallagher, A. G., Roman, S. A., O’Brien, M. K., Bansal, V. K., Andersen, D. K., ;
Satava, R. M., 2002) Given these trends, many researchers have concentrate their work on VR and
also developing VR technology into different industry, such as training, education, construction etc.

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2.3.1 Principle of VR technology
In virtual reality (VR) or virtual environment (VE) systems, the human operator is connected to a
computer that can simulate a wide variety of worlds, both real and imaginary. Simple remote
manipulators are an example of the first type of system; video games of the second type. (Durlach, N.
I., Mavor, A. S., ; National Research Council (U.S.)., 1995)
In 2003, Thomas Larsson published a document “Introduction to Virtual Reality”. In this specific
document, Thomas Larsson had mentioned 4 key elements on VR (Thomas Larsson, T. L., 2003):
? Real-Time Graphics
The framerate and polygons are specified as 30 frames/sec and 50K/frame or more respectively.
And the resolution should be as high as it can be.
? Low Latency
The time lag should be as less as it can be. And it is specified as 1ms latency which is 1mm
error.
? Interactive
VR technology is supposed to be interactive which later on developed into mixed reality which
shares this specific feature. At that time, the consideration of interactive were only about
response times and manipulation.
? Multi-Sensory
VR technology should be installed with multi sensor which vision, sound and force feedback
should be included.

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Moreover, Thomas Larsson also mentioned the VR system can be divided into three groups, which
are non-immersive systems (workstations), immersive systems (HMD or CAVE), hybrid systems
(augmented reality systems). And it is important for certain condition to experience full immersion:
? Full field of vision display, usually produced by the wearing of a Head Mounted Display.
? Tracking of the position and attitude of the participant's body.
? Computer tracking of the participant's movements and actions.
? Negligible delay in updating the display with feedback from the body's movements and actions.

Figure 2.5: Principle of VR technology
Source: Thomas Larsson, T. L., 2003
2.3.2 Application of VR technology
Virtual reality is applied into different industry in the past few years. It offers great benefits in
providing human-computer interaction. Also, it helps developing different industry with better
productivity, team communication and less costs. And the Virtual Reality Society has analyzed the
following aspects of VR application (Jaron Lanier, J. L., 2017):
1. Entertainment
The gaming industry is one of the most enthusiastic advocates of virtual reality which provides
audience engagement. The virtual environments enable members of the public to engage with the
exhibits in ways which were previously forbidden or unknown. They wear virtual reality glasses
with stereoscopic lenses which allow them to see 3D objects and at different angles. And in some

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cases, they can interact with the exhibits by means of an input device such as a data glove. An
example is taken as a historical building which the member of the public can view at different
angles. Also, they are able to walk through this building, visiting different rooms to find out more
about how people lived at that particular time in history.
2. Military
Virtual reality has been implemented into military service, army, navy and air force, which mainly
used for training purposes. A virtual reality simulation enables them to do so but without the risk
of death or a serious injury. They can recreate a particular scenario, for example engagement with
an enemy in an environment in which they experience this but without the real-world risks. This
has proven to be safer and less costly than traditional training methods. Besides training purpose,
virtual reality is also used to treat post-traumatic stress disorder. Soldiers suffering from battlefield
trauma and other psychological conditions can learn how to deal with their symptoms in a ‘safe’
environment. The idea is for them to be exposed to the triggers for their condition which they
gradually adjust to. This has the effect of decreasing their symptoms and enabling them to cope
to new or unexpected situations.
3. Sports
Virtual reality is used as a training aid in many sports such as golf, athletics, skiing, cycling etc.
It is used as an aid to measuring athletic performance as well as analyzing technique and is
designed to help with both of these. It also used in clothing/equipment design and as part of the
drive to improve the audience’s experience. The athlete uses this technology to fine tune certain
aspects of their performance. For example, a golfer looking to improve their swing or a track
cyclist wanting to go faster in the individual pursuit. Three dimensional systems can pinpoint
aspects of an athlete’s performance which require changing, for example, their biomechanics or
technique.

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4. Construction
Virtual reality can be extremely useful in the construction industry, which is often known as
having a very high amount of inefficiency and low profit margins. Using a virtual environment,
an organization can not only render the resulting structure in 3D but also experience them as they
would in the real world. There are 4 major benefits of implementing VR into construction industry:
A. Reduce cost and errors
Using VR in construction let people able to test a number of factors without the time and
cost of building the structure, reducing the number of errors present in the completed
building.
B. Viability
In construction industry, testing viability of an architectural design is an important factor.
For many years, human judgement and scale models were the only methods to determine
whether a structure was viable or not. As we know, human judgement can be highly, and
sometimes intentionally, erroneous and scale models cannot fully simulate the environment
the structure must withstand.
C. Virtually Exploring the Design
Not only can the viability of a building be tested before it’s built, construction workers and
employees can actually explore it. Feedback about a design from this is phenomenal, being
able to pick up even small details such as whether a worker can fit in within a space.
D. Simulated Construction
Furthermore, the construction of a building can be simulated in virtual reality as it would in
its normal environment. This allows an organization to fine-tune construction processes for
maximum efficiency and a minimum amount of change.

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2.4 Development of AR technology
Virtual reality (VR) places a user insider a computer generated virtual environment, meanwhile,
augmented reality (AR) aims to present virtual object directly into the physical environment. AR is not
only a mobile computing programme but also a bridge between virtual and real world. For example,
the 4-D movie Avatar had combined the virtual and real elements with the special effects.
2.4.1 Principle of AR technology
Among all the definition of AR, the most acceptable definition of AR was proposed by Azuma in his
1997 survey paper. AR must consist of following three characteristics (Azuma, R., 1997):
? Combines real and virtual
? Interactive in real time
? Registered in 3D
A complete AR system requires at least three components: a tracking component, a registration
component, and a visualization component. A fourth component, a spatial model (i.e., a database),
stores information about the real world and about the virtual world Figure 2.6.

Figure 2.6: Principle behind Augmented Reality
Source: Dieter Schmalstieg, D. S. & Tobias Höllerer, T. H., 2016

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2.4.2 Application of AR technology
Although augmented reality has been around for years, it is not popular until the smartphones
Android and IOS has equipped with GPS, camera and AR capability. AR device mainly divided into
3 main types (Tim Perdue, T. P., 2017):
1. Handheld AR Equipment
The long list of AR software development kits for Android smartphones and Apple's ARKit for
its mobile devices give developers the tools they need to add AR elements to their apps. The
number of AR apps for the iPhone and Android devices has expanded dramatically, and they aren't
limited to games. Retailers are showing tremendous interest in AR possibilities.
2. AR Headsets
Microsoft’s HoloLens is now developed into Oculus VR headset. These high-end headsets were
eagerly awaited by all, but only a lucky few could afford them, until the Meta 2 head-mounted display
headset which offered at a consumer price. Like most AR headsets, Meta 2 head-mounted display
headset it operates while connect to a PC. However, it was not long for untethered headsets available
in the market. Budget-priced headsets are available for use with smartphones and tablets. The future
may see smart glasses be all the rage or smart contact lens.
3. AR Applications
Early PC, smartphone and tablet applications for augmented reality focused on games, but the
uses of AR are much broader. The military uses augmented reality to assist men and women as
they make repairs in the field. Medical personnel use AR to prepare for surgeries. The possible
commercial and educational applications are unlimited.

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A photographer Tim Perdue in 2017 has summarized some major applications of Augmented Reality
(Tim Perdue, T. P., 2017):
? Military AR Uses
The Heads-Up Display (HUD) is the typical example of augmented reality when it comes to
military applications of the technology. A transparent display is positioned directly in the fighter
pilot's view. Data typically displayed to the pilot includes altitude, airspeed and the horizon line
in addition to other critical data. The term "heads-up" name applies because the pilot doesn't have
to look down at the aircraft's instrumentation to get the data he needs. The Head-Mounted Display
(HMD) is used by ground troops. Critical data such as enemy location can be presented to the
soldier within their line of sight. This technology is also used for simulations for training purposes.
? Medical AR Uses
Medical students use AR technology to practice surgery in a controlled environment.
Visualizations aid in explaining complex medical conditions to patients. Augmented reality can
reduce the risk of an operation by giving the surgeon improved sensory perception. This
technology can be combined with MRI or X-ray systems and bring everything into a single view
for the surgeon. Neurosurgery is at the forefront when it comes to surgical applications of
augmented reality. The ability to image the brain in 3D on top of the patient's actual anatomy is
powerful for the surgeon. Since the brain is somewhat fixed compared to other parts of the body,
the registration of exact coordinates can be achieved. Concern still exists surrounding the
movement of tissue during surgery. This can affect the exact positioning required for augmented
reality to work.
? AR Apps for Navigation
Navigation applications are possibly the most natural fit of augmented reality with our everyday
lives. Enhanced GPS systems use augmented reality to make it easier to get from point A to
point B. Using the smartphone's camera in combination with the GPS, users see the selected
route over the live view of what is in front of the car.

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? Maintenance and Repair
Using a head-worn display, a mechanic making repairs to an engine can see superimposed imagery
and information in his actual line of sight. The procedure might be presented in a box in the corner,
and an image of the necessary tool can illustrate the exact motion the mechanic needs to perform.
The augmented reality system can label all the important parts. Complex procedural repairs can be
broken down into a series of simple steps. Simulations can be used to train technicians, which can
significantly reduce training expenses.
2.5 Development of DR technology
Augmented Reality applications overlap virtual objects over a real scene to add information to the
end user are popular around the world. Nowadays, more advanced applications also make use of
Diminished Reality that removes real objects from a scene.
2.5.1 Principle of DR technology
According to R;D Engineer Ken Moser, PhD, (Joe Bardi, J. B., 2016) explains diminished reality is
the direct opposite of AR. In AR, the goal is to augment, or add to, the real world using virtual imagery,
sounds, smells, haptics, synthetic olfactory stimuli, etc. DR is the process of removing, eliminating, or
diminishing the amount of perceivable stimuli from the world. Technically, DR does not lie along the
traditional Virtuality Continuum since it does not explicitly mix reality types. However, DR can be
used in conjunction with AR to provide unique visual experiences, which later on form the MR
technology.

Figure 2.7: Working Principle of Diminished Reality
Source: Jan Herling, J. H., 2013

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2.5.2 Application of DR technology
Diminished reality seldom performs alone because of the application appear alone is not completely
enough. But there are some practical applications suggested by Paul Ford (Paul F., 2009):
? Surgeons removing (or reducing opacity of) their hands during an operation, allowing them to see
only their instruments and the patient
? Police cameras that remove non-suspicious people from a view, enabling easier tracking through
CCTV
? Cinema-goers removing the head of the person in front of them
? Find your car in a busy carpark by optically removing all other cars
Clearly, the applications are wide. Diminished Reality is still not yet well-developed, but applications
already take place in our daily life, such as X-ray machines, ultrasound baby monitors, noise-cancelling
headphones. The reality that DR cancelled is not only restricted as images but also noise and
surroundings.
2.6 Development of MR technology
While we experience a form of mixed reality every day (virtual entertainments on physical screens,
simulated voices on physical cell phones), Mixed Reality is a technology that reconciles and integrates
virtual and physical worlds. The birth of Mixed Reality (MR) in 1962 coincided with that of Virtual
Reality when Ivan Sutherland used transparent displays to place simulations into his lab space
(Sutherland I., 1963). The term “Mixed Reality,” later introduced in 1994, Paul Milgram and Fumio
Kishino described technologies “that involve the merging of real and virtual worlds somewhere along
the virtuality continuum which connects completely real environments to completely virtual ones.”
(Milgram P., 1994)

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2.6.1 Principle of MR technology
Along this continue finding of different blends of the physical and virtual Figure 2.8. Augmented
Virtuality is found toward the virtual end of the scale in which physical elements are set into a virtual
world. Its opposite, AR is set in the other end of the scale, which places virtual objects into actual
settings. These technologies are distinguished from simple visual collage in that the virtual and
physical elements of a scene are linked. If taking a point of view that actual and virtual objects move
in parallax, which they were in the same space. Then, the virtual and physical are conjoined in Mixed
Reality.
The technology depends on our ability to make coherent space from sensory information. It is acted as
a product of consciousness, this space situates the artifacts of sensory cognition (color, spatial
relationships) and those of other processes like identification and memory. From this standpoint all
objects, virtual, physical and imaginary, are potential occupants of psychosomatic space. And while
we can distinguish their relative reality, virtual rocks cannot break physical windows; they cohabit
quite comfortably in our day-to-day experience of the world. (Peter A., 2007)

Figure 2.8: A representation of Milgram and Kishino’s Virtuality Continuum
Source: Peter Anders, P. A , 2007
2.6.2 Application of MR technology
Mixed technology has been around us for a few decades, but yet it is not as mature as VR and AR.
And some concept related to construction industry had been reviewed on the internet:

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? The Project Stage Axis: Design to Build
Mixed Reality brings 3D data to life and puts information in the user’s hands without the need to
change or adjust the data format. A sign-off 3D BIM model can be projected in context to guide
construction teams on-site, and later, by facility management teams when evaluating required
changes or maintenance work.
? The Digital to Physical Axis
Holographic display is not limited to 3D models. In fact, using Microsoft HoloLens, multi-layered
datasets can be overlaid as holograms on the real world. A partial list includes 2D documents,
energy analysis, light simulation, acoustics, layout data, and equipment metadata. Presenting data
in context like that improves communication and leverages confidence in decision-making.
? Office to Field Axis: Design to Build, Build to Design
Sharing up-to-date design data with on-site teams is crucial in the dynamic construction
environment. Using Mixed Reality technology, construction teams can access geo-located,
context-based data, which can be projected and anchored to the physical environment around
them. The ability to map the as-build physical environment supports communication from the
field to the office and completes the Build to Design – Design to Build loop.

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CHAPTER 3 – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Framework of research methodology
This research study is mainly divided into six stages, including research, analysis, design, testing and
commissioning, comment, discussion and conclusion.

Figure 3.1: Research methodology framework
Step 1
Literature review
•Studying the background information of safety management
and development of MR technology
Step 2
Idea Development
•Exploration and idea brainstorming
•Analysis current situation and explore the feasibility of MR
GLASS in demolition work
Step 3
Preliminary Design
•Preliminary Design System of MR GLASS
•Design and develop the prototype of MR GLASS and the
program
Step 4
Testing and
Commissioning
•Testing on the design of MR GLASS
•Repeat Step 3 Design if the result is not acceptable
Step 5
Commenting
•Evaluation and feedback
•Data collection from interviews and take comment from
safety specialist in the construction industry
Step 6
Discussion and Conclusion
•Discussing the limitation and feasibility of MR GLASS
•Discussing the future development of MR GLASS

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3.2 Literature review
Literature review is the first step of this research study. To developing the framework of
DEMOLITION GLASS, it is essential to know the development of safety industry in Hong Kong and
also the development of different technology.
Literature review is about reviewing on current safety management in Construction Industry, and
development of virtual reality technology, augmented reality technology, diminishing reality and
mixed reality technology by studying information of construction safety in Hong Kong and variety
technology development found on books, journals, government publication, academic paper, website
and video. It aims to achieve basic understanding to build a new topic above. And the followings are
the aspects of literature review:
? Overview of construction safety management and risk management
To review current construction safety management and risk management can help
understanding more about current development and also the limitation of safety management.
It also provides us more information on type of construction accidents commonly happened
and also demolition work regulation. The principle behind WSB, Design for Safety and SRM
formed a basis for developing new idea in improving current safety situation.
? VR, AR, DR and MR technologies
For the reviews on the VR, AR, DR and MR technologies, it provides basic knowledge on
development and principle of these technologies. It helps understanding the principle and also
current limitation of these technology, which can helps developing a design of DEMOLITION
GLASS.
? Review on application of VR, AR, DR and MR technologies
To review on application of VR, AR, DR and MR technologies, it helps understanding the
current development of these technology in different industry. Besides, it is useful to design

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the DEMOLITION GLASS by taking advantages of other industry usage on these technologies
because some function of these technologies are performing well in other industry.
3.3 Idea development
With the detail literature review on background and principle of safety management and VR, AR and
MR technologies. It is confirmed that research will be conducted on innovative technology using in
monitoring and improving demolition safety. This stage will be the milestone of the whole research
study because it is first step of design development. The preliminary idea of DEMOLITION GLASS
camp up after discussion between safety specialist, Dr. Ivan Fung and Mr. Peter Lai. Suggestion and
idea are as below:
? Demolition Sequence
Demolition sequence is one of the major consideration in demolition works. It can lead to fatal
accidents if the demolition sequence is not clearly defined. From the view of DEMOLITION
GLASS, supervisor, client and government official can see the step and route of demolition
sequence without seeing the floor plan and working plan, which is taking advantage of AR driving
technology Figure 3.2. It help supervisor, client and government official tracking the working
progress and check if there is any wrong working sequence and potential danger.
? Structural Member and Unauthorized Building Work (UBW)
Demolishing structural member and unauthorized building work (UBW) may lead to instability
of building. In this research study, supervisor, client and government official can easily identify
the structural member and UBW by wearing the DEMOLITION GLASS, which the structural
member and UBW are highlighted as red. It is very useful for site walking to check if there is any
potential danger. Besides, it can serve as a warning system to remind the workers and site
supervisor government official and supervisor can easily check the working progress. With this
function, problems of structural member misjudgment and incorrect demolition method can be
avoided.

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? Alignment Checking
Temporary supports such as propping are usually use in demolition work. However, the
malfunction of temporary supports can lead to building collapse. So, alignment checking towards
temporary supports are important to demolition work. Furthermore, spacing of scaffolding is also
important. Recently, “falling from height” happen time to time again. Therefore, adding a function
for checking spacing of scaffolding is helpful to inspector to check if scaffolding is fulfilling legal
requirement or not.
? Hazardous Material
Old building usually consists of different hazardous substances, such as asbestos, PCBs, wood
preservatives, etc. Among all these hazardous substances, asbestos and PCBs may causes cancer.
Therefore, suggestion has been made about adding warning system which connect to sensor. The
warning will be shown on the view of DEMOLITION GLASS when the sensor detects any
hazardous material or substance in the demolition site. Figure 3.3. This function can help
government offical track if there is mishandling for some abestos company. It offer supervision
and monitoring for abestos company in order to prevent mishandling cases from happening.

Figure 3.2: AR Driving technology Figure 3.3: Alignment Checking an
Source: Head-up Displays Warning System Example
Source: I. (2017)
3.4 Preliminary Design
After brain storming with Dr. Ivan Fund and Mr. Peter Lai, the preliminary design and development
of application is started. At the current stage, a product, MOVERIO BT-300 Figure 3.4, provided by
Mr. Peter Lai for better understanding of AR technology. It has some limitations such as feeling

34

dizziness and overlapping with reality and virtual environment while wearing the glass because it is
an old model. So, single side glass design has been proposed as DEMOLITION GLASS. Secondly,
the program prototype is being developed with advice of Mr. Peter Lai.

Figure 3.4: EPSON MOVERIO BT-300
3.5 Testing and Commissioning
At this stage, basic function of DEMOLITION GLASS will be tested. To ensure there is no
malfunction, modification will be carried out time to time for fine-tuning the application. Besides,
thanks for Dr. Ivan Fung’s supporting, there will be continuous meeting with technical and safety
experts for seeking advice on the DEMOLITION GLASS development.

Figure 3.5: Meeting With safety specialist, ISHP Meeting

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3.6 Commenting
At this stage, the qualitative method has been chosen for evaluation and commenting on the developed
DEMOLITION GLASS in demolition work. Face to face interview are chosen as qualitive method.
Face to face interview is widely use in primary research. With face to face interview, interviewer can
gain a deep insight to specific answers like a discussion with the interviewee.
Upon this stage, advanced interview with Mr. Peter Lai will be continued to seek advice on developing
the DEMOLITION GLASS system. Moreover, invitation will be send to safety specialist from ISHP
to get deep insight of current construction work and demolition work development and also the safety
policy.
3.7 Discussion and Conclusion
Information will be analyzed and presented after collecting deep insight from face to face interviews.
Furthermore, feasibility, advantages, disadvantages, limitation and future development of
DEMOLITION GLASS implemented into demolition work will be discussed in this part. Also,
conclusion will be made on expected performance of DEMOLITION GLASS in demolition work.

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CHAPTER 4 – DESIGN DEVELOPMENT OF DEMOLITION
GLASS
4.1 Introduction
The basic concept of DEMOLITION GLASS is to enable monitoring carry in an easier and more
accurate way by showing the details from the view of the DEMOLITION GLASS so as to minimize
the potential danger in demolition industry. Wearing the glass in demolition site, details such as
demolition sequence, element details, warning can all be shown in the view of the DEMOLITION
GLASS.
The target end users of this DEMOLITION GLASS are government official, clients and safety
practitioners in demolition industry. They can enter the demolition site to check all technical details,
elements details, demolition sequence simply using looking around. Route will be shown on the view
in order to facilitate the end users finding certain position. The development of DEMOLITION
GLASS is to enhance safety performance of demolition site by offering more strict and efficient
monitoring.
With the assistance of DEMOLITION GLASS, the end users can check if the demolition work is
coherent with the working plan in a faster and easier way. It is also beneficial to clients that they can
supervise and monitor working progress without technical details. DEMOLITION GLASS should be
a way to enhance safety performance of demolition industry.
4.2 Proposed DEMOLITION GLASS Model and Equipment
4.2.1 Revit Model
Before design any MR model, a virtual model need to be set up first and Revit will be the application
we used to create the virtual building model. The very first step of design a MR product is to create a

37

new world and then immerse it into the reality. Below is the proposed project Revit model:

Figure 4.1: Proposed Virtual Building Layout

Figure 4.2: Proposed Virtual Building Inside

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4.2.2 Immerse – Unity
Unity is a cross-platform game engine developed by Unity Technologies, which is primarily used to
develop both three-dimensional and two-dimensional video games and simulations for computers,
consoles, and mobile devices. (Unity, 2018)
1. Start Unity and create a new 3D project since VR or MR is not 2D
2. Select File -> Build Settings from the Editor menu
3. Select the “Windows Universal” platform and click “Switch Platform”
4. Click the “Player Settings” button to bring up the Unity Player Settings window in the right-hand
inspector. Scroll to the bottom of the Inspector and select “XR Settings” and click to expand it
5. Check the “Virtual Reality Supported” option and that “Windows Mixed Reality” is listed in the
options.
6. After setup of the Unity project, return to the scene view and select the Main Camera.
7. Last but not least, input the Revit model into the Unity 3D project.

Figure 4.3: Step 1 of creating MR scene

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Figure 4.4: Step 2 of creating MR scene

Figure 4.5: Step 3 of creating MR scene

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Figure 4.6: Step 4 of creating MR scene

Figure 4.7: Step 5 of creating MR scene

Figure 4.8: Step 6 of creating MR scene

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4.2.3 Toolkits
Toolkits is used to add interactivity in to the project, like adding button on the view of screen. Below
are some example of toolkits:
1. The Mixed Reality Toolkit
It is a toolkit developed by Microsoft for building Mixed Reality solutions natively. Originally, it
is based on the concept of HoloLens which provide HoloLens support. And it now provides new
immersive Mixed Reality headsets.

Figure 4.9: The Mixed Reality Toolkit
2. The Asset Store from Unity
Unity Asset Store contains of numerous content and most of them are free. Most of the content are
pre-existing VR platforms such as Oculus and Vive.

Figure 4.10: The Asset Store from Unity

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3. The Unity VR Sample asset
This is another support in Unity, which provides some common function like VR menus and scenes.
Furthermore, it provides some advance function for games like a shooting range, a 3D ship dodge
game controlled, etc.

Figure 4.11: The Unity VR Sample asset

4. The VRToolKit
It is also an asset on the Unity, it provides open source project for reference. It also provides
numbers of VR interaction profile, like arrow, route, button, picking up features, etc.

Figure 4.12: The VRToolKit
4.2.4 Alternative Technology – Lead-8
Lead-8 taking advantage of laser scanning, point clouds and BIM. (I., 2016) The basic concept is
to capture the real environment and convert it to data and BIM. With this technology, BIM model
of DEMOLITION GLASS can be created in an easier way.
The device Lead-8 basically shoots a laser at the target and then captures the data in return. It
scans a vertical line and pivots a small degree and then scans the next vertical lines and continues.

43

It also does a 270-degree scan to picks up a 360-degree space. The machine can then capture or
record all the things it can see.
In demolition industry, I think the biggest benefit is conducting surveying existing spaces. In a
couple of hours, we can create a survey of an existing facility, which is an exact representation of
the building. We can measure the floor areas and plan for further action.

Figure 4.13: Lead-8 simulation

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Figure 4.14: Lead-8 Capture

Figure 4.15: Lead-8 BIM Model

45

CHAPTER 5 – PROPOSED AND FUTURE APPLICATIONS OF
DEMOLITION GLASS
5.1 Proposed Applications of DEMOLITION GLASS
Demolition industry is a high hazard industry, promotion of DEMOLITION GLASS as a monitoring
tools to put subcontractors on their guard which government and client can easily track, check and
monitor their working progress.
5.1.1 Government Inspection
As mentioned in chapter 2, detailed planning of temporary structure, protection and method of
demolition are required to submit to Building Department for approval. However, not all the workers
or subcontractors will follow the plan or formal procedure. One of the major usages for DEMOLITION
GLASS is to ease government official to check if the demolition work is deviated from the planning
submitted previously. Government official can check the demolition sequence, structural member,
alignment of temporary support and also asbestos warning system after they are wearing the
DEMOLITION GLASS.
First, number will be assigned to each member to identify the correct demolition sequence and
structural member will easily be recognized throughout the view of DEMOLITION GLASS which
will be highlighted as red. It promoted as a warning to the subcontractor that government official can
easily track the working progress and check if the demolition work conducted in a correct and same
way as the planning.
Secondly, the asbestos warning system will be installed in the demolition site. The asbestos warning
systems consists of asbestos sensor and warning alert connect to the DEMOLITION GLASS and also
supervisor’s phone. It offers a monitoring system towards specialist contractors to check if they handle
asbestos properly or not. As asbestos can serious affect workers’ health, government should issue a

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warning first if the specialist contractors mishandle case were found. If it happens again, government
should take out their license.
5.1.2 Client’s Monitoring
Not all clients have technical knowledge to understand what the demolition site is going on, client can
be well understood the sequence, route and technical details with the support of DEMOLITION
GLASS. As mentioned previously, number and route will be assigned to the member and the floor to
show the correct sequence of work. Client can easily show his way to different phrase of work and
check if it is the same as the submitted working plan. Besides, to avoid clients are misled by
subcontractor, technical details will be shown on the view of DEMOLITION GLASS and potential
dangers will be listed out the if the work is not carried out as the working plan. Therefore, it offers a
threat to subcontractors that clients know what you are doing now so as to prevent them from doing
their work recklessly. By this, accident made by person can be minimize.
5.1.3 Supervisor’s Monitoring
All supervisors should be TCP T2 which they should be one of the people responsible for any problems
found in demolition work. To ensure supervisor can check if the work is the same as the working plan
more conveniently, suggestion has been made that supervisor can wear DEMOLITION GLASS so as
to achieve efficient supervision work.
5.1.4 Excavator Operator
In demolition industry, it is normal practice to remove propping before demolition begin because of
potential damages to propping. So, it is really dangerous for someone operate an excavator without
any temporary support. Operators can only operate where structural elements are and the normal
practice is to spray the structural elements into certain colors. However, it will be much easier if the
operator can see from the view of the DEMOLITION GLASS. So, suggestion has been made to
highlight all structural elements in red color so as to minimize the chance of operating the excavator

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in wrong position.
5.2 Future Application of DEMOLITION GLASS
DEMOLITION GLASS has high flexibility and possibility to extend to other applications in the future
development with more advance technology and functions. Ultimate goal is to enable all workers
wearing DEMOLITION GLASS in the demolition site to enhance safety performance in a larger extent.
5.2.1 Demolition Simulation
DEMOLITION GLASS is now focusing the safety performance inside the site by monitoring the
activities inside the site. There is already some demolition simulation or building construction
simulation model by using BIM. It would be great to immerse all the simulation into the reality. For
instance, choose different demolition sequence to see what the building will actually happen from the
view through the DEMOLITION GLASS. And also, some big accidents for demolition industry can
be shown through the DEMOLITION GLASS to remind all the dangers of demolition industry.
5.2.2 Case-based safety training and Education
Applying the concept of demolition simulation, it is not only helping safety training but also education.
Before the workers work, invite them to attend a safety training by creating a virtual demolition site,
so as to remind the proper working procedure, potential danger and importance of safety in a
demolition industry. Besides training for workers, education can also be offered towards engineer
students or professional engineer. By indicating the dangerous areas, potential dangers and safety
warning of demolition site, it increases engineer’s attention and awareness to prevent workers from
carrying dangerous action like working at height without using safety belt.

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5.2.3 Safety Walk
Combine with the technology with RFID, safety officer can check if workers are wearing helmet,
earplugs or gloves. Warning will be shown onto the view of DEMOLITION GLASS if someone is
not probably wear their safety gear.

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CHAPTER 6 – RESULTS AND ANALYSIS FOR INTERVIEWS
6.1 Introduction
In order to gather in-depth feedback on the research topic and proposed functions of DEMOLITION
GLASS, two interviews were conducted from different field of experienced safety professionals and
construction professionals. The interview questions are related to technical issues of DEMOLITION
GLASS, insight of the demolition industry and the feasibility of DEMOLITION GLASS in demolition
industry. The interviewees are a construction professional from a main contractor company and a
demolition and safety professional.
6.2 Interview with Mr. Paul Chan
Mr. Paul Chan is a Project Director from CR Construction Company Limited. He participated a
contract sum of around 100 million government demolition project 10 years ago. The interview was
conducted on 9/3 along with my classmates. The whole interview took around 1 hour and 30 minutes.
In the interview, he shared insight of the demolition project, safety performance in demolition industry
and assisted in idea development.

Figure 6.1: Interview photo with Mr. Paul Chan, 9/3/2018
6.2.1 Normal Practice in Demolition Industry
Mr. Paul Chan said that before starting any demolition work, building survey and structural survey are

50

required to gather information like the structural stability, create a floor plan, building service utilities
position, etc. These information help to create a demolition plan in correct sequence to prevent
potential collapse and accidents from happening. However, safety performance in demolition site are
not clearly indicated, safety performance usually depends on experienced supervisor and monitoring.
Furthermore, Mr. Paul Chan also shared some experience during demolition work. The very first step
is to cut off the supply of building service utilities so as to prevent potential accidents such as explosion,
electric shock, fire, etc. After that temporary support is required to be installed for government
supervision and structural stability. However, it is common practice in demolition industry that
temporary support will be demolished right after government inspection. It is because temporary
support may receive damages from the falling debris or object during the demolition work, sub-
contractor will demolish the temporary support in order to protect their capital in good shape.

Figure 6.2: Main Parts of Demolition Project
6.2.2 Asbestos Handling
Asbestos is commonly found in old building’s facilities that required heat insulation such as switch
room, lift machines rooms, vinyl floor tiles, etc. Mr. Paul Chan shared that asbestos handling is very
serious in demolition industry because asbestos can serious affect workers’ health. Basic procedure is
to prepare asbestos investigation report once if supervisor suspect asbestos can be found on site. After
that, asbestos abatement and management plan need to be prepared to submit to Building Department.
In asbestos handling, registered asbestos contractors are required to handle asbestos. The specialist
Building Survey
•Abestos
detection
•Building
Service
Utilities
•Structural
Stability
Structural
Survey
•Floor Plan
•Rebound Test
•In-depth
investigation
of Structural
Problems
Demolition Plan
•Demolition
Sequence
•Demolition
Method
•Delivery
Routing of
debris
Demolition
Work
•Cut off the
Supply of
Building
Service
Utilities
•Temporary
Support
Installation

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subcontractors will wear protections and process asbestos in a sealed room so as to prevent spread of
asbestos.

Figure 6.3: Normal Practice of Asbestos Handling in Demolition Industry
Step 8
ASbestos Management Plan
Step 7
Method Statements for asbestos removal
Step 6
Format of Asbestos Investigation Report
Step 5
Material and Hazard Assessment
Step 4
Bulk Sampling
Step 3
Asbestos-Containing Materials (ACM) Identification
Step 2
Site Investigation
Step 1
Asbestos Investigation Planning

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6.2.3 Comment on DEMOLITION GLASS
Mr. Paul Chan agree that it is a good idea to visualize monitoring and supervision process for
government officials and clients. He also agrees that it can promote subcontractor to follow the formal
demolition, but he concerned that it may be too late to wait government inspection or clients’
monitoring. So, suggestion has been made to apply DEMOLITION GLASS to supervisor as
supervisors are T2 TCP which is responsible for site safety supervision and they will work in a site
every day. So, it is better to also provide DEMOLITION GLASS to supervisor to visualize and
facilitate their monitoring and supervision work. Furthermore, Mr. Paul Chan also suggested that it
should be good to apply DEMOLITION GLASS to the excavator operator as one of DEMOLITION
GLASS function is to show structural member and route. He mentioned that it is common practice of
registered excavator operator to operate the machine on the floor with support from structural element.
He said that it will be great if the operator can see visualized route from DEMOLITION GLASS so as
to ensure correct route and prevent machine falling and floor collapse.
6.3 Interview with Ms. TANG Mung Yi, Dreams
Ms. TANG Mung Yi, Dreams is a Managing Director from Construction Safety & Engineering
Consultants Limited. She took part in demolition industry for 3 years and now mainly participating in
bridge construction which also include some demolition work. The interview was conducted on 12/3.
The whole interview took around 30 minutes. In the interview, she shared insight of the demolition
project and safety performance in demolition industry and assisted in idea development.
6.3.1 Incorrect Practice in Demolition industry
Major discussion of incorrect practice during this interview include asbestos handling, demolition
sequence, scaffolding erection etc.
6.3.1.1 Incorrect Practice in Asbestos Handling
Ms. Tang shares that there are always mishandling cases in small demolition project. She mentioned

53

that she saw registered subcontractors just buried asbestos underground right after clearing asbestos
from certain structure. The reason behind this is formal procedure of handling asbestos required a long
period of time and large amount of money. Furthermore, she mentioned that specialist subcontractor
often remove asbestos without any protection. Asbestos has no immediate effect to workers so they
think that asbestos is not harmful to them. However, asbestos can cause fibrotic lung disease (asbestosis)
and changes in the lining of the chest cavity (pleura) if people are exposed for long periods of time.
Moreover, it will not only affect the demolition workers and specialist subcontractor but also future
workers.
6.3.1.2 Incorrect Practice in Demolition Sequence
Ms. Tang said that demolition workers are always experienced, they always demolish building
structure base on their experiences instead of formal working plan. Furthermore, it is difficult to ask
them to follow supervisors’ or engineer’s order because workers are often more experienced. However,
incorrect demolition sequence or mistakes in identification of structural member can lead to serious
damages and accidents.
6.3.2 Comment on DEMOLITION GLASS
Ms. Tang agreed that it can offer warning to demolition subcontractor and registered subcontractor if
DEMOLITION GLASS is applied into demolition industry for better monitoring and supervision. My
original idea is to offer DEMOLITION GLASS to workers to ensure they know correct demolition
plan without looking to the floor plan or do not know how to read the plan. Ms. Tang mentioned that
it is difficult for experienced workers to accept new technology and follow the instruction from the
view of DEMOLITION GLASS. Furthermore, it will be too expensive for every worker to wear
DEMOLITION GLASS. Therefore, only monitoring and supervision function are offered to
DEMOLITION GLASS.

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CHAPTER 7 – Discussion
7.1 Introduction
This chapter concludes the results from face-to-face interviews, adopt and collect opinions on the
proposed applications of DEMOLITION GLASS, suggested improvements of the DEMOLITION
GLASS idea. Moreover, the benefits and concerns of DEMOLITION GLASS apply into demolition
industry are discussed.
7.2 Opinion on adoption of DEMOLITION GLASS
In general, the idea of DEMOLITION GLASS is supported from different groups of experts and
professionals. During the stage of idea, the preliminary idea of DEMOLITION GLASS came up after
discussion between safety specialist from ISHP. They hold positive attitude for the set-up of the
DEMOLITION GLASS. It is based on theory and function in the aspect of monitoring, supervision.
inspection and demolition work.
With the comments, the prototype of DEMOLITION GLASS was developed and introduced to
interviewees from construction professional, safety professional and demolition professional. They are
all agreed that urban renewal should be the trend of construction and a good idea to adopt
DEMOLITION GLASS in demolition industry.
7.3 Function and applications of DEMOLITION GLASS
One of the typical functions of DEMOLITION GLASS is visualize the demolition sequence and details.
The users can identify the correct demolition sequence and technical details by following the route
from the view of DEMOLITION GLASS. Consequently, DEMOLITION GLASS is concentrated on
safety monitoring, supervision and excavator operation. With DEMOLITION GLASS, government
official, clients and supervisor can monitoring supervise work in a more efficient way.

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7.4 Benefits of DEMOLITION GLASS
There are 4 benefits of DEMOLITION GLASS in terms of safety performance in demolition work.
1. Visualize the monitoring and supervision system through the view of DEMOLITION GLASS for
assisting the government official, clients and supervisor in work monitoring and safety inspection.
2. Establish a convenience and efficient technology in carrying safety management in demolition
industry.
3. Provide safety protection to excavator operator to minimize danger of falling.
4. Provide an immediate review and disclosure of unsafe performance and potential danger so as to
promote faster improvement.
7.5 Limitation of DEMOLITION GLASS
Basically, some constraints were found in DEMOLITION GLASS after this research. Firstly,
nowadays technology is not advance enough to know all the unknown constraints in demolition site.
Construction method may have changed a lot, a lot of technical details were yet not recorded. So,
detailed survey is also needed even DEMOLITION GLASS apply in demolition site. Besides,
nowadays MR technology is not yet well developed, it may have some malfunction in DEMOLITION
GLASS and also blur image through the view of DEMOLITION GLASS. Furthermore, dizziness issue
was found in the testing and commissioning period.
7.6 Safety concerns about DEMOLITION GLASS
DEMOLITION GLASS cannot record sudden changes in demolition site, it can only record the which
structure were demolished by the change of floor plan. However, demolition site contains many debris
or some slab opening. If someone is too rely on the DEMOLITION GLASS, it may lead to potential
dangers.
7.7 Suggested improvements for DEMOLITION GLASS
DEMOLITION GLASS is still at design stage. It is not well-developed. Improvements are important

56

to make it feasible in demolition industry. First, more functions should be applied. Possible functions
are demolition safety training, measure, RFID. With more functions, DEMOLITION GLASS can
cover more aspect of safety performance to minimize the chance of accidents. Secondly, single sided
of MR glass should be adopted. It is used to minimize the chance of people are too rely on the
DEMOLITION GLASS. However, single sided MR glass is not yet well-developed. Last,
DEMOLITION GLASS should be installed with a camera to record daily work task and demolition
activities. It can further improve the supervision and trace back of wrong practice.

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CHAPTER 8 – Conclusion and Recommendation
8.1 Summary
This research developed the DEMOLITION GLASS from idea brainstorming, consultation, interview
and design. The final idea and showdown of the system is ultimately finished with the support of
various experts. The principle and process of DEMOLITION GLASS design has been illustrated and
demonstrated in the research. With the development of the DEMOLITION GLASS, this research also
explored the feasibility of DEMOLITION GLASS apply in monitoring and supervision in demolition
industry.
The DEMOLITION GLASS should be effective in assisting monitoring, supervision and working in
demolition industry. Meeting and face-to-face interviews were carried out for the evaluation. Based on
the results collects, the DEMOLITION GLASS received positive review. Future improvement can
make DEMOLITION GLASS work more effectively in technical, user-friend and safety aspect.
Limitation are also stated as research methods to explore the potential problems of DEMOLITION
GLASS.
8.2 Research Objectives Review
The ultimate goal of this research is to develop the DEMOLITION GLASS idea to assist in safety
monitoring and enhance safety performance in demolition industry. This research, face-to-face
interviews and prototype should be evidence to prove DEMOLITION GLASS is practical and feasible
in demolition industry.
8.3 Research Findings
This research has developed DEMOLITION GLASS prototype and proposed the application on
monitoring, supervision and work in demolition industry. The major research finding of this project
are from interviews of safety professional and construction professional. The interviews were
conducted in a basis of current technology and feasibility of applying the system into demolition site.

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The results from the interviews confirm that DEMOLITION GLASS is feasible and the
implementation of DEMOLITION GLASS in demolition safety should enhance the safety
performance demolition industry. All the safety practitioners and construction professional expressed
positive attitude towards the adoption of new technologies and development of DEMOLITION
GLASS. However, they all concerns on the programming of the system and potential loophole of it.
Since the DEMOLITION GLASS is still at the testing stage, they pointed out it maybe difficult to ask
the experienced person to accept such technology. That is why further study should be required for
investigation and revision.
8.4 Limitations
8.4 .1 Limited time
DEMOLITION GLASS involves a lot of computer programming and setting up. The research studies
also include many technological issues of Virtual Reality, Augmented Reality and Mixed Reality. The
time is not enough for the whole construction of DEMOLITION GLASS as program composing and
debugging requires time. Therefore, it is just a prototype for demonstrating the ideas and not yet been
well-developed for actual application in demolition site.
8.4.2 Limited resources
The adoption of DEMOLITION GLASS in safety management is a whole new idea. There are not
resources, like research papers or books, computer programming for being reference. Most of the set
up starts from zero. The production of the MR glass, linkage between glass and the programme, lead-
86 etc. Therefore, only one functions are proposed in this research by complex and complicated
programming. This cannot fully cost friendly for single functions and limited applications in risk
assessment.

59

8.4.3 Technical Limitations
For implementation of the DEMOLITION GLASS in demolition safety, there are some challenges
need to be settled. Technical problem is one of the items. As the knowledge of computer science is
insufficient, the idea of function conveyed to the DEMOLITION GLASS is highly relying on the
ability of the programmer from the field of computer science. Furthermore, DEMOLITION GLASS
requires a supercomputer to combine vision capture from lead-18 to convert it back to BIM or else it
takes too much time and costly for building a new BIM model. However, it is feasible in today’s
technology but in complex form. DEMOLITION GLASS relies on Wi-Fi network connection between
inside the site. But, the connection is not stable due to the technical limitation.
8.5 Recommendation
To facilitate the use of DEMOLITION GLASS in demolition industry, it should be constructed first
by solving the technical problems. Professionals from computer science should be employed for
further study this research so the idea can be conveyed in to real product and functional in demolition
safety management. After solving the technical problems, more functions of the system are able to be
developed, training programme and safety walk in construction site can be generated to further enhance
the performance of DEMOLITION GLASS. Moreover, advanced technology is developed slowly in
construction industry and not commonly used. Promotion about the idea of DEMOLITION GLASS
can be made to introduce the benefits of applying in safety management. Therefore, it is worth to be
further exploited. It is recommended more researches can be conducted on DEMOLITION GLASS in
other aspects.
8.5 Further Study
DEMOLITION GLASS has high research and development values for further study. During face-to-
face interview, the safety practitioners pointed out the design idea is innovative and feasible. They
provided some directions in developing DEMOLITION GLASS. Firstly, more functions are required,

60

such as function of measurement, template showing the related regulation, more flexible structure of
view in DEMOLITION GLASS. In adding the more functions to DEMOLITION GLASS, some
researches about the system and RFID should be deeply dilled. Secondly, the development of the glass
may require collaboration with student from computer science for dealing the programming in the
further study. Thirdly, as only DEMOLITION GLASS prototype is illustrated, it is worth to conduct
quantitative survey with large sample size seeking the opinions from different fields of safety
practitioners, such as consultants, main contractors, sub-contractors, safety auditors. In addition,
survey from interview can be further carried out in order to explicit the needs and improvements of
DEMOLITION GLASS after a upgraded design is proposed.

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