Street children are one of the most vulnerable groups of urban poor. They face difficulties while living in the streets, and they also develop their own ways to overcome such difficulties. In many regions of the world, the phenomenon of street children is unabated, while it is emerging in others where it was unknown so far. Behind child disconnection lie highly vulnerable families and communities, many struggling to come to terms with economic liberalization and growing inequality. Disconnection can also be traced to a lack of communication in the family and the weakening of social capital. Street children are an alarm signaling the dire need for social development and poverty reduction policies to improve the situation in the community at large, and to prevent more young people from becoming marginalized. While preventive interventions are essential, those children already facing the hardships of street life need immediate opportunities for human development via special protection programs. This report distills the main lessons learned from a number of programs that have attempted to meet the special needs of street children worldwide. Its purpose is to help potential donors understand activities in this area and identify promising practices.
Character education is a process of transferring and acquiring values to children. It includes many aspects of teaching and learning for personal development such as reasoning, social and emotional learning, moral education, life skills training, community service, and health education, prevention of violence, peer mediation and ethics. The purpose of character education is raising children as insightful, caring, high-minded, righteous people and individuals who use their best capacity to do their best, and who understand the purpose of life. It also helps children to get to know and desire for the good and engaged in good actions eventually. However, transferring of values to children and putting into practice in their lives is not as easy as it is expected the use of various methods and media is necessary.
The main purpose of the ‘on’ street children is to fulfill the economic needs of their family. Some families had sent their children out to work as early as the age of 7 years. More than three-quarters earned less than the minimum wage, and half of them earned less than half the minimum wage. More than a third were not attending school and, among them, many street children have left school after going on the street.
Street-children includes both male and female but are mostly males, some have low-levels of education and mostly don’t have any educational background. They belong from those families who have five or more siblings. Parents of street-children commonly had low education and were mainly found in unskilled occupations. They survive on the streets engaging in some income-yielding activities, and they faced allots of hazards.
In Pakistan, many children are forced to work on the streets due to health-related events occurring at home which require children to play a financially productive role from an early stage.
Pakistan is facing the issue of street child like other developing countries. Increasing in population is one of the major reasons of increasing of street children. Unemployment is also a factor of increasing in street children because of that people forced children to work on street for the survival of the families (Rana ; Chaudary, 2011)
Street children of Pakistan are performing number of tasks including car washing, begging, prostitutions it is important to be sensitive to street children’s needs and requirements. Eliminating these barriers and the integration of health services among public and private resources are imperative for the regular and sustainable provision of health care to this vulnerable, under-served group of children. (Ali & Muynck, 2005)
(RosaCS, BorbaES, & GJ, 1992) is mainly focused on the street children who are more likely moved towards the poverty. This research paper is basically study that 94% children likely contribute their earnings to families who are in the age of 4 to 12 so that’s why they suggest that we need to make MCH (Maternal and Child Health) services for the street children.
This study is conducted in Pakistan and it is qualitative study in which the in depth interviews is taken from Rawalpindi Pakistan. (Abdullah, et al., A qualitative exploration of Pakistan’s street children as a consequense of the property disease cycle, 2014) The researchers work on the life stories of the children in whom the children is given information about their poverty, health related problems. They find out results that absence of education in society reduces the future opportunities of the children and due to the poverness they become street children.
Street children constitute a violent category in most societies; they have considered what society considers appropriate relationships with major institutions of childhood such as family, education and health. The study sets to examine background characteristics of street children, surviving strategies of street children, abuse experienced by street children, problems encountered on the street. The study aim to find out street children impacts on educational attainments in Punjab Pakistan (Vedadi, Aris, Iqbal, & Muneer, 2013). This research conduct in university of Malaysia .To complete this study they used sample random techniques through well-structured questionnaires and focused on 250 sample size.so the finally result shows that the abuse experience is very high by street children’s in targeted areas and abuse is increase by the increase age of the children also its discovered the socio-economics status. They children’s are need to be a better support by a society and something good for them where they do something good in effective way.
(Temiz, 2016) The purpose of this study is to design the course ‘Character Education’ in the light of the ‘experienced centered’ design and to assert an example of ‘Character Education’ course design for higher education students. Conduct the research in university of Ankara Turkey to design the course of character education on the behalf on experience centered for this they used sampling methods and collect data through open ended questionnaires, interviews and observations. They were conducted qualitative content and descriptive analysis. The sample size shows the 35 higher education students. So, they revealed that course was effective and the students accomplished the objectives of the goals. As a final result, it was clear that there was need to have character education curriculum and instructional designs from kinder garden to higher education level in Turkey. For a beginning firstly we should prepare teachers who will conduct character education in their classes according to the curriculum which is expected to developed. Therefore, this study is important in terms of cultivating future character educationist.
Similarly in same years study objective to examine the putting into practices and opinions of preschool teachers learning through storybooks and pictures. This research is conduct in turkey and used descriptive review methods and collect the group interviews to support the study. (Turan & Uluta, 2016). Study results show that character education is the important for the teachers, teachers use picture storybooks that support character education, however they find themselves partly competent in giving character education with picture storybooks, and think story books useful and effective in terms of character education, believe that teachers should be a role model in character education, and methods like drama, play, question-answer, and brainstorming are much preferred for an effective character education. Upon these results, enhancement of books that support character education in children’s literature and courses aimed at character education in preschool teaching departments can be suggested
This study is conducted in the university of Tampa to find out about the character building through the curriculum which is especially build for the children’s (Almerico, 2014) used the K-6 children for the character building and to helping in their curriculum which build the traits in the children. The researcher think that the character education developed the traits in the children and it is also based on the quality of the curriculum which is teach to the children because it enhance the children towards the study. The selection of right books for children, picture book, and text categories which is chosen for the character development for children and it is necessary to select those criteria which build or develop the character of the children.
The study aim to give character education to children for making the children leaders for future (Agboola & Tsai, 2012) states that if the parents, teachers, administrator all of them is join together on one plat form and then encourage the children so they were become more developed by the real examples of lives. This study says that main development of the character is start from the classroom because the classroom is the platform where the education is provided in a good sense. So that the moral development is necessary to take these sort of things with the help of the different peoples who are related to the children and who take active part in the development of their childern.
(Ali & Ali, 2015) Was conducted the research in Islamabad and Rawalpindi. To complete this study they used the interview technique and focused on boys under 6-8 years age so the results find out that the street children face many problems like harassment, insecurity and so on. So to reduce these types of problems by the arranging different types of programs and making the policies for the street children’s and also make such agencies which make efforts on that type of programs. It is necessary that the government, anti-poverty programs and the civil society take a part in the initiative to resolve these problems due to which these problems will no accomplish on a decided morale because combined efforts is very effective then the single efforts. So this will conclude that to make an agency which reduces the ratio of the problems which face by the street children.
This study is conducted in Pakistan and it is qualitative study in which the 19 in depth interviews is taken from Rawalpindi Pakistan and the data was written after the procedure of the research was start. (Abdullah, et al., 2014) the researchers work on the life stories of the children in which the children is given information about their poverty, health related problems from the life and real of stories of the street children the researcher analyze the factors from which they become a street children. They find that they had face may problems in there lives and also they find out results that absence of education in society reduces the future opportunities of the children and due to the poverness they become street children.
(RosaCS, BorbaES, ; GJ, 1992) is mainly focused on the street children which is more likely moved towards the poverty. This research paper is basically study that 94% children likely contribute their earnings to families who are in the age of 4 to 12 so that’s why they suggest that we need to make MCH (Maternal and Child Health) services for the street children. The researcher include that the children come out from homes and work at the age of 5 so their childhood is completely lost because of the earning of money so to reduce the amount of the street children it important to take step for their benefit.
The primary objective of this is to explore the moral building and take character exploration in the street children by the old age people because old age persons have knowledge of life experience and they have a great perception of future so this study is base on it to take the street children from down to up in terms of knowledge, building of the positive thinking in the mind of street children towards education and to give the information of reality of life
SCOPE OF THE PROJECT
This study is based on the Karachi street children so in the near future this study help. To reduce the percentage of street children is very important because it is a beneficial for the economic development of the country. If street children are morally developed in life so they did not work as a child labor. So this study help the people or other researchers that it is important for any country to decrease the percentage of street children it helps in the economy and it also take positiveness in the life style of the street children when they know about the reality of life experience by the old age people.
A journey from children to street children is a very worst part of a child life they faced so many hurdles in early age towards their home, families and life that’s why they become a street child and in a life of street children they forgot their families for earning money and they take so many responsibilities on their shoulders. In today’s era when everyone is focuses on an education or upbringing and development of a child because of a better and bright future of a country in this time street children’s can’t be neglected because they are also a very important part of a country’s development. This study focuses on street children education through old age people because old age peoples are the one who have seen each and every difficulty in their life and they are the one who knows how to tackle it by own they are the one who knew ups and downs of life and how to deal with it. They have a proper knowledge about life and they are the one who give proper lesson of life to street children are through their experience and gives teaching to street children’s in very well manners.
The target market consisted of all children in Karachi Pakistan who had been living and sleeping on the streets and had least contact with their families. Most of these street children are between ages of 7 years to 17 years. They live near shrines, religious places, and areas with a large number of food shops as they rely on charity. Girls and boys both are included in this study.
A total number of 12000 children were calculated. The sample was inflated by 10% to accommodate for data errors, incomplete entries, non-response etc. A total sample size of 1000 children was thus required. A proportionate allocation of the sample was subsequently done based on the number of street children in Karachi Pakistan.
The beginning of the recruitment process was preceded by a rapid situational assessment in target city. This information which included determination of geographical areas where street children are found as well comprehension of their group dynamics was collected for establishing broad sampling frames for execution of an effective sampling procedure in an attempt to obtain representative samples of the target groups. Informal meetings were held with various key informants having direct or indirect contact with the street living children in order to involve them in this research activity as well as to seek their help in identifying sites where these children are located and the best ways to access with them. The information obtained was verified and validated by actually visiting those locations and meeting several street children. A list of all such spots was developed which was later used to sampling and recruitment purpose.
Data Collecting Instrument
Data will be collected by trained interviewers using a structured questionnaire to gather information on various socio-demographic and personal characteristics of the individual him/herself. Each selected site was visited on different days of the week to capture the entire segments of the street children population. The interviews will be conducted during the latter half of the day when maximum number of street living children was available for interviews.
RESEARCH PROCESS OF THE STUDY
Week Research actions Design actions Course outline
1st Informing the participants about the project Conducting semi-structuring interviewing with the participants Investigate the needs of the participants and ordering the needs Determining the beginning purposes of the sessions and content of the 2nd to 5th week
2nd and 3rd Conducting semi-structured interviewing with the participants at the end of the sessions Starting to satisfy the needs on the basis of the order Presenting the theoretical knowledge about “character building” Presenting mental and physical activities practices.
4th and 5th Conducting semi-structured interviewing with the participants at the end of each session Working on to satisfy the needs on the basis of the order Presenting session activities practices
6th Conducting semi-structured interviewing with the participants during the session Conducting developmental evaluation Adding new purposes on existing purposes Determining the content of the 7th to 14th week Determining the characters would be processed on the basis of the analysis of the interviews conducted Thinking and discussing on the following weeks’ purposes, content, methods and materials
7th to 11th Observing during the implementations Conducting semi-structured interviewing with the participants after each session On the basis of the new purposes, students start to experiencing character education via conducting groups’ presentations Groups presentations
12th to 14th Conducting semi-structured interviewing with the participants Conducting total assessment
Outcome: At the end of the 2nd and 3rd week, the student will be able to effectively:
? Define what the character education actually is all about.
? Compare the character education and likes of its.
? Explain what are the similarities and differences between the character education and the value education, moral development etc.
? Discuss needs of character education and explain how character building is actualized.
Goal 1: The session (2nd and 3rd Week) enables the students to elicit knowledge about character education in terms of its target population, feasibleness and plans, differences and similarities between the similar education, the differences and similarities between the character educations and the value education, moral development and education.
Outcome: At the end of the 4th and 5th week, the student will be able to effectively:
? Explore what character building is all about
? How much it’s necessary for them and learn and explore new things about moral development.
? See some examples of moral development and practice them,
Goal 2: The sessions (4th and 5th Week) enable the students to learn how to conduct character education and its effectiveness and efficiency by experiencing it as a student.
Outcome: At the end of the 7th and 11th week, the student will be able to effectively:
? Plan a character education session and implement it to students as leader
? Criticize the effectiveness and efficiency of the plans and implementation.
? Make suggestion for further character education implantation.
Goal 3: The sessions (7th and 11th Week) enable the students to experience planning and implementing character education as leaders.
METHOD BY THE STUDENTS AS A LEADER
Force character Dominant methods Recessive Methods Summary of activity
Being responsible Storytelling
brainstorming That children was most responsible support the child and also handle the other children situation and also interlink with the teacher
Being understanding the problem Empathetic brainstorming Easily handle the other children problem and also give advice and inform the teacher related to the problem
Being trustworthy Reliable Discussion
Do and say the right things for the children
Be an confident Hopeful Discussion
Children believe in you and very comfortable with that.
Be just caretaker Discussion Be inclusive and care the entire child with the best.
This plan which is based on the street children which morally or character ally by old age people in this plan we not invest are personal investment but we will give our plan to different communities like memon, Bhori, Aghakhani, parsi, ismali, hindu, christen etc. we will take funding from these communities because this plan is an initiative to build street children for Pakistan future so this is an opportunity for the communities to give fund and take a part in the developing.
In this research data collection sources is limited and this research mainly focus on only Karachi Pakistan street children and limited sample size because of short time, whereas it could have been collected from the longer sample size. In addition there was a difficulty to gain full cooperation of the all business sectors and the communities. We think that other cities opinion about character building of street children is needed to be investigated. To give a clear picture, future studies should target street children who are located in other cities of Pakistan.
The time line of the study is that the total period of the research is one year. The total session is divided in to 14 weeks and in this week the total 40 street children is taken in all the session. The 4 times sessions is arrange in one year.
Street children are one of the most vulnerable groups of urban poor. They face so many difficulties while living in the street. Street children are the one who are financially support their families and also are the one who worked forcefully on street in early stage. Mostly children have no contacts with their Families Street children are not mush established because of education. This study focus on education of street children by old age people. This study main focusses on career building of street children by old age people who are retired and want to serve in economy through teaching. Street children what is good and bad for them. The main motive of this study is career building of street children through this they will support their families in a good way and something about life and help them in future to achieve success in life.