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111 Town Square Pl, Jersey City, NJ 07310, U.S.
111 Town Square Pl, Jersey City, NJ 07310, U.S.

Name: Nishidh Patel
University ID: U87470301
Department: Electrical Engineering
Major: Renewable Energy and Power Systems
Title: Graduate Student Portfolio
• Advanced mathematics courses:
Course 1 – EEL 6027 Engineering Applications of Vector Analysis
Faculty – Dr. Ralph Fehr
Course 2 – EEL 6545 Random Processes in Electrical Engineering
Faculty – Dr. Arthur Snider
• Primary area of specialization (Sequence 1):
Course 1 – EEL 5250 Power System Analysis
Faculty – Dr. Lingling Fan
Course 2 – EEL 6285 Energy Delivery Systems
Faculty – Dr. Lingling Fan
• Secondary area of specialization (Sequence 2):
Course 1 – EEL 6936 Power Electronics
Faculty – Dr. Zhixin Miao
Course 2 – EEL 6227 Electric Machines and Motor Drives
Faculty – Dr. Ralph Fehr
EEL 6027 Engineering Applications of Vector Analysis
Engineering Applications of Vector Analysis gives a comprehension of the strategies for vector variable-based
math and analytics to the degree that will promptly take after those works which make utilization of them, and
further, will have the capacity to utilize it in own particular branch of science. New ideas and techniques are
presented by Dr. Ralph Fehr are delineated by cases drawn from fields with which the understudy is recognizable.
The course started with Course Overview and then basic concept of Vector Algebra which includes Addition,
Subtraction, Scalar Multiplication, Cartesian Coordinates, Space Vectors and Types of Vector
Course Content: Equations of Lines, Scalar Products, Equations of Planes, Orientation, Vector Products 6, Triple
Scalar Products, Vector Identities, Space Curves , Velocities, Tangents, Acceleration, Curvature, Planar Rotation in Polar
Coordinates, Del Notation, Scalar Fields, Isometric Surfaces, Gradient, Vector Fields, Flow Lines, Cylindrical Coordinates,
Spherical Coordinates, Conversion between Coordinate Systems, Divergence, Curl, Laplacian, Vector Identities, Line
Integrals, Simply-Connected Domains, Conservative Fields, Oriented Surfaces, Surface Integrals, Volume Integrals,
Divergence Theorem, Stokes’ Theorem, Green’s Theorem, The Transport Theorems.
From Geometry applications of Vector we proved different statement on quadrilateral and some of them are as
“Line segments drawn from the vertex of parallelogram to the mid-point of the opposite sides trisects a diagonal”
“If the mid=points of the consecutive sides of a quadrilateral are joined by line segments the resulting quadrilateral
is a parallelogram.”
Acceleration component: In a Kinetic field to discover Velocity and it’s segment is significantly more
imperative to know the movement of a particle at a specific point which gives us a data about that particle in a
space. For understanding it better it is important to comprehend about Acceleration Component. Dr. Fehr clarified
it in a innovative way. The formula is shown underneath,
We can describe point P in three different way,
(a)Polar coordinate, (b) Cylindrical coordinate, (c) Cylindrical coordinate.
Gradient, Divergence and Curl: Three imperative things and it’s application depicted by educator is
compressed here. The Gradient is what you get when you “multiply” Del by a scalar function. The Divergence is
what you get when you “dot” Del with a vector field. The Curl is what you get when you “cross” Del with a vector
field. The gradient is a slope, the divergence measures the spreading out of fields, and the curl measures the
circulation of fields. Gradient, divergence and curl are used a lot in fluid.
Engineering Applications of a vectors are in many areas. Some of them which we studied throughout the
course are as below:
(a) Electromagnetics: With the use of Gauss’s law for Electricity and Magnetism, Faraday’s law and
Ampere’s law we can use vector concept and applied it to solve real electromagnetics problem.
(b) Fluid Mechanics: Incompressible Flow is an isochronic (constant volume) process whwre the density
within an infinitesimal volume that moves with the flow velocity is constant. This implies that the
divergence of the flow velocity is zero.
(c) Heat transfer: Fourier’s law
(d) Illumination
(e) Edge Detection by Computer Graphics
EEE 6545 Random Processes in Electrical engineering
Random Process in Electrical Engineering shows relevance of probability theory to engineering practice. It tends
to challenge by examining the part of likelihood models in building plan. Practical current applications from
different territories of electrical and computer engineering are utilized to demonstrate how averages and relative
frequencies give the correct tools to taking care of the outline of frameworks that include randomness. These
application areas include wireless and digital communications, digital media and signal processing, system
reliability, computer networks, and Web systems.
Course Content: Probability, Delta function, Moments, Derived Normal, Bivariate Gaussian, Marginal
Conditional, Averaging, Random Processes, Gaussian Processes, Spectral Estimation, The Bernoulli and
Binomial Processes, The Wiener Filter, Bartlett, ARMA Yule Walker, Least Mean-Square Error Predictors,
Normal Equation, Bias, Kalman Filter, Scalar Kalman Filter with Noisy Transition, Poisson’s Theorem.
The Additive law of Probability: ‘The probability of A or B equals the probability of A plus the probability of
B minus the probability of both A and B.’ From the example of
billiard balls and sky Dr. Snider explained us this law. From this law we understood the basics of probability and
it’s implementation to real world problem.
A probability density function (“pdf”) is a function fx(x) defined for all real x that is never negative and has
total integral equal to 1. pdf has to be a area 1 and can never be negative. From The Normal or Gaussian
Distribution we understood that noise processes are described by probability density functions(pdf) some of
which are normally distributed. So for dealing with noise and fundamental limits in design, we need to understand
Gauss Distribution.
Example on Wiener Filter and Least Mean-Square Error is shown below:
The Kalman filter is an intense instrument with regards to controlling noisy systems. The fundamental thought of a
Kalman channel is: Noisy information in ? ideally less noisy data out. The applications of a Kalman filter are
various: Tracking objects (e.g., rockets, faces, heads, hands), Fitting Bezier patches to point information, Economics,
EEL 5250 Power System Analysis
Power System Analysis gave us a knowledge into the fundamental components of electrical power transmission
and distribution systems, for example, generators, transmission and distribution lines and loads. It offered
systematic tools for analysis of essential activities of the systems. Issues related with power flow and utilization
of numerical calculations such Gauss-Siedel, Newton-Raphson was explained. Fault calculation and analysis,
symmetrical components and protection systems: Analytical strategies for understanding symmetrical (balanced)
flaws, protection systems also covered by Dr. Lingling Fan in details.
Course Content: Circuit analysis basics & Per unit calculation which includes phasors for ac signals wit two
theorems KCL, KVL, How to get rid of transformers so that a power grid looks like a circuit with voltage sources
and passive components such as R, L, C, ,Fault analysis which included Z matrix-based three-phase fault analysis
and Unbalanced fault analysis based on symmetric components, Transmission line modeling and Steady-state
operation – the basic power and voltage phasor relationship, Load flow analysis, Nonlinear algebraic equations
solving techniques (Gaussian, Newton-Raphson), Scope of the methods or when the NR method do not work
well?, Voltage stability and maximum loading, State estimation, Economic Dispatch.
From the subject I studied Comprehensive analysis of single and three-phase AC power circuits which includes
calculations of real, reactive and complex powers, and power factor correction. Calculation of active and reactive
power transfer between buses, maximum power transfer, static stability limit. Power circle construction and
analysis. Synchronous generator models, voltage stability, transient stability, primary control devices (Governor
and Exciter). Load flow calculations, numerical methods analysis and, Gauss method, Gauss-Seidel method,
Newton-Raphson method and simplified approximate method. Computer simulation packages, Matlab/Simulink
(SimPower) and Python.
Example on Sweeping Method: For the following radial system, assuming that the complex power
consumed by the load is 1 + j 0.5 pu, z=j0.2pu. Bus 1connects to the substation and its voltage phasor is V1= 1 ?
.The online load tap changing transformer can be treated as an ideal transformer to fine tune secondary side
voltage. In this case, the voltage ratio from left to the right is 1:1.05. Find V2 and ?2 using sweeping method or
Newton-Raphson method.
S2=P2+j ?Q2 ;
z=0.2? j ;
Y=1/ z ?1/z ; 7 ?1/z 1/ z ;
V2( 1 ) =1;
for k=1:8
%Q20=imag (V20 ?( co n j (Y( 2 , 1 ) ) ? co n j (V1)+co n j (Y( 2 , 2 ) ) ? co n j (V20) ) ) ;
I21 ( k ) = co n j ( S2/V2( k ) ) ;
V_1( k ) = V2( k ) + z ? I21 ( k ) ;
V2( k+1)=V1 ? z ? I21 ( k ) ;
e r r ( k+1) = V_1( k ) ? V1 ;
plot ( abs(V2) ) ; hold on ;
plot ( abs(V_1) ) ;
disp (V2) ;
Final Result is shown in the below table.
Iterations I21 V2 V1
1 1.0 – 0.5000i 0.9000 – 0.2000i 1.1000 + 0.2000i
2 0.9412 – 0.7647i 00.8471 – 0.1882I 1.0529 – 0.0118i
3 1.0000 – 0.8125i 3 0.8375 – 0.2000i 1.0096 + 0.0118i
4 0.9947 – 0.8346i 0.8331 – 0.1989i 1.0044 – 0.0011i
5 1.0000 – 0.8390i 0.8322 – 0.2000i 1.0009 + 0.0011i
6 0.9995 – 0.8410i 0.8318 – 0.1999i 1.0004 – 0.0001i
7 1.0000 – 0.8414i 0.8317 – 0.2000i 1.0001 + 0.0001i
8 1.0000 – 0.8416i 0.8317 – 0.2000i 1.0000 – 0.0000i
Difference between Load Flow and State Estimation was justified by Professor which is :Load flow analysis is
basically calculation of flow of power through the network and hence change in the value of voltage and angle of
corresponding buses of the network and state estimation is a digital algorithm to provide raw data to reliable data
and it usually provides the value with minimal error and SE tries to capture true condition of voltages ,angles etc.
EEL 6285 Energy Delivery Systems
Energy Delivery Systems gave us the knowledge regarding the fundamentals of electric power systems and
synchronous generator modeling. It also dive information regarding delivery systems to facilitate the integration
of distributed energy resources, including wind, solar, battery, etc. Microgrid and it’s concept with difference
between microgrid and Smartgrid explained briefly by Dr.Zhixin Miao. Different types of Voltage Source
Converters and it’s types with how they works and implementation of it in Project work was explained by
Difference between Microgrid and Smartgrid: Micro-grid is a small grid that provides power to a
moderately small assortment of residential, official or commercial building in a locality. Presently, the created
and expended control by and large lies in Kilo-Watt (10 to the power level.Compare this to National grid, which
serves power in the Gigawatt level. If we take our national grid as a reference and measure the small grid
mentioned earlier, we will find that by multiplying a ‘uW’ (Mirco watt) to our national grid capacity, we are
reaching at the capacity of that small local grid. Thus the local grid is in micro levels as compared to the national
grid and hence is called Micro Grid.A Smart grid on the other hand is any grid that is completely automated.
Smart grids have the ability to respond automatically to the variations in electrical parameters responsible for the
smooth functioning of the grid. This is possible with the help of sensors, micro-controllers and many more.
Project Work: In the project we need to make multidisciplinary design with evaluation and proposed solutions
to real world problems in the renewable energy integration, voltage source converter, synchronous generator
dynamics, and microgrid. I had chosen the topic ‘Harmonics Reduction in 12 pulse converter with Active Filter’.
In 12-pulse converter the %THD ( Total Harmonics Distortion ) value for output voltage in Uncontrolled R Load
is 7.25% and for Controlled R Load 16.07% which is above permissible limit. To reduce it below permissible
limit we have to introduce both PASSIVE FILTER and ACTIVE FILTER or more number of pulses. If more
number of pulses are produced than there are many disadvantage like complexity in the circuit, increase in number
of switches , low power factor , high switching losses etc . To compensate above disadvantages in this project we
are going to study about HYBRID FILTER (both ACTIVE and PASSIVE filter ) and its application to mitigate
%THD ( Total Harmonics Distortion ) below 3%. Active filter is such a filter which response according to load
and measures current caused due to Harmonics known as ‘Distortion Current’ . By filtering out them from
Fundamental Current the ‘Non-linear Load Current’ active filter fed Distortion Current to the firing circuit. It will
generate ‘Compensating Current’ Compensating Current is injected to the load which is exactly in anti-phase
i.e.180 to reduce ‘Distortion Current’.
The circuit of my project is as shown below:
I am still currently working on this project and still lot to do. I am putting my best efforts towards the same.
EEL 6936 – Power Electronics
The subject of Power electronics started with an overview of power semiconductor switches. Then we studied converter topologies
that are used in most applications. We also cleared the concept of the power semiconductor devices used in power electronic
converters including diodes, BJTs, MOSFETs, thyristors, GTOs, IGBTs, and MCTs. Switch-mode dc and uninterruptible power
supplies and it’s applications was explained bt Dr. Miao. We also cleared the concept of the power semiconductor devices used
in power electronic converters including diodes, BJTs, MOSFETs, thyristors, GTOs, IGBTs, and MCTs. The practical concepts
of power electronic converter design, including snubber circuits, drive circuits, circuit layout was justified with the practical in
Course Project: In the project we have to make converter which can do both AC to Dc and then conversion
offixed DC to variable Dc.AC-DC Diode Rectifier with the use of 3 single phase Ac Source with magnitude of each is 208
volt and the frequency of them is 60 Hz and they have phase-shift of 120 degree.The model for AC-DC Diode rectifier is
shown below.
For DC-DC converter I used Buck Converter topology. AC/DC switch mode converter with Buck Converter model is as
From this circuits FFT analysis of both fixed DC side voltage and Variable DC side voltage had been done. And
newer strategies had been implemented to improve Voltage and reduce the Harmonics.
EEL 6227 Electric Machines and Drives
From Electric Machines and Drives we learnt innovative ideas to implement power electronics with machines
and making it drives. The control of machines with power electronics along with it’s merits and demerits was
briefly explained by Dr. Miao. In one of the lecture he said how we ca save Energy with the use of drives is
summarized here. All power is produced by turning electrical generators, and around half of it is utilized to drive
electrical motors. This implies that increase in efficiency of electrical machines can have an extensive effect on
energy utilization. The key difficulties for increment in efficiency in systems driven by electrical machines lie in
three territories: (a) to broaden the application of variable-speed electric drives into new regions through decrease
of power electronic and control costs; (b) to integrate the drive and the driven load for getting maximum system
efficiency; and (c) to gain more efficiency of electrical drive itself. In the short to medium term, efficiency
improves inside electrical machines will come about because of the advancement of new materials and
construction techniques. With variable-speed drives, there is finished flexibility to fluctuate the speed of the
driven load. Supplanting fixed-speed machines with variable-speed drives for a high extent of mechanical burdens
could spare billion kWh of power for every year when joined with engine and drive efficiency picks up.
Course Content: Review of electric distribution systems, Power electronics systems for utility integration of
the distributed energy resources, microgrid and its elements, Voltage sourced converter (VSC) control and
operation in a power delivery system, Operation and control of a Microgrid, Synchronous generator modeling,
Term course project.
Course Project: In our project topic we must have (a)induction machine and drive system modeling,(b)
machine drive controller design, (c)drive applications (e.g. wind generation, electric vehicle), etc. Professor want
us to include induction machine, Voltage fed converter and PI controller. I chosen the topic of Control of ‘Control
of Doubly Fed Induction Generator’.
Abstract of the project is: Renewable energy are most useful way to produce electricity due to lack of natural
resources. Wind Power Plant is one of the most popular trend now a day to produce electricity due to lots of
benefits. DFIG (Doubly Fed Induction Generator) is required to produce electricity. In this project DFIG and its
control with PWM and ds-dq frame is mostly concentrated. To get steady and maximum torque with less
harmonics and production of qualitive electricity by using DFIG is the aim of the project. Final Circuit of the project:

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