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An operating system is the most important software program in every computer system. Every computer system must have an operating system to run its programs and applications. Operating system acts as an intermediary between computer user and computer hardware. The main purpose of operating system is to provide an environment under which user can execute programs conveniently and more efficiently.
Operating system performs all the functions and also controls the input output resources. For example when we give input to the system through keyboard, OS detect the input, transfer it at the RAM ,then place it in CPU for processing , whatever the output comes display it on the monitor screen.
Operating system performs many operations, some are user operations and other are OS self-operations. Some of these operations are:
It provide user interface, It manages program execution, I/O resources, time scheduling and resource allocation, it provide security and protection to the system, it allows communication, helps in file manipulation, and detect errors etc.

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Different types of operating systems
Microsoft Windows:
Microsoft window operating system was produced by Microsoft Cooperation. Windows OS have built in GUI (graphical user interface). This operating system is used for pcs and laptops in school, homes, companies, offices, as well as in super computers and embedded systems. There are about 25 main Windows operating system, most of which have multiple editions and extra features.

The Microsoft Windows OS have many strengths like it is easy to use, it is based on GUI, all versions of Windows OS use same layout, they allow hardware to be added easily and hardware always support the version of Windows OS, Windows OS provide easy access to Microsoft office and internet explorer.

It also have some weaknesses like it they have specific hardware requirements, it is closed source and user do not know how the OS is functioning, the problems in OS cannot be found out by the users,. Its weakest point is its security. These systems are difficult to maintain and are more likely to be effected by the viruses, worms and other threats.
Linux operating system was created by Linus Torvalds in 1991. Linux is a free operating system can be used by any computer. This operating system allows the user to make changes according to their needs. It provides both GUI and CLI environment. It is an open source operating system and user can modify this OS according to their requirements. Linux OS are more secure and are at least possibility to be effected by viruses and do not need any anti-virus software. Linux has good online support system which helps user to overcome any issue and also tell user how to improve their system. The main weakness of this OS is that it has fewer business applications.
MAC OS operating system developed by Apple Inc. it is an especially designed operating system for Apple Macintosh (Mac) computers. It belongs to GUI family of operating system which is well designed, but it setting can be changed to CLI environment through terminal app.
It has a double layered security system and a UNIX core (for best security) which make the system almost impossible to install viruses. It also has built in firewalls, which keep it away from hackers. It does not need any driver to connect with any Apple devices, however non apple devices can be connected through drivers. Its ,main weaknesses is its high cost and it can only run on Apple desktops and laptops.

There are two main types of Mac OS i.e.
Classical Mac OS (1984-2001) and OS X(2001-present).

OS X is the latest version of Mac OS, which have with changeable design which make it easier to add new features and applications.
Apple iOS:
Apple iOS operating system was developed by Apple Inc. It is the one of the most popular smartphones operating system that runs on apple hardware including iPhones, iPad tablets, iPod etc. Its main feature is the App Store where users buys apps and download free software. Apple IOs have many security features in both its hardware and software. It uses graphical user interface through touch screens. It is simple and easy to use and its every latest version has some new features.
MS DOS is a computer operating system by Microsoft. MS DOS is abbreviation of “Microsoft Disk Operating System”. This OS deals with different disks like floppy disk, hard disk etc. it is a command line based or text based OS where all commands are written in text form, meaning that the user works with a keyboard to enter input data and output is received in form of plain text. There is no GUI in this OS. It has simple but not user friendly interface. This OS is helpful in management of files; creating, editing, deleting etc. Although it has few limitations like it was not multitasking, lack of memory protection, security and least stable.

Android is the most popular OS in the world developed by Google. It is used in most of the smart phones and tablets. It is a modified form of Linux kernel and other open source software. Different Android mobiles phones have different graphical user interface. The OS uses touch inputs and virtual keyboard. It is an open source OS means that the developer can modify and customize it. For securing an open source system it is designed with multilayer security system that supports an open platform while protecting all the user data. As it offers free access to applications so there is a threat of getting malware or viruses which can affect the mobiles.

Ability to customize Support and connectivity for portable media Security Stability Reliability
Ease of management Cost User interface System type

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