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111 Town Square Pl, Jersey City, NJ 07310, U.S.

Upper limbs injuries are very common in physical activities, taking into consideration specific aspects of the types of sports practiced. Upper-limb injuries occur very frequently in sports, in relation to many types of sports activities, such as tennis, volleyball and handball as these sports make great biomechanical demands on the shoulder. Such demands mean that this joint is subjected to extremely high physiological forces during a good proportion of the sports movement. For example, at the time of the shooting throw in handball, the player may generate very high angular rotation forces per second during the acceleration phase of the throw. This assignment will focus primarily on the prevalence of upper-limb tendon injuries that occur in the sport of handball, the writer will look at some of the specific upper-limb injuries that are more prevalent in handball practice and also review some of the researches that have been made on this subject as part of the reference on upper limb injuries.
‘Upper limb injuries’ –

Other shoulder and elbow injuries
Stress-induced bone injuries
The bone overload that is most common in the upper limbs is in the region of the distal humerus. Although rare, bone overload may also be a source of pain in the hand and wrist region, it is important to bear in mind when handball players present sub-acute and chronic pain in the distal region of the humerus of the dorminant arm of the handball player. For recovery to occur and treatment, they should temporarily stay away from the sport and undergo physiotherapy in order to fully recover.
Nerve injuries
The most common of these in handball players’ shoulders is compression of the supra-scapular nerve, but the axillary and long thoracic nerves may also present abnormalities, particularly of chronic nature. In the elbow, the best known nerve compression is posterior interosseous nerve compression syndrome.
Muscle-tendon tears
In the shoulder region, one injury that is infrequent but may be found in handball is tearing of the pectoralis major muscle, which occurs among competitive handball players who use too heavy weights in strength conditioning and training for explosion power. In the elbow, tears in the distal biceps may also be a problem for these handball players and adequate correction for them generally requires surgical procedures.
Chondral injuries
These present chronic pain in the shoulder and elbow joints of the handball players. In certain situations, these may lead them to feel cracking or even produce crepitation during the handball movement. These injuries are especially common in players that are still at the growth stage, it should be observed that these may be the cause of pain around joints.

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