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Overwhelm Vitamin Deficiency in Infants
Introduction:
Nutritional deficiencies can be very significant to the overall health of infants because the growth and development can be seriously hindered by storages in essential vitamins or nutrients. Vitamins during first year of life is critical because it is a period of rapid growth and development. Infants deficient in vitamin A,E,K but the most major deficiency in infant is vitamin D.
Vitamin D helps the body in proper utilization (absorption and metabolism) of calcium and phosphorous to build strong bones and teeth. Vitamin D deficiency is common in infants born to mothers with low levels of vitamin D. Severe deficiency of this nutrient in infancy and early childhood can lead to the development of Rickets, a diseases that affects bone formation and cause bow-legs.
Breast feeding infants are among the many common groups which are considered at higher risk of developing vitamin D deficiency. Human milk generally provide < 25 IU/L to 78 IU/L, which is not enough to meet vitamin D requirements. Vitamin D content of breast milk is related to mother’s vitamin D status; in other words, vitamin D deficiency in a pregnant woman causes deficiency in the fetus. This have direct impact on the baby’s health not only during their early life but also in an adult stage.
Vitamin D is also essential for many other functions in the body including healthy immune system. Vitamin D is available in two different formulations: vitamin D2, better known as ergocalciferol; and Vitamin D 3, also called cholecalciferol which is very important for the infants. The treatment options to achieve optimal circulating level of 25(OH) D are sunlight, artificial ultraviolet light and vitamin D supplementation.
Hypothesis:
It may fulfill the deficiency or not.
Objective:
• Discuss the risk factors for vitamin D deficiency.
• Identify the role of natural foods, fortified foods, and supplements in meeting the Dietary Reference Intakes of vitamins.
• Discuss the biological functions of vitamins D and their role in disease prevention.
• Explain treatment and prevention strategies for vitamin D deficiency.
Plan of work:
• Vitamin D deficiency will be reduced by providing artificial ultra violet radiation to infants.
• Fortified milk with vitamin D will be given to infants to reduce the deficiency.
• During pregnancy, women should take proper diet which will be the main source of vitamin D, including fish, cheese, butter, egg yolk, beef liver.
• Mother milk is considered primary food for the infants. Breast milk is a natural gift, especially manufactured for infants will be given maximum for 2 years to reduce the risk of vitamin D deficiency.
• Infants and children who have darker pigmentation will require five to 10 times the length of sunlight exposure to reach the same levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D when compared with infants who have lighter pigmentation.
• All pregnant and breastfeeding women should take a daily supplement containing 10 micrograms of vitamin D, to ensure that the mother’s requirements for vitamin D and to build adequate foetal stores for early infancy.
• Oral Supplementation will be given to the infants because supplementation with pharmaceutical preparations is the only means of treatment of vitamin D deficiency. Cholecalciferol works to manage our body calcium and phosphorous levels, so Vitamin D3 drops, which are preferable for infants will be given to infants for proper growth. It also plays a significant role in protein synthesis and disease prevention.
• All infants and young children aged 6 months to 5 years will take a daily supplement containing vitamin D in the form of vitamin drops, to help them meet these requirements and reduce the risk of deficiency.
• High-dose bolus therapy (300 000–500 000 IU) will be considered for children over 12 months of age if compliance or absorption issues are suspected.

Expected outcomes:

By maintaining maternal and infant health both of them will get a bright future regarding their health and education. Overcoming vitamin deficiency will also help in getting good health for mother and infant both.
Reduce the changes of deficiency and with steady level of vitamin D in the system, body can support:
Healthy pregnancy, Infants health, A decreased risk of asthma, dermatitis and eczema, Healthy bones and teeth, Stronger immune and nervous systems
A flu risk reduction by 50 percent, Better cognitive functions, Insulin level regulation
Cardiovascular health.

Possible beneficiary:
• It will be beneficial to pharmaceutical industries
• Overall society will be saved from sever healthy bones issues.
References:
• Dietary supplements. Vitamin D monograph. London: Pharmaceutical Press. Accessed via http://www.medicinescomplete.com on 13/03/13
• Hossein-nezhad A, Holick MF. Vitamin D for health: A global perspective. Mayo Clin Proc. 2013; 88:720–55
• Holick MF. The D-lightful vitamin D for child health. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2012;36(1)(suppl):9S–19S
• Wagner CL, Greer FR, Section on Breastfeeding and Committee on Nutrition (2008) American Academy of Pediatrics Section on Breastfeeding; American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Nutrition. Prevention of rickets and vitamin D deficiency in infants, children, and adolescents. Pediatrics 122: 1142- 115

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