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Journal Article #1
Advanced Models of Teaching
Veysel Karatas
Fall 2018
The Effects of Cooperative Learning on Mathematics Achievement in Turkey: A Meta-Analysis Study
Introduction
One of the definitions of cooperative learning is to learn a model where learners work together in small groups and support each other (Slavin, 2015). Another definition of cooperative learning by Johnson & Johnson (1994) is a learning approach in which face-to-face communication is supported, and interpersonal tasks are presented in addition to specific learning opportunity in the learners’ groups. Learners’ cooperation in cooperative learning aims to reach the learning objectives. The group members in cooperative learning gain social skills to work effectively with each other. Group members are responsible for both their knowledge and others, so group members support and motivate each other.

Literature ReviewThere are many advantages by using cooperative learning in the class such as alternative classroom structure, making developing knowledge, positive peer relationships, and positive attitudes (Johnson & Johnson, 1989). There are many research articles related to the effect of cooperative learning on mathematics achievement in Turkey (Turgut & Turgut, 2018). The cooperative learning model creates a student-centered environment, and it also helps educators in their classroom management (Sharan, 1994). Group members can work cooperatively for a certain period depending on the difficulty level of the projects (Slavin, 1997). The cooperative learning activities should include key elements such as positive interdependences, individual responsibilities, supportive face-to-face communications, social skills, and group process evaluations (Johnson & Johnson, 1989). The most effective cooperative learning techniques are learning together, team play-tournaments, group projects, constructive discussions, jigsaw, the success of the student teams, complex teaching, team-supported teaching, cooperative learning structures, and collaborative combined reading and writing (Johnson, Johnson & Stanne, 2000).
Methodology
It was aimed to combine the findings of independent studies examining the effect of cooperative learning on mathematics and to evaluate them statistically in this study (Turgut & Turgut, 2018). Meta-analysis method in this research study examined the effects of cooperative learning on mathematics achievement in Turkey. The average effect size values of the moderate variables are learning domain, implementation period, education level, and cooperative learning technique were calculated. The mean effect size value and average effect size values of moderator variables, cooperative learning technique, education level, learning area, and application period were calculated in the study (Turgut & Turgut, 2018).

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Participants, Data Collection, and Data Analysis
The data were collected between December 2017 and January 2018 within 45 days. The effect size was calculated with Hedges’s g coefficient in the study. The authors used for the analysis Metawin and comprehensive meta-analysis statistical programs. Descriptive statistics of the research study, the process of mathematics teaching in Turkey impact on the success of cooperative learning techniques have been investigated. The normal distribution graph was observed to determine the suitability of the effect size of 47 studies combined with the meta-analysis. The average effect size value was calculated to be 0.840, and the standard error was 0.077.
Discussion and Conclusion
Fifty-nine effect size values ??were calculated for 47 studies according to the inclusion criteria. The cooperative learning technique, educational level, learning area, and the period of application of the studies included in the meta-analysis were defined as moderator variables, and the effect sizes were calculated. When the learning area was applied to cooperative learning, a statistically significant difference was found between the groups. The effect of cooperative learning approach of the subject of mathematics achievement was examined in this study.

Take Away from the Article
I learned from the article that the effects of cooperative learning on mathematics achievement are moderate and positive. The cooperative learning approach helps learners to improve their mathematics skills positively. Implementing cooperative learning in the mathematics classes is challenging, but the mathematics teachers should implement cooperative learning in their math classes to get better mathematics achievements. Mathematics and other subject teachers should take professional development workshops related to cooperative learning if they have classroom management issues. I think cooperative learning will help teachers to have less classroom management issues. Collaborative activities in small groups are implemented at the higher level thinking skills in a cooperative learning model. It is also crucial for cooperative learning that each group member is responsible for his or her knowledge and for motivating other members of the group to improve their understanding. Also, teachers should provide more time for students working with their partners cooperatively. Finally, it is an excellent idea to use cooperative learning activities in classes to improve students’ skills and knowledge in any subjects.

References
Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. T. (1994). Learning together. In S. Sharon. (Ed.), The Handbook of cooperative learning methods (pp. 55-65). Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.

Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. T. (1989). Cooperation and competition: Theory and research. Edina, MN: Interaction Books.

Johnson, D.W., Johnson, R. T., & Stanne, M. B. (2000). Cooperative learning methods: A meta-analysis.

Sharan, S. (1994). Cooperative learning and the teacher. In S. Sharan (Ed.), The handbook of cooperative learning methods (pp. 336-348). Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group.
Slavin, R. E. (2015). Cooperative learning in elementary schools. Education 3-13, 43(1), 5-14.
Slavin, R. E. (1997). Co-operative learning among students. In D. Stern & G. L. Huber (Eds.), Active learning for students and teachers (pp. 159-173). Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.

Turgut, S., & Turgut, I. G. (2018). The effects of cooperative learning on mathematics achievement in Turkey: A meta-analysis study. International Journal of Instruction, 11(3), 663-680.

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