Department of Commerce
Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan
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It is not possible for anyone to know everything in this world, but the best way of learning something is to go through it.
I dedicate my internship report to my parents, friends and teachers, I am thankful to Almighty Allah giving me an opportunity to get higher education, then I am thankful to my father for giving me higher education and my mother for doing prays for my success.
I am also thankful to director and teachers of my institute for their kind support and commitment for providing good environment and quality education.
I am very happy that I have successfully completed my internship report on Pakistan Railways. The internship report is an endeavor of a lot of people who continuously help and assisted me to complete it.
I am also thankful to the management of Pakistan Railways, and the people of Pakistan Railways who provided me useful information, Mr. Javaid Iqbal whose valuable co-operation, encouragement and support to complete my internship report.
Words are lacking to express my humble obligation to my great Mother and Father, for their prays in my whole life and cooperation in completion of this project.
Table of Contents
Executive Summary 7
Briefing on Pakistan Railways 8
Organization history: 9
Railway moto: 10
Organization of GM/Operations 11
Railways at a Glance 11
Passenger Carrying Trains 12
Divisions of Pakistan Railway 13
Pakistan Railway Multan 13
Organization Chart Multan Division 14
Map of Multan Division 14
Multan Railway Station 15
Sanctioned Strength of Officers in Multan Division 16
Salient Features of Multan Division 17
Functions of Accounts Department 17
Main Division of Work 18
Inspection of Books of Account 18
Learning as an Internee 19
Divisional Account Office 20
E section: 20
X section: 22
Finance section: 22
Cases of Local Purchase 22
Verification of Estimates 22
Temporary Labor Appointment (TLA) 23
Audit Communication 23
GPF section: 23
Form of General Provident Fund Journals 24
Cheques section: 28
Inspection section: 29
Program of Inspection 29
Notice of Inspection 29
General Instructions 29
Book section: 30
Annual Report 31
General Books 31
General Cash Book/ Daily Abstract of Cash Transactions 31
Journal Vouchers 33
Totaling the Journal 33
1110. The Ledger 34
Closing the General Books 34
SWOT Analysis 37
PEST Analysis 38
Political factors: 38
Economic factors: 38
Social factors: 38
Technological factors: 38
The main purpose of this internship report is to fulfill the partial requirement of the degree of BS (A/F) and to become familiar with the practical working conditions of business organization.
Pakistan Railway has the sole rights to conduct the operation of rail in whole country. It provides lot of facilities to the people of different field in shape of carrying passengers and transport of goods from all around the country.
Pakistan Railway is one of the largest organization of the country. It also plays a vital role in reducing the unemployment rate in the country.
Pakistan Railway is also providing many facilities to business community, not only within country but also across the border like rail link with India.
Briefing on Pakistan Railways
Pakistan Railways is the state-owned railway company Pakistan. It is a large organization under the administration of Ministry of Railway. But now Pakistan Railways has facing many problems. With budget are deficit, market share down and corruption scandals, the future of Pakistan Railways once the life line of the country is grim. At the time of independence both India and Pakistan, inherited the Railway Network laid down by British. While Indian Railways is emerged as a highly profitable organization, Pakistan Railway has struggling to keep itself running.
This internship offered me an opportunity to gain experience in the high-stakes finance organization. The primary objective of the project is to or determine the actual financial status and performance of an organization
Following are important objectives of studying the organization:
? Monitor the adequacy and effectiveness of the internal control system.
? check of the company’s financial condition.
?describe the impact of financial decisions organization.
? To examine Revenue and expenses.
First public railway was opened by Jessop with the name of the Surrey iron Railway in South London in 1803 which was drawn by horses.
The development of the steam engine during the Industrial revolution in the United Kingdom spurred ideas for mobile steam locomotives that could haul trains on track in the 1820s, which made use of steam locomotives was first practical form of mechanized rail transport and remained primary form of mechanized land transport for next 100 years.
Experiments of electrical railway were started by Robert David on 1838. He completed a battery-powered carriage capable of 6.4 km/h. world war II increase this cost and the war had forced improvements in internal engine technology and made diesel locomotives cheaper and powerful. This caused many railway change system and select this way for trains.
Sir Henry Edward Frere was appointed commissioner of Sindh after Bombay in 1847. It was he who discovered the potential of Karachi and give the idea of a Railway line to country. In 1855 Mr. Frere recommended to the Government that Karachi should be made a seaport. The survey for construction of a Railway line from Karachi was started in 1858.Initially a Railway line was proposed from Karachi city to Kotare.
The 13th of May,1861 was historical day when the first Railway line was opened for public traffic between Karachi city and Kotare. In 1875 line convert into double track. Different section of this part of Railway in the Sub-continent, which now comprise Pakistan Railways, were constructed in the in the last quarter of the 19th century and early part of the 20th century. Unlike other Rail networks in the Sub-continent during British times, most sections of Pakistan Railways were constructed as strategic lines to safeguard the British Empire in the Sub-continent. It is an interesting coincidence that the present alignment of Railway line from Peshawar to Karachi closely follows Alexander’s line of march through the Hindu-Kush to the sea.
In 1885, the Sindh, Punjab and Delhi Railways were purchased by the secretary of state for India. On 1st Junuary,1886 this line and other state Railways (the Indus valley, the Punjab Northern, inclusive of Sindh Sager Eastern section, and the Khandahar or Sindh-Pishin Southern section) were integrated and North Western State Railway was formed which was later on renamed as North Western Railway (NWR).
To provide a safe reliable, modern, efficient and cost-effective infrastructure to its customer and contribute in building the economy of Pakistan and to look after the welfare of its employees.
Basically Pakistan railway has two moto’s:
• Safety first and always
• Avoid accident at all cost
Composition of Railway Board:
? Secretary Railway Ministry as Chairman of the Board
? Secretary Communications
? Secretary Finance
? Secretary Planning ; Development
? General Manager Railway Operations
? General Manager Railway Manufacturing ; Services
? Member Finance Ministry of Railway
? Three members from Private Sector appointed by the Federal Government
Organization of GM/Operations:
Railway at a Glance:
First line opened (Karachi – Kotri) May,1861
Route Kms 7791
Track Length (Kms) 8952
Electrified Section (Kms) 286
(Lahore to Khanewal)
Passenger Coaches 1904
Freight Wagons 21730
Passengers Carried ( Million) 83.9
Passenger Revenue (Rs. Million) 10722
Freight Wagons Loaded 363564
Freight Revenue (Rs. Million) 6003
Passenger Carrying Trains:
S.No. Service No. of trains
1 Mail ; Express 19=38
2 Intercity 18=36
3 Passenger 31=62
4 Mixed 23=46
5 International 3=6
6 Karachi Shuttles 2=4
Divisions of Pakistan Railway:
For effective and efficient operations, Pakistan Railways distributed in eight main divisions geographically that are as follows:-
? Workshops Magalpura (Lahore)
Pakistan Railway Multan
Organization Chart Multan Division:
• ALL DIVISIONAL OFFICERS ARE ASSISTED BY ASSISTANT OFFICERS AND INSPECTORS / SENIOR SUBORDINATES .
Map of Multan Division:
Multan Railway Station:
Sanctioned Strength of Officers in Multan Division:
S.No. BSP Nos.
1 20 1
2 19 2
3 18 18
4 17 33
Salient Features of Multan Division:
• Centrally located largest Division.
• Spread over 17 Districts out of 34 Districts of Punjab.
• Having 1879 Route ; 2622 Track Kilometers.
• 08 Interchange points with other Railway Divisions except Quetta ; Karachi.
• Almost all oil specials originating from Karachi Port ; Rawalpindi decant in Multan Division.
• 129 stations including Multan, Sahiwal, Khanewal, Shorkot, Samasatta, Bahawalpur, Lodhran, Kotadu, Dera Ghazi Khan, Vehari, Pakpattan, Bhakkar ; Leiah.
Functions of Accounts Department
This Department of Pakistan Railways is mainly responsible for:
(a) The internal check of transactions affecting the receipts and expenditure of Pakistan Railways;
(b) Settlement of proper claims against Pakistan Railways;
(c) Keeping the accounts of Pakistan Railways in accordance with the prescribed rules;
(d) Helping the administration and executive officers of Pakistan Railways with advice whenever required or found necessary, in all matters involving Pakistan Railways finance;
(e) Generally discharging other management accounting functions such as providing financial data for management reporting, assisting inventory management, participation in purchase/contracting decisions and surveys for major schemes in accordance with the relevant rules and orders; and
(f) Seeing that there are no financial irregularities in the transactions of Pakistan Railways.
Main Division of Work:
The work in Pakistan Railways Accounts Office generally
falls under following main divisions:
(4) Engineering Accounts.
(5) Other Expenditure Accounts.
(6) Cash and Pay.
(8) General Provident Fund and Pension.
(9) Booking and Compilation.
(11) Cost Accounting (i.e. Rail Costing, workshops and factories costing, etc.)
Inspection of Books of Accounts:
The intervals at which books of account are required to be inspected by Accounts Officer in charge of the section concerned. Books of account which are required to be checked and initially by Accounts Officer at the time they are made, need not be subjected to a separate periodical inspection, but the detailed procedure prescribed in the office manuals for the posting and checking of such books of account should ensure a continuous review thereof by the officer in charge.
Learning as an Internee:
(10-06-2017 to 05-08-2017)
Railway have eight divisions and every division has separate A/C offices. In A/c offices there are separate department which perform different functions. The name of the departments are
1) E section
2) X section
3) Finance section
4) GPF section
5) Pension Section
6) Checks section
7) Book section
Divisional Accounts Office
Salary and pensions payments of employ categories in different numbers like 1 to 4, and this department deal with 1 to 3 categories employee payments and perform audit responsibilities. Salary and pensions of 1,2 and 3 categories employee pay through check or sometimes in cash. There are two section that is E1 and E2.
In this section received bills from bill section and pay bill at district level. Only deal with class III staff Salary. like Inspector, Police department etc. Salary pay to their employee different days of month.
Employees Salary day
Guards and drivers 10th
Officer Head Quarter Staff 1st
Station staff 15th
Provided also loan to their staff and also give advances. E1 section also perform these functions.
• Verification of Pay.
• Transfer Grant.
• Policy matter.
After completion of work all data entered into CO7. 50% work is computerized and 50% is manually.
E2 section is performing same function as E1 section but its perform these function for 4 categories employee, and also deal contract related work. In this there are four tour that is made four different date of payments for different employee which are
? Headquarter tour.
? A tour.
? B tour.
? C tour.
o Salary payments of local employees.
o Like A/C officers, Officer employees etc.
o Pay on 1st day of Month.
o Claass III and IV Station Staff.
o Pay on 5th of Month.
o All divisional staff included , almost 200 stations
o Running staff.
o Like guards etc.
o Pay on 10 of Month.
o Class IV staff
o Like engineering.
o Pay on 15th of Month.
E1 and E2 sections also make bill summary and passed it to the book section account and book section audit all records.
Internal audit of ICG (Inspection of costing and goods).
External audit of IS (Inspection of store).
Audit summary passed to DPM and DPM submitted this to State bank of Pakistan.
All expenditure control on X section. For any expenditure of railway this section makes a summary on estimation and submitted this summary then amount issues for expenses. Tender notes also deal this section. If anybody used Railway land this section charge to those people who used land. If any damage of railway track and any other expenses are incurred etc., all this type of expenditures deal this section. The person under which this function is performed is called contractor. He gives tenders and collect money, and also managing this money.
This is the moast important section of the accounts department that deals with all the financing activities of the organization. There are four major functions of this section that are given below:
1) Cases of local purchase
2) Verification of estimates
3) Temporary labor appointment (TLA)
4) Audit communication
Cases of Local Purchase:
The cases of local purchase of stationary, machinery etc. for the different departments of Railway are sent to the Finance section for the approval. The AAO of the section checks all the requirements of purchases and if the budget is available then he can approve the case and the purchase must be done in the presence of at least one employee of finance section.
Verification of Estimates:
For the cases of local purchase as mentioned above, a rough estimate is made which is also checked by the finance section. These estimates are verified by comparing the prices given by the different sellers, and the estimate is also compared with the composite schedule rate (CSR) that either the department has enough budget for that purchase or not. CSR is the document issued by the ministry of railway which comprises of the budget of all departments under Pakistan Railway.
Temporary Labor Appointment (TLA):
In different departments, sometimes there is need of the extra labor. For that purpose, the cases of temporary labor appointment are sent to the finance section. And the temporary labor is appointed by the finance section on short term contract basis. After the completion of the month, the next month is started after one-day break. It is because, in future no one can claim that he is the permanent employee of the organization.
Audit communication comprises of the two types of audit.
1) Internal audit
2) External audit
Internal Audit: It is done by the employees of the Pakistan Railway whose report is submitted to the Lahore Headquarter.
External Audit: It is done by the external auditor. After the audit, the auditor sends the inspection report to the respective department whose answer is being submitted within 15 days. After 15 days if the answer is not submitted then the inspection report turns into the specific report. After the 15 days of specific report if the answer is still not submitted then it changed into draft para and again after 15 days it converted into para. After becoming the para the DAO is answerable to the parliament.
This head records the credits to and payments from the General Provident Fund. In this account, all transactions relating to the General Provident Fund are recorded. In the General Provident Fund Section, a ledger account will be kept for each individual subscriber to the Fund. All transactions affecting the head “General Provident Fund” will be posted in the ledger accounts of the subscribers concerned. To ensure that the postings have been correctly made, the entries in the ledger accounts will be abstracted month by month in a statement, called the check sheet, and the totals of the check sheet reconciled monthly with the amounts credited and debited to the Fund. The aggregate balance in the ledger accounts will represent the balance under the head “General Provident Fund” in the
Financial Statements of Pakistan Railways. Currently 8257 subscribed in Multan division. Amount of loan deducted from salary and interest rate are different.
• Installment pay in 48 months.
• No deduction of zakat.
• Loan provide in the age of 40 to 50.
• Deduction of zakat at the rate of 2.5%.
• 80% refundable.
If any employee need money and want to apply for loan. Then he sent an application in GPF section. In application he also mentions reason, why he is applying for loan. If reason is acceptable then next procedure is started.
After providing a loan first step is monthly subscription of employee is opened, and every month deduction from salary are recorded. On which data are record is called check sheet. Check sheet no is (CA437) then Check sheet to ledger posting.
Monthly subscription of total data is balanced on double entry system debit or credit side. All data fulfill with the help of CO7 because Co7 is abstract summary of all information which is needed.
July to June data are recorded and four years record data in one registered.
45 years loan is provided without reason and
50 years loan is provided with reason.
Final payment of loan need some documentation which are
• NIC card.
• Railway card.
• Retirements notice.
Form of General Provident Fund Journals
The General Provident Fund Journals showing the deductions made from pay bills on account of the General Provident Fund will be in form (A. 1345).
Form of Ledger Accounts. The ledger account of each individual subscriber to the Fund will be in form A. 1346. This form will be printed on both sides of the paper. One sheet will be allotted to each subscriber so that the account for two consecutive years may be recorded in the same ledger book.
Index Registers. A numerical index to the ledger in the order of entrants will be maintained in form A.
(a) The month in which the account is opened.
(b) Account number.
(c) Subscriber name.
(d) Designation and office or department and the employee number.
(e) The month in which the account is closed.
(f) Opening of New Accounts.
When opening new account, the following points will be attended to:
(a) The subscriber’s full name, designation (and office) will be entered in the index register (A. 1347) and the ledger (A. 1346). The name of a subscriber will be spelt according to the subscriber’s own way and the same will be strictly followed in all accounts and statements.
(b) The employee number will be noted in the index registers and the ledger, so as to guard against errors in posting.
(c) All subscribers will be categorized into compartments or sections based on employee numbers, cost Centre or department. A subscriber’s number will never be altered, nor will the numbers of closed accounts be given to new members.
(d) If a Muslim member, on opening his account, makes the express request that interest be not added to his deposit, a note to this effect will be made in the index register and the words “No Interest” written on the top of the account in the ledger. Such a remark will be repeated whenever a new ledger is opened.
(e) No accounts will be opened in the name of two or more persons jointly.
The cheques of all the payments of the organization are made by this section. For the sake of payment in cash, a cheque is made for the divisional pay master (DPM). DPM takes cash from state bank and made the payments in cash.
The initial accounts records, on which the claims and accounts returns submitted to the Accounts Office are based, but which are not submitted along with them to the Accounts Office, should be inspected locally. The object of such inspections is to ensure that returns, vouchers, etc., submitted to the Accounts Office, have been correctly prepared and accord with facts, and that all initial records, on which such returns, vouchers, etc., are based, have been maintained efficiently and in a way that they can be produced as reliable evidence in a court of law, should an occasion arise. Such inspections should include the verification of cash and stores. Inspections will embrace only a test-check of the initial records of the office, but cash and stores will be checked in full.
Program of Inspection:
A program of inspections to be conducted during the
course of a year should be drawn up at the commencement of the year. In drawing up
the program, due regard should be had to the program of inspections of the Statutory
Audit staff so that an undue strain may not be imposed on the executive offices by the
accounts and audit inspections taking place within a short interval.
Notice of Inspection:
The head of the office which is proposed to be inspected
should be given sufficient notice of the probable dates of inspection, so that, he may
collect the necessary documents and arrange to be present at his headquarters to
discuss with the Inspecting Officer the results of the inspection.
During the inspection of an executive office:
(i) A detailed examination should be made to see that all the returns, bills, statements and accounts of one month submitted to the Accounts Office agree with the books and original records kept locally;
(ii) A test-check should be made, of the original records not submitted to the Accounts Office and of the accounts, returns, vouchers, etc., which are not checked in the Accounts Office or which cannot be checked adequately except locally, since the last inspection either by Accounts or Audit; and
(iii) A general review of the procedure relating to initial accounts of receipts and expenditure of cash and stores should be made with a view to making helpful suggestions towards the elimination of useless returns, redundancy of any kind and wasteful methods and to assisting the departmental officers in matters affecting accounts, budget, or the financial regularity of transactions.
All bills collected in this section. All data record in different registered and registered name used in different codes like CO7, CO8. After auditing data record in CO7 and in CO8 all data record department wise. Different department name also used in codes like
Signals department ST
Police, Medical F
In CO7 registered separately department records and in CO8 all department records. with the help of CO7 all data entered in CO8. CO8 makes requisition for purpose of check issues.
Through CO8 prepare financial statements. Every month prepare this summery and deduction of expenses from incomes and add revenues. Double entry system is used for this preparation of report. All data record on the base of vouchers. After preparation of this data then makes financial statement and on this financial statement make budget after analyses for next year expenses and revenue generated.
Make division wise report and compare with previous year.
For collecting and bringing to account the transactions of his accounts circle / accounting unit and for compiling the monthly and annual accounts, the Accounts Officer should maintain certain essential records, which, for brevity, are referred to in this Code as the “General Books” of the railway. The General Books of the railway comprise the following:
1. The Daily Abstract of Cash Transactions or the General Cash Book, Form No. A.1103 or A.1104.
2. The Monthly Classified Abstract of Cash Transactions, or the General Cash Abstract Book, Form No A. 1106.
3. The Journal, Form No. A. 1107.
4. The Ledger, Form No. A. 1110.
General Cash Book/Daily Abstract of Cash Transactions:
This record is intended to bring to account the cash transactions of the accounts office. It should be maintained in form A. 1103. It should be posted daily as indicated in paragraph 1105.
A Cash/Bank payment or receipt voucher duly signed by the competent authority should be forthcoming in support of every entry in it. It should be checked and signed by the officer in charge of the section. It should be balanced daily and the balance reconciled with that in the Cashier’s Cash Book (A. 906).
The Monthly Classified Abstract of Cash Transactions of the General Cash Abstract Book. This record, form A. 1106, should be posted daily from the totals in the Daily Abstract, of Cash Transactions (A. 1103). It should be kept in two parts, one part for receipts and the other for dis
The Journal (Edit List). All transactions whether involving the actual receipt or disbursement of cash or not should be recorded in the Journal (Edit List), form A. 1107. Each entry in the Journal should be supported by a Journal voucher in form A. 1108, cash or bank voucher, duly signed by a Gazetted Officer or competent authority.
Totaling the Journal:
The entries in the Journal (A. 1107) should be totaling up and checked by the competent authority in good time before posting into ledger of the relevant account head. The closing totals of the Journal (A. 1107) should be posted in the Ledger (A. 1110).
1110. The Ledger:
The ledger, form A. 1110, is intended to record all the transactions of the railway under the various heads of account and to exhibit the progressive balances at the end of every accounting period.
Closing the General Books:
The compiled accounts of the railway should, as a rule, be submitted so as to reach the office of the Member Finance on the prescribed date. The accounts for the month of June may, however, be submitted to reach the Member Finance not later than the date prescribed by the competent authority. The General books of the Railway should, therefore, be closed every month in good time for the compilation of the monthly accounts. The various subsidiary registers should also be totaled up, and reconciled with the General Books before the closing of next month Accounts. The certificate of reconciliation should be recorded each month in the subsidiary registers over the signature of an Accounts Officer.
All payments of bills on an open line will, as a rule, be arranged for by the Accounts Officer by issuance of cheques in the name of concerned party or in case of cash payment through the Pay. The funds required for disbursements will be obtained by cheques drawn on the State Bank of Pakistan.
All payments of bills on an open line will, as a rule, be arranged for by the Accounts Officer through cheques direct to the parties. Payments in cash are to be routed through Pay Department in accordance with the detailed rules laid down in chapter IX. The funds required for disbursement will be obtained by cheques drawn on the State Bank of Pakistan.
After a bill has been checked, the amount for which it has been passed in internal check will be entered in the column of the register (A. 204) provided
for the purpose. The register will be so kept that the particulars of all bills received
during each month are shown distinctly.
Bills received with the Settlement Account sent by the various Provincial Accountants General and other Federal Departments Accounts Officers should not be entered in the Register of Bills (A. 204). Such bills are liquidated through the Settlement Accounts. 206. Accounts Enfacement on Bills. All bills entered in the Register of Bills (A. 204) should be passed on to the sections of the Accounts Office concerned for internal check. On the completion of internal check, the bills should be enfaced showing the amount for which the claim in each case has been admitted by the Accounts Officer, the total amount deducted and the net amount payable. The allocation of the charge represented by the bill and of the credit, if any deduction is made through it, should be entered near the Accounts Office enfacement on a bill. The Accounts Office (51)
? Railway schools and Colleges.
? Law court with its own Magistrate.
? Own Electricity Production Unit.
? Own huge Land Property (167690 Acres)
? Fuel Consumption.
? Manually work.
? Railway service.
? Overloaded Trains.
? No proper check of tickets.
? In-efficiency of staff.
? Other comfortable vehicles.
? Shipment facility.
? Earning of Pakistan Railway.
? In addition to above. Twenty reservation offices have been planned to be computerized. Jacobabad, Mirpur Khas, Jahangir Road Mehrabad, Jheulm, Sargodha, Malakwal, Shorkot Cantt, Nowshera, Lalamusa , Bhakkar, Pakpattan, Kundian, Wazirabad, Toba Tek Sing, Kasur, Raiwind ,Chiniot, Landhi, Tando Adam.
? Political condition.
? Political instability.
? New investors are now more reluctant
? Economic conditions
? Due to increasing inflation, new taxes, rising fuel charges
The social environment has the following factors.
? Great importance in any industry.
? The most needed technologies of Pakistan railway are;
• Electrical engines, New railway tracks, Setup of such system that improves the Efficiency, Online ticketing, System that finds defaults in railway tracks.
Pakistan Railway provides an important mode of transportation in the farthest corners of education. Over the past many years, Pakistan Railways has been facing problems and is now on the verge of bankruptcy. With budget deficit of billions. Railway Pakistan is main source for Pakistan economy, but Railway face many problems now a day. There is not introduced new technology, many bills are unpaid, no computerized system, old infrastructure etc.
As we know that Railway sector is most important for Pakistan Economy, but now a days Railway face many problems which we discussed in this report. If we focus on Railway problems and try to solve these problems then our economy growth is increased. Following are some of the suggestions and recommendations that I want to give based on shortfalls / weaknesses found in the Pakistan Railway.
• Improve infrastructure.
• Introduce new technology.
• New investment plans are introduced.
• Land of Railway used for new projects.
• Regular staff meeting
• Encourage Brainstorming.
• Everyone accountable for their work.
• The Railway should emphasis on the organization of effective training and development
programs for its new as well as existing employees so that these are gradually
updated regarding the recent developments in the field of Railway sector.