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Management of the I/O devices is one of the basic component of an operating system and it is the messiest aspect of an operating system design. All subsystems of the I/O are devoted to its operation. This incorporates the keyboard, monitor, hard disk drive, mouse, speaker, network adapter, webcam, etc… All of these I/O devices are overseen by the kernel which should have the capacity to stack up the drivers that are utilized in the operating system so that there will be an acknowledgment and usage of these devices. It deals with the transfer of information in and out of the devices. The I/O function also has an organization which are the programmed I/O where I/O initiation is issued by the processor and then busy waits for its completion, interrupt-driven I/O in which it finds other task to do and there is an interruption when the operation of the I/O is completed, and the direct memory access in which the block oriented devices performs the operation of the I/O directly to the buffers of the memory. The buffers that are controlled by the I/O utilities are the primary aspect of the I/O because it smoothes out the differences between the computer system’s internal speed to the I/O devices’ speed. The kernel handles all the intercommunication among devices and it additionally make use of the most effective strategy for transferring information in the system.
There is a need to effectively manage these devices despite the unique characteristics that each of the devices have. These devices have different variations in speed and level of shareability. Some devices can deal direct access and others can only handle sequential access. The task in balancing the demand for each devices is complex which is divided among the hardware components: control units, channels, and the devices. It is important to have communication that link these parts in order for the I/O subsystem to be successful. The I/O architecture maintains the OS in managing the activity of the I/O efficiently with the information that it needs and it gives an efficient way to control the communication with the outside world. The I/O management of the OS also has protocols which helps in interfacing the device I/O, it has a dedicated handler which are the interrupt handlers and device drivers, and the details of the I/O from core processing are decoupled which allows flexibility in its performance. The disk I/O has the greatest impact on the overall performance of the system and approaches such as disk scheduling and disk cache are widely used for the improvement of its performance. The disk cache is a buffer that is in the memory which helps in the improvement of the process storing and accessing the data from a hard disk.

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