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PRINCIPLES OF NUTRITION
Natasha Njeri Njogu
105452/17151885
According to Kristina” Nutrition is the study of food at work in our bodies, our source for energy, and the medium for which our nutrients can function. Think of nutrition as the building blocks of life”
The essential nutrients our bodies need is:
Carbohydrates eg.potatoes
Proteins eg.eggs and meat
Vitamins eg. banana and spinach
Lipids(fats) eg.margarine or sunflower oil
Minerals eg. salt
And water (the solvent for all soluble ingredients in the blood and cells)
For a health body our bodies need a balance in all nutrients in good amounts this is referred to as a balanced diet.

According to INNERBODY.COM COPYRIGHT (C) 1999 – 2017″ The digestive system is a group of organs working together to convert food into energy and basic nutrients to feed the entire body. Food passes through a long tube inside the body known as the alimentary canal or the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract). The alimentary canal is made up of the oral cavity, pharynx, oesophagus, stomach, small intestines, and large intestines. In addition to the alimentary canal, there are several important accessory organs that help your body to digest food”
Different nutrients are digested and absorbed in different places of the digestive system:
Carbohydrates are digested in the mouth and small intestine
Proteins are digested in the stomach/small intestine
Lipids are digested in the small intestine
Water, minerals and vitamins are already small therefore they’re not digested they are absorbed in the colon (large intestine)
Introduction of enzymes and their uses
According to The BBC Bitesize website” special proteins that can break large molecules into small molecules. Different types of enzymes can break down different nutrients:”
Carbohydrase or amylase enzymes break down starch into sugar
Protease enzymes break down proteins into amino acids
Lipase enzymes break down fats into fatty acids and glycerol.

Digestion of different nutrients and enzymes
Carbohydrate
Provide the body with short term energy
Examples are bread, potatoes and cakes. Many of these foods contain a micro nutrient knows as starch and fibres which are digestible and fibres which are indigestible.

Starch:
Are broken down into simple molecular by enzymes in saliva and pancreatic juice called maltose. Then maltose is divided into simple sugars knows as glucose and fructose each of them are absorbed from the intestinal cavity into the blood
Milk contains another type of sugar known as lactose also found in intestinal lining
Vitamins
Examples are tomatoes, spinach and oranges
They are also known as protective foods, protect the body from diseases.

The digestive system contains a large hollow muscle that enables their walls to move. The movement of organ walls can propel food and liquid and can mix the contents within each organ. This movement of the oesophagus, stomach, and intestine is known as peristalsis. This a wave like movement. The muscle of the organ produces a narrowing and then propels the narrowed portion slowly down the length of the organ.

Proteins
Examples are eggs, sausage and bacon These foods are also known as body building foods. They contain giant molecules therefore must be digested by enzymes. Several enzymes from the pancreatic juice and the intestinal lining break them down into smaller molecules knows as amino acids
Fats
Fats are dissolved into watery content of the intestinal cavity bile acids produced in the liver act as a natural detergent to dissolve fat in the water and allow enzymes to break the large fat molecules some of which are fatty acids and cholesterol.

Biography and references:
Haller, J. (2005). Vitamins and brain function. In Lieberman, H.R., Kanarek, R.B., and Prasad, C., eds. Nutritional Neuroscience. Taylor ; Francis: New York. 207-233.

Innerbody.comcopyright© (1999-2017) How to media, INC.ALL RIGHTS RESERVED http://www.innerbody.com/image/digeov.htmlBBC (2014)
http//www.bbc.co.uk/bitesize/ks3/science/organisms_behaviour_health/diet_drugs/revision/5
Nordqvist.C(2017): Nutrition, what is it and why is it important
http//www.medical news today .com/articles/160774.php

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