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Review of literature
The literature on marginalisation covers a wide variety of theories and issues. This section of review would focus on broad themes:
The theoretical perspective of Marginalisation
Determinants of Marginalisation and its association with Identities
Experiences of Marginalised communities particular OBC and Dalit among Hindu and Muslims
This section of literature embedded these themes in different purpose and context. The study will use the theoretical and practical orientation of marginalisation in the context of identities and experiences.
Social Exclusion and Marginalisations
Exclusion has become the subject of debate in France during the 1960s. Politicians, journals, officials, activist and academics made vague and ideological references to the poor as le sexcluse ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {“citationID”:”FIG0zC4e”,”properties”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Silver, 1994)”,”plainCitation”:”(Silver, 1994)”,”noteIndex”:0},”citationItems”:{“id”:99,”uris”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/SLDB38QL”,”uri”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/SLDB38QL”,”itemData”:{“id”:99,”type”:”article-journal”,”title”:”Social Exclusion and Social Solidarity: Three Paradigms”,”container-title”:”Internation Labour Review”,”page”:”531-578″,”volume”:”13″,”author”:{“family”:”Silver”,”given”:”Hilary”},”issued”:{“date-parts”:”1994″}}},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”} (Silver, 1994). Exclusion gained popularity in France during the 1980s when the economic crisis happened. Exclusion included a wide variety of peoples, not only the poor but also , aged, handicapped, abused children, etc. ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {“citationID”:”s8fyKSnp”,”properties”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Haan, 1999)”,”plainCitation”:”(Haan, 1999)”,”noteIndex”:0},”citationItems”:{“id”:101,”uris”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/EU9ZPQUG”,”uri”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/EU9ZPQUG”,”itemData”:{“id”:101,”type”:”article-journal”,”title”:”Social Exclusion: Towards an holistic understanding of deprivation”,”container-title”:”GSDRC Applied Knowledge Services”,”page”:”21″,”source”:”Zotero”,”abstract”:”What are the conceptual merits of the notion of social exclusion, and how relevant is it for developing countries? This paper from the Department for International Development (DFID) considers the usefulness of social exclusion as a framework for understanding deprivation. It argues that the value of the concept lies in focusing attention on two central elements of deprivation: its multidimensionality and the processes and social relations that underlie it.”,”language”:”en”,”author”:{“family”:”Haan”,”given”:”Arjan De”},”issued”:{“date-parts”:”1999″,4}}},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”} (Haan, 1999). The reasons why this concept developed in France and not in another European country are rooted in politics. The French system rejected the moral Anglo-Saxon philanthropic approach -related to the unique charity culture in these countries- in favour of a model based on solidarity serving the purpose of constructing the idea of nation and citizenship ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {“citationID”:”UMorzffL”,”properties”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Bernt & Colini, 2013b)”,”plainCitation”:”(Bernt & Colini, 2013b)”,”noteIndex”:0},”citationItems”:{“id”:164,”uris”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/DG2HJNI4″,”uri”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/DG2HJNI4″,”itemData”:{“id”:164,”type”:”article-journal”,”title”:”Exclusion, Marginalization and Peripheralization: Conceptual concerns in the study of urban inequalities”,”container-title”:”Leibniz Institute for Regional Development and Structural Planning”,”page”:”30″,”volume”:”49″,”source”:”Zotero”,”ISSN”:”1866-9263″,”language”:”en”,”author”:{“family”:”Bernt”,”given”:”Matthias”},{“family”:”Colini”,”given”:”Laura”},”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2013″,4}}},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”} (Bernt & Colini, 2013). The term ‘exclusion’ is closely related to other phenomena such as inequality, poverty ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {“citationID”:”xHJHo4hp”,”properties”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Bernt & Colini, 2013a)”,”plainCitation”:”(Bernt & Colini, 2013a)”,”noteIndex”:0},”citationItems”:{“id”:”w9or1I9e/PlrH7xYZ”,”uris”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/UNHRXU5F”,”uri”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/UNHRXU5F”,”itemData”:{“id”:67,”type”:”article-journal”,”title”:”Exclusion, Marginalization and Peripheralization”,”page”:”30″,”source”:”Zotero”,”ISSN”:”1866-9263″,”language”:”en”,”author”:{“family”:”Bernt”,”given”:”Matthias”},{“family”:”Colini”,”given”:”Laura”},”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2013″,4}}},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”} (Bernt & Colini, 2013). During the economic crisis, Lionel Stoleru observed poverty as a problem that economic growth could not resolve ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {“citationID”:”JEkiTl4b”,”properties”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Silver, 1994)”,”plainCitation”:”(Silver, 1994)”,”noteIndex”:0},”citationItems”:{“id”:99,”uris”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/SLDB38QL”,”uri”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/SLDB38QL”,”itemData”:{“id”:99,”type”:”article-journal”,”title”:”Social Exclusion and Social Solidarity: Three Paradigms”,”container-title”:”Internation Labour Review”,”page”:”531-578″,”volume”:”13″,”author”:{“family”:”Silver”,”given”:”Hilary”},”issued”:{“date-parts”:”1994″}}},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”} (Silver, 1994). The term exclusion was used to refer to various other forms of social disadvantage giving rise to new social problems that arose: unemployment, ghettoisation and fundamental changes in family life etc. ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {“citationID”:”b5MIHYWA”,”properties”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Cannan, 1997)”,”plainCitation”:”(Cannan, 1997)”,”noteIndex”:0},”citationItems”:{“id”:102,”uris”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/T68GCSV8″,”uri”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/T68GCSV8″,”itemData”:{“id”:102,”type”:”article-journal”,”title”:”The Struggle Against Social Exclusion: Urban Social Development in France”,”container-title”:”IDS Bulletin”,”page”:”77-85″,”volume”:”28″,”issue”:”2″,”abstract”:”Summaries This article looks at the extensive French policies concerned with preventing social exclusion, and it considers what this means on the ground using the example of a particular region in north western France. It looks at the background to the programmes generally known as urban or local social development, their goals and evaluations of their impact. It argues that the strength of the programmes lies in their attempt to reconstruc the welfare state in the context of changes in labour markets, by promoting local associative ties and a strong third sector, in getting progessionals working more strategically, and in insisting on principles of inclusion ( insertion ) rather than exclusion. Things are more problematic in the realisation of community participation, and there are confusions in the conceptualisation of exclusion which mean that goals are not always clear.”,”DOI”:”http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1759-5436.1997.mp28002008.x”,”author”:{“family”:”Cannan”,”given”:”Crescy”},”issued”:{“date-parts”:”1997″,5,1}}},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”} (Cannan, 1997). After that, social exclusion also has become popular in debates in other countries through European countries because its definition of cohesion is associated with social and economic disparities. The term ‘social exclusion’ first came to prominence during the Presidency of Jacques Delors within European Union ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {“citationID”:”o0nJJnzW”,”properties”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Atkinson & da Voudi, 2000)”,”plainCitation”:”(Atkinson & da Voudi, 2000)”,”noteIndex”:0},”citationItems”:{“id”:108,”uris”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/CTGQFLX5″,”uri”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/CTGQFLX5″,”itemData”:{“id”:108,”type”:”article-journal”,”title”:”The Concept of Social Exclusion in the European Union: Context, Development and Possibilities”,”container-title”:”JCMS: Journal of Common Market Studies”,”page”:”427-448″,”volume”:”38″,”issue”:”3″,”source”:”Crossref”,”abstract”:”In recent years the term ‘social exclusion’ has come to occupy a central place in the discussion of social policy and inequality in Europe. While the notion has acquired important strategic connotations, by stressing structural and cultural/social processes, the precise meaning of the term remains somewhat elusive. This article focuses on the reasons for and the manner in which the notion of social exclusion has developed within the EU social policy discourse, aiming to provide a clearer understanding of its origins, functions and multiple dimensions. Whilst adopting a critical approach to the notion of social exclusion, the article suggests that the concept has played a positive role in keeping issues such as inequality and poverty on the policy agenda. The article also suggests possible ways in which social exclusion might be developed in a climate which has become less conducive, if not hostile, to an autonomous, activist EU social policy.”,”DOI”:”10.1111/1468-5965.00229″,”ISSN”:”0021-9886, 1468-5965″,”shortTitle”:”The Concept of Social Exclusion in the European Union”,”language”:”en”,”author”:{“family”:”Atkinson”,”given”:”Rob”},{“family”:”Voudi”,”given”:”Simin”,”non-dropping-particle”:”da”},”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2000″,9}}},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”} (Atkinson & da Voudi, 2000).

The term social exclusion is usually attributed to Rene Lenoir, then Secrétaired’ Etàtal’Action Sociale in the Chirac government, who published Les Exclus: Un Francais sur dix, in 1974. Lenoir’s included a wide variety of people: not only the poor but also handicapped, suicidal and aged people, abused children, substance abusers, etc. ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {“citationID”:”0YiHBokv”,”properties”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Haan, 2000)”,”plainCitation”:”(Haan, 2000)”,”noteIndex”:0},”citationItems”:{“id”:92,”uris”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/C69SJDVP”,”uri”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/C69SJDVP”,”itemData”:{“id”:92,”type”:”article-journal”,”title”:”Social Exclusion: Enriching the Understanding of Deprivation (Manila”,”container-title”:”Asian Development Bank”,”page”:”22-40″,”source”:”CiteSeer”,”abstract”:”This paper makes a strong plea for the use of the concept of social exclusion, and argues that it has relevance for richer as well as poorer countries.1 The concept does not describe a new reality; neither is it is the only appropriate or even a radically innovative”,”shortTitle”:”Social Exclusion”,”author”:{“family”:”Haan”,”given”:”Arjan De”},”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2000″}}},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”} (Haan, 2000). European foundation (1995) defines social exclusion as ”the processes through which individuals or groups are wholly or partially excluded from full participation in the society in which they live’. Levitas et al. (2007) studied; they defined social exclusion as “the lack of resources, rights, goods and services and the inability to participate in the normal relationships and activities available to the majority of people in a society” ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {“citationID”:”lcW0j3fQ”,”properties”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Levitas et al., 2007)”,”plainCitation”:”(Levitas et al., 2007)”,”noteIndex”:0},”citationItems”:{“id”:160,”uris”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/4TEGESUM”,”uri”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/4TEGESUM”,”itemData”:{“id”:160,”type”:”report”,”title”:”The Multidimensional Analysis of Social Exclusion”,”publisher”:”Bristol Institute for Public Affairs”,”publisher-place”:”Bristol, England”,”page”:”246″,”source”:”Zotero”,”event-place”:”Bristol, England”,”URL”:”http://dera.ioe.ac.uk/6853/1/multidimensional.pdf”,”language”:”en”,”author”:{“family”:”Levitas”,”given”:”Ruth”},{“family”:”Pantazis”,”given”:”Christina”},{“family”:”Fahmy”,”given”:”Eldin”},{“family”:”Gordon”,”given”:”David”},{“family”:”Lloyd”,”given”:”Eva”},{“family”:”Patsios”,”given”:”Demi”},”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2007″,1},”accessed”:{“date-parts”:”2018″,7,31}}},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”} (Levitas et al., 2007 p. 9). However, a clear definition remains elusive of social exclusion. The nature of social exclusion is multi-dimensional, thereby mostly emphasise on the social and cultural relation. The theoretical contribution of the concept – social exclusion implies a focus on the relations and processes that cause deprivation. Deprivation is closely related to the social exclusion, and it is often noted that rising inequality in various countries has contributed to the popularity of the notion of social exclusion ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {“citationID”:”NQ16ibL1″,”properties”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Haan, 1999)”,”plainCitation”:”(Haan, 1999)”,”noteIndex”:0},”citationItems”:{“id”:101,”uris”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/EU9ZPQUG”,”uri”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/EU9ZPQUG”,”itemData”:{“id”:101,”type”:”article-journal”,”title”:”Social Exclusion: Towards an holistic understanding of deprivation”,”container-title”:”GSDRC Applied Knowledge Services”,”page”:”21″,”source”:”Zotero”,”abstract”:”What are the conceptual merits of the notion of social exclusion, and how relevant is it for developing countries? This paper from the Department for International Development (DFID) considers the usefulness of social exclusion as a framework for understanding deprivation. It argues that the value of the concept lies in focusing attention on two central elements of deprivation: its multidimensionality and the processes and social relations that underlie it.”,”language”:”en”,”author”:{“family”:”Haan”,”given”:”Arjan De”},”issued”:{“date-parts”:”1999″,4}}},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”} (Haan, 1999 p. 9). In the Indian context, Housing inequalities are major challenges for the human development, and these challenges are further exacerbated, particularly in urban in developing countries when social exclusion make difficult to inadequate access of basic facilities among certain communities. In India, historically disadvantaged schedule caste and schedule tribes including Muslims are more vulnerable than other communities ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {“citationID”:”xQJtMXzz”,”properties”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Ahmad, 2012)”,”plainCitation”:”(Ahmad, 2012)”,”noteIndex”:0},”citationItems”:{“id”:190,”uris”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/LNRGYVJA”,”uri”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/LNRGYVJA”,”itemData”:{“id”:190,”type”:”article-journal”,”title”:”Housing Inequality in Socially Disadvantaged Communities: Evidence from Urban India, 2009″,”container-title”:”Environment and Urbanization ASIA”,”page”:”237-249″,”volume”:”3″,”issue”:”1″,”abstract”:”Affirmative action to compensate discrimination has been the agenda of public policies towards the socially disadvantaged communities in India. This article examines why the scheduled castes/scheduled tribes (Dalits) and the largest religious minority (Muslims) have lower living standards, as measured by floor area and facility index, relative to the mainstream population. The econometric estimates are based on unit record data, over 54,000 households? survey from urban India. This article estimates living standards using regression analysis and measures gaps using Oaxaca decomposition. Results show that causes for the low living standards of the Muslims are similar to that of the Dalits. This study concludes that income improvement strategies and enhancement of occupational hierarchy would be one of the recommended strategies to reduce housing poverty and disparity among the minority and the Dalits. In addition, improvement of minority and Dalit concentrated slum settlements would be also significantly helpful to reduce housing inequality.”,”DOI”:”10.1177/097542531200300113″,”ISSN”:”0975-4253″,”journalAbbreviation”:”Environment and Urbanization ASIA”,”author”:{“family”:”Ahmad”,”given”:”Sohail”},”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2012″,3,1}}},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”} (Ahmad, 2012).

Social exclusion has multi-layered dimension and the plurality of interpretation among scholars. According to the study, in general, social exclusion is both a process and condition. It could be social, economic and power inequalities that leading to disadvantage, the relegation of individual or groups. In other words, social exclusion is when a person is excluded from societal benefits and access to certain services. Exclusion, when not used as synonymously with marginalisation, describes the outcomes of marginalisation. Examples of this include political under-representation, poor access to legal systems and denial of public services (“Social Exclusion and Marginalisation”, 2018). Although, exclusion and marginalisation are often used interchangeable hitherto slight distinction is worth noting. Marginalisation is referred to a set of processes among those groups face a systematic disadvantage in their relation or interaction with dominant social, economic and political groups or class.

Marginality and Marginalisation
Before going through marginalisation, we have to understand ‘marginality’. Marginality deals with the socio-cultural and people related problems belonging to a different section of society. Marginality is not a new phenomenon. It is old as much as a human, but greater attention has begun from post-colonial literature.
There are some authors and activist in post-colonial literature who has contributed to the flourished literature. They have undertaken various contemporary issues that were close to the society and touching the heart of the common man as those affects their lifestyle and influence his/her social behaviour and personal behaviour. Feminist theory has propounded that women have been marginalised by patriarchal society and consequently the history and concerns of feminist theory have paralleled developments in post-colonial theory which foregrounds the marginalisation of the colonial subject ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {“citationID”:”ZadL1CEW”,”properties”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Ashcroft, Griffiths, & Tiffin, 2007)”,”plainCitation”:”(Ashcroft, Griffiths, & Tiffin, 2007)”,”noteIndex”:0},”citationItems”:{“id”:162,”uris”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/6V7EZEPM”,”uri”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/6V7EZEPM”,”itemData”:{“id”:162,”type”:”book”,”title”:”Post-Colonial Studies: The Key Concepts, Second Edition”,”publisher”:”Routledge Taylor & Francis”,”publisher-place”:”New York”,”number-of-pages”:”305″,”edition”:”Second”,”source”:”Zotero”,”event-place”:”New York”,”URL”:”http://staff.uny.ac.id/sites/default/files/pendidikan/else-liliani-ssmhum/postcolonialstudiesthekeyconceptsroutledgekeyguides.pdf”,”ISBN”:”0-203-93347-8″,”language”:”en”,”author”:{“family”:”Ashcroft”,”given”:”Bill”},{“family”:”Griffiths”,”given”:”Gareth”},{“family”:”Tiffin”,”given”:”Helen”},”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2007″},”accessed”:{“date-parts”:”2018″,7,31}}},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”} (Ashcroft, Griffiths, & Tiffin, 2007).

‘Post-colonial literature’ is the way to understand social issues in various aspects. Marginalisation is one of the resultant of the post-colonial literature. These days theory is applied to history, political science and others social sciences field. The area of research in post-colonial literature has much wide range dimension and perception. It needs to sustain inquiry deep in various contexts. The impact of colonisation on the socioeconomic pattern, the influences of socio-cultural structure and the role of established colonial societies, the concern for the marginalised community or groups are some of the wide range issues related to the post-colonial theory and literature. Noshad mentioned in his blog Bhabha argues that ‘Postcolonial perspectives emerge from the colonial testimony of the Third World countries and the discourses of “minorities” within the geopolitical division of the East and West, North and South. They intervene in those ideological discourses of modernity that attempt to give a hegemonic “normality” to the uneven development and the differential, often disadvantaged, histories of the notion, race, communities, peoples ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {“citationID”:”a26e38p5p22″,”properties”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Vakery, 2011)”,”plainCitation”:”(Vakery, 2011)”,”noteIndex”:0},”citationItems”:{“id”:30,”uris”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/77SAWCLC”,”uri”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/77SAWCLC”,”itemData”:{“id”:30,”type”:”post-weblog”,”title”:”Post Colonial Literatures as the Literature of Marginalised”,”container-title”:”Gazzali”,”URL”:”http://gazalivakery.blogspot.com/2011/10/post-colonial-literature-as-literature.html”,”language”:”English”,”author”:{“family”:”Vakery”,”given”:”Noushad”},”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2011″,10,26},”accessed”:{“date-parts”:”2018″,7,7}}},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”} (Vakery, 2011).
In a geographical discussion about marginality, this discipline has struggled for developing a definition of marginality which could be capable of covering phenomena at different socio-spatial scales ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {“citationID”:”5pWsdfOe”,”properties”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Bernt & Colini, 2013b)”,”plainCitation”:”(Bernt & Colini, 2013b)”,”noteIndex”:0},”citationItems”:{“id”:164,”uris”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/DG2HJNI4″,”uri”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/DG2HJNI4″,”itemData”:{“id”:164,”type”:”article-journal”,”title”:”Exclusion, Marginalization and Peripheralization: Conceptual concerns in the study of urban inequalities”,”container-title”:”Leibniz Institute for Regional Development and Structural Planning”,”page”:”30″,”volume”:”49″,”source”:”Zotero”,”ISSN”:”1866-9263″,”language”:”en”,”author”:{“family”:”Bernt”,”given”:”Matthias”},{“family”:”Colini”,”given”:”Laura”},”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2013″,4}}},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”} (Bernt ; Colini, 2013). Leimgruber defined in his book ‘Between Global and Local’ that ‘marginality is such a wide notion that we cannot define it. Besides, he also emphasised the importance of “time” scale’ rather than the “spatial” scale ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {“citationID”:”0JZZKCrQ”,”properties”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Leimgruber, 2004)”,”plainCitation”:”(Leimgruber, 2004)”,”noteIndex”:0},”citationItems”:{“id”:137,”uris”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/QQAT8V2F”,”uri”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/QQAT8V2F”,”itemData”:{“id”:137,”type”:”book”,”title”:”Between global and local: marginality and marginal regions in the context of globalization and deregulation”,”publisher”:”Routledge”,”ISBN”:”1-351-16271-3″,”author”:{“family”:”Leimgruber”,”given”:”Walter”},”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2004″},”accessed”:{“date-parts”:”2018″,7,31}}},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”} (Leimgruber, 2004).
In sociological point of view, ‘Marginality’ concept was coined by Robert E. Park a sociologist from the Chicago School of sociology in his seminal essay “Human Migration and the Marginal Man” Marginality is an experience that affects people life ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {“citationID”:”oDznQ7N9″,”properties”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Park, 1928)”,”plainCitation”:”(Park, 1928)”,”noteIndex”:0},”citationItems”:{“id”:79,”uris”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/SCF8XJFH”,”uri”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/SCF8XJFH”,”itemData”:{“id”:79,”type”:”article-journal”,”title”:”Human Migration and the Marginal Man”,”container-title”:”American Journal of Sociology”,”page”:”881-893″,”volume”:”33″,”issue”:”6″,”source”:”Zotero”,”language”:”en”,”author”:{“family”:”Park”,”given”:”Robert E.”},”issued”:{“date-parts”:”1928″}}},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”} (Park, 1928). He explained one of the stories of the marginal man and his condition as marginal; the man who, emerging from the ghetto in which he lived in Europe, is seeking to find a place in the freer, more complex and cosmopolitan life of an American city ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {“citationID”:”uRh0O5Mq”,”properties”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Park, 1928)”,”plainCitation”:”(Park, 1928)”,”noteIndex”:0},”citationItems”:{“id”:79,”uris”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/SCF8XJFH”,”uri”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/SCF8XJFH”,”itemData”:{“id”:79,”type”:”article-journal”,”title”:”Human Migration and the Marginal Man”,”container-title”:”American Journal of Sociology”,”page”:”881-893″,”volume”:”33″,”issue”:”6″,”source”:”Zotero”,”language”:”en”,”author”:{“family”:”Park”,”given”:”Robert E.”},”issued”:{“date-parts”:”1928″}}},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”} (Park, 1928 p. 892).

In 1992, a study group on Marginality was created, and a Commission followed it on Evolving Issues of Geographical Marginality in 2001 and a Commission on Marginalization, Globalization, and Regional and Local Responses in 2008. They have been broadly described of marginal areas. It was divided into four categories: a) significantly lower per capita incomes, b) low infrastructure equipment, c) cultural isolation, d) difficult natural conditions. It should be noted that, compared with more sociological approaches, this definition focuses on conditions rather than relations ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {“citationID”:”U8AwHS13″,”properties”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Bernt & Colini, 2013b)”,”plainCitation”:”(Bernt & Colini, 2013b)”,”dontUpdate”:true,”noteIndex”:0},”citationItems”:{“id”:164,”uris”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/DG2HJNI4″,”uri”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/DG2HJNI4″,”itemData”:{“id”:164,”type”:”article-journal”,”title”:”Exclusion, Marginalization and Peripheralization: Conceptual concerns in the study of urban inequalities”,”container-title”:”Leibniz Institute for Regional Development and Structural Planning”,”page”:”30″,”volume”:”49″,”source”:”Zotero”,”ISSN”:”1866-9263″,”language”:”en”,”author”:{“family”:”Bernt”,”given”:”Matthias”},{“family”:”Colini”,”given”:”Laura”},”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2013″,4}}},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”} (Bernt ; Colini, 2013).

On the other hand, Weinberger argues that marginality is constituted in different social coordinates. In other words, marginality as “an involuntary position and condition of an individual or group at the margins of social, political, economic, ecological and biophysical systems, preventing them from access to resources, assets, services, restraining freedom of choice, preventing the development of capabilities, and eventually causing extreme poverty ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {“citationID”:”xYXeTHmc”,”properties”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Pelc, 2017)”,”plainCitation”:”(Pelc, 2017)”,”noteIndex”:0},”citationItems”:{“id”:36,”uris”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/GEISJRVJ”,”uri”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/GEISJRVJ”,”itemData”:{“id”:36,”type”:”chapter”,”title”:”Marginality and Marginalization”,”container-title”:”Societies, Social Inequalities and Marginalization”,”publisher”:”Springer International Publishing”,”publisher-place”:”Cham”,”page”:”13-28″,”source”:”Crossref”,”event-place”:”Cham”,”URL”:”http://link.springer.com/10.1007/978-3-319-50998-3_2″,”ISBN”:”978-3-319-50997-6″,”note”:”DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-50998-3_2″,”editor”:{“family”:”Chand”,”given”:”Raghubir”},{“family”:”Nel”,”given”:”Etienne”},{“family”:”Pelc”,”given”:”Stanko”},”author”:{“family”:”Pelc”,”given”:”Stanko”},”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2017″},”accessed”:{“date-parts”:”2018″,7,7}}},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”} (Pelc, 2017 p. 22). Some examples of the marginalised section of the society are an ethnic minority, nomadic population, HIV/AIDS patients and individual with a disability. These factors can be observed as the main cause of poverty or lower quality of life for those trapped in the marginal situation.

According to Merriam-Webster’s online dictionary, marginalise “to relegate to an unimportant, or powerless position within a society or group” ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {“citationID”:”SmixjuP4″,”properties”:{“formattedCitation”:”(\uc0\u8220{}Definition of Marginalisation,\uc0\u8221{} n.d.)”,”plainCitation”:”(“Definition of Marginalisation,” n.d.)”,”noteIndex”:0},”citationItems”:{“id”:44,”uris”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/S2Y3NKJ4″,”uri”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/S2Y3NKJ4″,”itemData”:{“id”:44,”type”:”webpage”,”title”:”Definition of Marginalisation”,”abstract”:”to relegate to an unimportant or powerless position within a society or group… See the full definition”,”URL”:”https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/marginalization”,”language”:”en”,”accessed”:{“date-parts”:”2018″,7,9}}},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”} (“Definition of Marginalisation,” n.d.).

The Encyclopaedia of Public Health defines ‘being marginalised’ as “to be placed in the margins, and thus excluded from the privilege and power found at the centre” ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {“citationID”:”gcmgQDuW”,”properties”:{“formattedCitation”:”(\uc0\u8220{}Marginal People | Encyclopedia.com,\uc0\u8221{} n.d.)”,”plainCitation”:”(“Marginal People | Encyclopedia.com,” n.d.)”,”dontUpdate”:true,”noteIndex”:0},”citationItems”:{“id”:38,”uris”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/U6PZRC7U”,”uri”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/U6PZRC7U”,”itemData”:{“id”:38,”type”:”webpage”,”title”:”Marginal People | Encyclopedia.com”,”URL”:”https://www.encyclopedia.com/education/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/marginal-people”,”accessed”:{“date-parts”:”2018″,7,8}}},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”} (“Marginal People | Encyclopediadia.com,” n.d.).

UNESCO defines marginalisation as “a form of acute and persistent disadvantage rooted in underlying social inequalities” ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {“citationID”:”ViJjLIXX”,”properties”:{“formattedCitation”:”(2009)”,”plainCitation”:”(2009)”,”dontUpdate”:true,”noteIndex”:0},”citationItems”:{“id”:71,”uris”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/A8ZX6QCP”,”uri”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/A8ZX6QCP”,”itemData”:{“id”:71,”type”:”article”,”title”:”Tenth meeting of the Working Group on Education for All (EFA)”,”publisher”:”UNESCO”,”URL”:”http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0018/001886/188679e.pdf”,”shortTitle”:”Concept Paper on Marginalisation”,”language”:”English”,”author”:{“family”:””,”given”:”n.a.”},”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2009″,12},”accessed”:{“date-parts”:”2018″,7,21}}},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”} (“Concept Paper on Marginalisation, 2009”).
These definitions are stated in the different context that shows marginalisation is a dynamic and multi-layered concept.
Gatzweiler and co-author addressed the causal factors of marginality and explained different factors lead to marginality. They explained the marginality pattern through different causal factors relation ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {“citationID”:”Q4GN8WRS”,”properties”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Braun ; Gatzweiler, 2013)”,”plainCitation”:”(Braun ; Gatzweiler, 2013)”,”dontUpdate”:true,”noteIndex”:0},”citationItems”:{“id”:85,”uris”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/6FVQT5MX”,”uri”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/6FVQT5MX”,”itemData”:{“id”:85,”type”:”book”,”title”:”Marginality: addressing the nexus of poverty, exclusion and ecology”,”publisher”:”Springer”,”publisher-place”:”New York”,”source”:”Library of Congress ISBN”,”event-place”:”New York”,”ISBN”:”978-94-007-7060-7″,”shortTitle”:”Marginality”,”language”:”en”,”author”:{“family”:”Braun”,”given”:”Joachim Von”},{“family”:”Gatzweiler”,”given”:”Franz W.”},”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2013″}}},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”} (Braun &Gatzweiler, 2013).

Figure: 1 causal factors underlying different marginality pattern
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Source: ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {“citationID”:”qwwS6qF2″,”properties”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Pelc, 2017)”,”plainCitation”:”(Pelc, 2017)”,”noteIndex”:0},”citationItems”:{“id”:36,”uris”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/GEISJRVJ”,”uri”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/GEISJRVJ”,”itemData”:{“id”:36,”type”:”chapter”,”title”:”Marginality and Marginalization”,”container-title”:”Societies, Social Inequalities and Marginalization”,”publisher”:”Springer International Publishing”,”publisher-place”:”Cham”,”page”:”13-28″,”source”:”Crossref”,”event-place”:”Cham”,”URL”:”http://link.springer.com/10.1007/978-3-319-50998-3_2″,”ISBN”:”978-3-319-50997-6″,”note”:”DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-50998-3_2″,”editor”:{“family”:”Chand”,”given”:”Raghubir”},{“family”:”Nel”,”given”:”Etienne”},{“family”:”Pelc”,”given”:”Stanko”},”author”:{“family”:”Pelc”,”given”:”Stanko”},”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2017″},”accessed”:{“date-parts”:”2018″,7,7}}},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”} (Pelc, 2017).

Nature of Marginalisation
Marginalisation is a historical, multidimensional phenomenon. Marginalisation is a reality in virtually every society of the human history. In the 20th century, marginalisation got driven by social research, human rights, national and international institutions. They focused on improvement in that community and individual who are excluded. There are no general laws to comprehend the complexity of the marginalisation. There is some sort of analytical tools that can help to figure out most cases includes social, cultural, economic and health status. The nature of marginalisation has varied in a different setting. For instances, the marginalisation of the race, homosexual, etc. in the USA is not the same in India, though they shared some features.
Marginality looks like ‘marginal areas’ encompasses a wide spectre of rural and urban population disadvantages. Thus, it is most focus on condition rather than relation. In sociology, it focused on infrastructure, low per capita income and cultural isolation. In 1969s and 1970s, in Latin-America theorist used a term like “marginality”, or “marginal settlement” which dependent industrialisation of Third-World countries because of urbanisation, resulted of immigration from a rural area to urban ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {“citationID”:”vAPhf3sg”,”properties”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Bernt ; Colini, 2013a)”,”plainCitation”:”(Bernt ; Colini, 2013a)”,”noteIndex”:0},”citationItems”:{“id”:”w9or1I9e/PlrH7xYZ”,”uris”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/UNHRXU5F”,”uri”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/UNHRXU5F”,”itemData”:{“id”:67,”type”:”article-journal”,”title”:”Exclusion, Marginalization and Peripheralization”,”page”:”30″,”source”:”Zotero”,”ISSN”:”1866-9263″,”language”:”en”,”author”:{“family”:”Bernt”,”given”:”Matthias”},{“family”:”Colini”,”given”:”Laura”},”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2013″,4}}},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”} (Bernt & Colini, 2013). Marginality has multiple meaning which has unfold “marginalisation”. Consequently, it has fundamentally meaning; lack of resources and underdevelopment; relation and oppression; cultural integration and adaption, i.e. “culture of poverty” coined by Oscar Lewis (1959), (“Culture of Poverty,” n, d).
People who have little control over the resources and their lives are marginalised. Consequently, it makes them handicapped in delving contribution to society. It has a crucial impact on the development of human and society too. The main objective of development is to create a sustainable environment for people to enjoy a happy, healthy and creative life, it is very important to address the issues of marginalisation. Development is the universal phenomenon. It means improving the status or condition of life with the help of democracy, technology, modern education, science, values, ethics, etc. on the other sense, using the productive resources to improve their living condition of the marginalised people. It can be understood regarding empowerment of every section of the society. Fukuda-Parr (2003) analyses Sen’s theory of development as an expansion of capabilities is the starting point for the human development approach: the idea that the purpose of development is to improve human lives by expanding the range of things that a person can be and do, such as to be healthy and well nourished, to be knowledgeable, and to participate in community life. Development is about removing the obstacles to what a person can do in life, obstacles such as illiteracy, ill health, lack of access to resources, or lack of civil and political freedoms ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {“citationID”:”M5lF6T2v”,”properties”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Fukuda-Parr, 2003)”,”plainCitation”:”(Fukuda-Parr, 2003)”,”noteIndex”:0},”citationItems”:{“id”:168,”uris”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/63HD7NE3″,”uri”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/63HD7NE3″,”itemData”:{“id”:168,”type”:”article-journal”,”title”:”THE HUMAN DEVELOPMENT PARADIGM: OPERATIONALIZING SEN’S IDEAS ON CAPABILITIES”,”container-title”:”Feminist Economics”,”page”:”301-317″,”volume”:”9″,”issue”:”2-3″,”source”:”Crossref”,”abstract”:”Amartya Sen’s ideas constitute the core principles of a development approach that has evolved in the Human Development Reports. This approach is a ”paradigm” based on the concept of well-being that can help de?ne public policy, but does not embody a set of prescriptions. The current movement from an age of development planning to an age of globalization has meant an increasing attention to agency aspects of development. While earlier Human Development Reports emphasized measures such as the provision of public services, recent ones have focused more on people’s political empowerment. This paper re?ects on Sen’s work in light of this shift in emphasis. Gender analysis has been central to the development of the new agency-driven paradigm, and gender equity is a core concern. A gender perspective has also helped highlight important aspects of this paradigm, such as the role of collective agency in promoting development.”,”DOI”:”10.1080/1354570022000077980″,”ISSN”:”1354-5701, 1466-4372″,”shortTitle”:”THE HUMAN DEVELOPMENT PARADIGM”,”language”:”en”,”author”:{“family”:”Fukuda-Parr”,”given”:”Sakiko”},”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2003″}}},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”} (Fukuda-Parr, 2003).

Marginalization is the process of pushing a particular group or groups of people to the edge of society by not allowing them an active voice, identity, or place in it (“Impact of Marginalization | Syracuse University,” n.d.). Marxist sees marginalisation as a structural phenomenon endemic to capital. Marx explained “reserve army of the proletariat” as a group of unemployed or partially unemployed labourers. He also attributed the composition of the reserve army of labour and thus the lumpen proletariat to capitalist efforts to divide the working class along ethnic lines ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {“citationID”:”a21q562li47″,”properties”:{“formattedCitation”:”(\uc0\u8220{}Marginalization facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Marginalization,\uc0\u8221{} n.d.)”,”plainCitation”:”(“Marginalization facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Marginalization,” n.d.)”,”noteIndex”:0},”citationItems”:{“id”:33,”uris”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/Z5K7ZFJ8″,”uri”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/Z5K7ZFJ8″,”itemData”:{“id”:33,”type”:”webpage”,”title”:”Marginalization facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Marginalization”,”URL”:”https://www.encyclopedia.com/social-sciences-and-law/sociology-and-social-reform/sociology-general-terms-and-concepts-109″,”accessed”:{“date-parts”:”2018″,7,7}}},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”} (“Marginalization facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Marginalization,” n.d.). Marginalisation is often based on such notions as religion, language, race, gender, socioeconomic status, political affiliation and geographical location.
Moreover, ‘The concept of marginalisation is useful in public health to highlight, understand, and ultimately change processes by which social relations mark and maintain boundaries that produce ill health’ ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {“citationID”:”ODEm20qq”,”properties”:{“formattedCitation”:”(\uc0\u8220{}Marginal People | Encyclopedia.com,\uc0\u8221{} n.d.)”,”plainCitation”:”(“Marginal People | Encyclopedia.com,” n.d.)”,”noteIndex”:0},”citationItems”:{“id”:38,”uris”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/U6PZRC7U”,”uri”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/U6PZRC7U”,”itemData”:{“id”:38,”type”:”webpage”,”title”:”Marginal People | Encyclopedia.com”,”URL”:”https://www.encyclopedia.com/education/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/marginal-people”,”accessed”:{“date-parts”:”2018″,7,8}}},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”} (“Marginal People | Encyclopedia.com,” n.d.). Crane (20004) defined marginalisation as “the process of falling into a marginal position” ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {“citationID”:”TvEO6Gz5″,”properties”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Nejat ; Yaghoobi, 2014)”,”plainCitation”:”(Nejat ; Yaghoobi, 2014)”,”noteIndex”:0},”citationItems”:{“id”:48,”uris”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/IDVYPZQ6″,”uri”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/IDVYPZQ6″,”itemData”:{“id”:48,”type”:”article-journal”,”title”:”Marginalization in John Maxwell Coetzee’s”,”container-title”:”Journal of Novel Applied Sceinces”,”page”:”6″,”source”:”Zotero”,”abstract”:”Today in many countries that experience colonization, marginalization can be seen as not only a phenomenon after colonization but also it is recognized as both historical continuity and change. Life after independence in many ways is characterized by the persistence of many of the effects of colonization. Subaltern and marginality are the two important postcolonial subjects; which are mostly concerned with women and their limitations, they can be used in different aspects of human life and mostly in postcolonial contexts. Reasons of being in margin and its consequences which affect the forming of characters and their way of life in the society are discussed in this paper. The perception and description of experience as marginal is a consequence of the structure of various kinds of dominant discourses such as patriarchy, imperialism and ethno-centrism. And also for better understanding of subjects subaltern is highlighted in postcolonial context.”,”ISSN”:”2322-5149″,”language”:”en”,”author”:{“family”:”Nejat”,”given”:”Jamal”},{“family”:”Yaghoobi”,”given”:”Fateme”},”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2014″}}},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”} (Nejat & Yaghoobi, 2014). It is linked with low accessibility and lack of the essentials resources. It can be the inability of persons or groups to use resources of societal power which tum into different processes of exclusion and marginalisation of persons or groups.
Marginalisation directly or indirectly affects social relations and maintains boundaries which produce ill health. Several studies are showing that marginalisation is linked with lack of education, unemployment, lack of social support, living and housing conditions, and ill health. Marginalised groups are different in a different setting such as in developed economic country those who are coming from religious minorities, linguistic, ethnic, homo-sexual, and AIDS patients. In less developed economic countries, physically or mentally challenged and women. Apart from this, in nations such as India, there are religions, tribes, communities, and other backward castes. Even the more developed countries have categories of the population which may be defined as vulnerable or marginalised groups ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {“citationID”:”L2yWrqZv”,”properties”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Lugaz, 2010)”,”plainCitation”:”(Lugaz, 2010)”,”noteIndex”:0},”citationItems”:{“id”:76,”uris”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/8ZELD7WG”,”uri”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/8ZELD7WG”,”itemData”:{“id”:76,”type”:”report”,”title”:”Educational Marginalization in National Education Plans”,”publisher”:”UNESCO”,”publisher-place”:”Paris”,”page”:”1-58″,”genre”:”Education for All Global Monitoring Report”,”event-place”:”Paris”,”URL”:”http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0018/001866/186608e.pdf”,”number”:”2010/ED/EFA/MRT/PI/20″,”language”:”English”,”author”:{“family”:”Lugaz”,”given”:”Candy”},”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2010″},”accessed”:{“date-parts”:”2018″,7,21}}},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”} (Lugaz, 2010).
Marginalisation invokes feelings of oppression and alienation from the mainstream of society. These are leads to inequality. Inequality decides the distribution of resources and opportunities. On the other words, marginalisation has been used to conceptualise how ill health is produced through the unequal distribution of power and property, information, patterns of production and consumption, and the biological impact of social inequality ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {“citationID”:”I4I0nt7s”,”properties”:{“formattedCitation”:”(\uc0\u8220{}Marginal People | Encyclopedia.com,\uc0\u8221{} n.d.)”,”plainCitation”:”(“Marginal People | Encyclopedia.com,” n.d.)”,”noteIndex”:0},”citationItems”:{“id”:38,”uris”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/U6PZRC7U”,”uri”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/U6PZRC7U”,”itemData”:{“id”:38,”type”:”webpage”,”title”:”Marginal People | Encyclopedia.com”,”URL”:”https://www.encyclopedia.com/education/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/marginal-people”,”accessed”:{“date-parts”:”2018″,7,8}}},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”} (“Marginal People | Encyclopedia.com,” n.d.). The multi-dimensional nature of exclusion and marginalisation which shows that lack of resources is associated with poor health, inadequate living and housing, having poor access to basic services such as social services, health services. Some of the studies have articulated that many aspects of marginalisation have been hitherto virtually invisible. There is a need for a comprehensive study which looks marginalisation in numerous ways. Measuring and understanding marginalisation is an important first step to overcoming it. Household surveys and other data provide insights into the relationship between poverty, ethnicity, health, parental literacy and education. Disaggregated data can provide policy-makers with the means to identify social groups and areas characterised by high levels of deprivation ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {“citationID”:”DjzBCsDh”,”properties”:{“formattedCitation”:”(2009)”,”plainCitation”:”(2009)”,”dontUpdate”:true,”noteIndex”:0},”citationItems”:{“id”:71,”uris”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/A8ZX6QCP”,”uri”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/A8ZX6QCP”,”itemData”:{“id”:71,”type”:”article”,”title”:”Tenth meeting of the Working Group on Education for All (EFA)”,”publisher”:”UNESCO”,”URL”:”http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0018/001886/188679e.pdf”,”shortTitle”:”Concept Paper on Marginalisation”,”language”:”English”,”author”:{“family”:””,”given”:”n.a.”},”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2009″,12},”accessed”:{“date-parts”:”2018″,7,21}}},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”} (“Concept Paper on Marginalisation, 2009”).

Types of Marginalisation
Robert E. Park in his seminal essay “Human Migration and the Marginal Man” was described marginality came through migration. Migration creates a situation n in which the same individual who may or may not be a mixed blood-finds himself striving to live in two diverse cultural groups. The effect is to produce an unstable character-a personality type with characteristic forms of behaviour. It is the “marginal man” ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {“citationID”:”AYk43fUP”,”properties”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Park, 1928)”,”plainCitation”:”(Park, 1928)”,”noteIndex”:0},”citationItems”:{“id”:79,”uris”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/SCF8XJFH”,”uri”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/SCF8XJFH”,”itemData”:{“id”:79,”type”:”article-journal”,”title”:”Human Migration and the Marginal Man”,”container-title”:”American Journal of Sociology”,”page”:”881-893″,”volume”:”33″,”issue”:”6″,”source”:”Zotero”,”language”:”en”,”author”:{“family”:”Park”,”given”:”Robert E.”},”issued”:{“date-parts”:”1928″}}},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”} (Park, 1928). Bernt and Colini (2013) argue ‘The resulting lack of integration and the status as an “outsider” concerning dominant cultures; Park termed “Marginality” ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {“citationID”:”s93MhqXc”,”properties”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Bernt & Colini, 2013)”,”plainCitation”:”(Bernt & Colini, 2013)”,”dontUpdate”:true,”noteIndex”:0},”citationItems”:{“id”:”w9or1I9e/PlrH7xYZ”,”uris”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/UNHRXU5F”,”uri”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/UNHRXU5F”,”itemData”:{“id”:67,”type”:”article-journal”,”title”:”Exclusion, Marginalization and Peripheralization”,”page”:”30″,”source”:”Zotero”,”ISSN”:”1866-9263″,”language”:”en”,”author”:{“family”:”Bernt”,”given”:”Matthias”},{“family”:”Colini”,”given”:”Laura”},”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2013″,4}}},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”} (Bernt ; Colini, 2013 p. 14).On the other hand, Billson argued that ‘Although marginality theory was originally case regarding the “marginal man,” women equally experience marginality, both individually and as a group. Therefore, he has employed “marginal person” except in quoting the classical writings. Of all social phenomena, marginality can hardly be thought of as bounded by gender, race, religion, ethnicity, class, or other defining categories ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {“citationID”:”KFe0ZEuz”,”properties”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Mancini Billson, 2004)”,”plainCitation”:”(Mancini Billson, 2004)”,”dontUpdate”:true,”noteIndex”:0},”citationItems”:{“id”:83,”uris”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/CXAG2WIT”,”uri”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/CXAG2WIT”,”itemData”:{“id”:83,”type”:”chapter”,”title”:”NO OWNER OF SOIL: REDEFINING THE CONCEPT OF MARGINALITY”,”container-title”:”Research in Race and Ethnic Relations”,”publisher”:”Elsevier”,”page”:”29-47″,”volume”:”12″,”source”:”Crossref”,”URL”:”http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0195744904120035″,”ISBN”:”978-0-7623-0277-2″,”note”:”DOI: 10.1016/S0195-7449(04)12003-5″,”shortTitle”:”NO OWNER OF SOIL”,”language”:”en”,”author”:{“family”:”Billson”,”given”:”Janet Mancini”},”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2004″},”accessed”:{“date-parts”:”2018″,7,22}}},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”} (Billson, 2004). Billson has defined ‘marginality’ in three different kinds of ways;
Cultural marginality
Social role marginality
Structural marginality.
He explained cultural marginality, referring to the dilemma of assimilation and cross-cultural identities. Race, religion, ethnicity and other cultural differences variable are in this marginality. In sociology, it is called ‘in-group’ and ‘out-group’. This concept developed by sociologist William Sumner in 1906 ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {“citationID”:”VnXwc5r6″,”properties”:{“formattedCitation”:”(\uc0\u8220{}Types of Groups | Introduction to Sociology,\uc0\u8221{} n.d.)”,”plainCitation”:”(“Types of Groups | Introduction to Sociology,” n.d.)”,”noteIndex”:0},”citationItems”:{“id”:104,”uris”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/AYLN5CEN”,”uri”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/AYLN5CEN”,”itemData”:{“id”:104,”type”:”webpage”,”title”:”Types of Groups | Introduction to Sociology”,”container-title”:”Introduction to Sociology”,”URL”:”https://courses.lumenlearning.com/sociology/chapter/types-of-groups/”,”language”:”eng”,”accessed”:{“date-parts”:”2018″,7,26}}},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”} (“Types of Groups | Introduction to Sociology,” n.d.). Social role marginality defines the tensions when a people or a group is restricted from relation to a positive reference group. And last one, structural marginality, which refers to social, economic, politically powerless and disadvantaged group within societies ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {“citationID”:”ffQFCMyW”,”properties”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Billson, 2004)”,”plainCitation”:”(Billson, 2004)”,”noteIndex”:0},”citationItems”:{“id”:83,”uris”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/CXAG2WIT”,”uri”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/CXAG2WIT”,”itemData”:{“id”:83,”type”:”chapter”,”title”:”NO OWNER OF SOIL: REDEFINING THE CONCEPT OF MARGINALITY”,”container-title”:”Research in Race and Ethnic Relations”,”publisher”:”Elsevier”,”page”:”29-47″,”volume”:”12″,”source”:”Crossref”,”URL”:”http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0195744904120035″,”ISBN”:”978-0-7623-0277-2″,”note”:”DOI: 10.1016/S0195-7449(04)12003-5″,”shortTitle”:”NO OWNER OF SOIL”,”language”:”en”,”author”:{“family”:”Billson”,”given”:”Janet Mancini”},”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2004″},”accessed”:{“date-parts”:”2018″,7,22}}},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”} (Billson, 2004). Apart from this, gender marginality also exists in every society. By gender identity, women face exclusion and discrimination from full participation in the social, cultural, economic and political life. It leads to marginalisation. Still, scholars are struggling to develop a definition of marginality which is capable of covering phenomena at different socio-spatial scales ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {“citationID”:”sqEwy4LN”,”properties”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Bernt & Colini, 2013)”,”plainCitation”:”(Bernt & Colini, 2013)”,”dontUpdate”:true,”noteIndex”:0},”citationItems”:{“id”:”w9or1I9e/PlrH7xYZ”,”uris”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/UNHRXU5F”,”uri”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/UNHRXU5F”,”itemData”:{“id”:67,”type”:”article-journal”,”title”:”Exclusion, Marginalization and Peripheralization”,”page”:”30″,”source”:”Zotero”,”ISSN”:”1866-9263″,”language”:”en”,”author”:{“family”:”Bernt”,”given”:”Matthias”},{“family”:”Colini”,”given”:”Laura”},”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2013″,4}}},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”} (Bernt & Colini, 2013 p. 14). In general, marginality is lack of power, participation, advantage and integration experienced by an individual or a group within society or territory or country.
Marginalised Groups in Different Setting
Marginality is an experience and status that affects groups/community/society. Whole societies might be marginalised at the world level while any communities and classes might be marginalised in the social order. Kagan et al. explained with the example ‘To a certain extent, marginalisation is a shifting phenomenon, linked to social status. So, for example, individuals or groups might enjoy high social status at one point in time, but as social change takes place, so they lose this status and become marginalised. Similarly, as life cycle stages change, so might people’s marginalised position ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {“citationID”:”4cg6hGua”,”properties”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Kagan et al., 2002)”,”plainCitation”:”(Kagan et al., 2002)”,”noteIndex”:0},”citationItems”:{“id”:124,”uris”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/ZD3QQYYY”,”uri”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/ZD3QQYYY”,”itemData”:{“id”:124,”type”:”article-journal”,”title”:”Working with People who are marginalized by the social system: challenges for community psychological work”,”page”:”19″,”source”:”Zotero”,”abstract”:”Working with people who are marginalized by the social system presents community
psychologists with a number of challenges that extend beyond fundamental principles
such as prevention, empowerment, and participation. Different contributors to this paper,
all of whom have been involved in different ways to the work of the journal Community
Work and Family, draw on their direct work with people who are marginalized by the
social system to highlight tensions and dilemmas for community psychological work.
These include: the negotiation of values and ways of working; multi-level working within
a complex system; issues of measurement and epistemology; intercultural and
interdisciplinary working; liberal or liberation principles; methods of working and data
collection; and conceptual critiques.”,”language”:”en”,”author”:{“family”:”Kagan”,”given”:”Carolyn”},{“family”:”Burns”,”given”:”Diane”},{“family”:”Burton”,”given”:”Mark”},{“family”:”Crespo”,”given”:”Isabel”},{“family”:”Evans”,”given”:”Rob”},{“family”:”Knowles”,”given”:”Kath”},{“family”:”Lalueza”,”given”:”José Luis”},{“family”:”Sixsmith”,”given”:”Judith”},”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2002″,1,1}}},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”} (Kagan et al., 2002). These people, who are marginalised, from a community for their protection and integration and are known as ‘marginalised groups’ ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {“citationID”:”2GctaiEt”,”properties”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Saksena, 2014)”,”plainCitation”:”(Saksena, 2014)”,”noteIndex”:0},”citationItems”:{“id”:128,”uris”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/2BVXGLBE”,”uri”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/2BVXGLBE”,”itemData”:{“id”:128,”type”:”post-weblog”,”title”:”The Problems of Marginalized Groups in India”,”container-title”:”Academike”,”abstract”:”Marginality is an experience that affects millions of people throughout the world. People who are marginalized have relatively less control over their life.”,”URL”:”https://www.lawctopus.com/academike/problems-marginalized-groups-india/”,”language”:”en-US”,”author”:{“family”:”Saksena”,”given”:”Devesh”},”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2014″,9,8},”accessed”:{“date-parts”:”2018″,7,28}}},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”} (Saksena, 2014). Schatz and Schiffer mentioned a list of marginalised and excluded groups. For instances, ethnic minorities, immigrants, disabled persons, isolated older persons, ex-prisoners, drug users, people living with HIV/AIDS, psychiatric patients, sex workers, homeless people and marginalised youth ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {“citationID”:”TDK7pLna”,”properties”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Schatz & Schiffer, 2008)”,”plainCitation”:”(Schatz & Schiffer, 2008)”,”noteIndex”:0},”citationItems”:{“id”:28,”uris”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/AIXNCLAS”,”uri”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/AIXNCLAS”,”itemData”:{“id”:28,”type”:”article-journal”,”title”:”Marginalisation, Social Exclusion and Health”,”container-title”:”Foundation RegenboogAMOC”,”page”:”1-24″,”source”:”Google Scholar”,”author”:{“family”:”Schatz”,”given”:”Eberhard”},{“family”:”Schiffer”,”given”:”Katrin”},”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2008″}}},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”} (Schatz & Schiffer, 2008 p. 2). He also mentioned that indicators for marginalisation and exclusion might vary because of different setting and regions. There are some broad categories of marginalised groups in Indian context like Religion, Caste, Class, Gender, and Peoples with disabilities, Ethnic minority, Tribes, Elderly. These are a major factor of their marginalisations and exclusion from the main section of the society especially religion, caste, class and gender. After the 2014 election, these factors are playing a major role to decide their status. The present government is deciding what they should eat or not? What should they wear or not? How should they perform and behave? Where should they go or not? What can they access or not? Now, they are interrupting their business too. These interferences are becoming them marginalised particularly Minority, Muslims, Christian and Dalit. These lead to them excluded and marginalised within society and region.
Marginalisation in India
Moreover, the nature of marginalisation varies in different settings even within India. Marginality is in both statuses ascribed and acquired. The experience of marginality has arisen in some ways. For instances, oppressed groups, those severely impaired from birth (e.g. Dalit that bottom line in hierarchal system) and minorities groups, those born into marginal groups (e.g., Muslims that suffer discrimination and exclusion in India). Though there are various types of marginalisation, some broad types like social, economic, political marginalisation. It determines various caused associated with it such as poor access to health care services, poor health status and living conditions etc. In India, the religious, social system and political economy of the country have an impact on the marginalisation of a specific community or an individual.
In India, there are broadly two major conceptual frameworks to understand marginalisation. One is the spatial marginalisation and the second one is societal marginalisation. In Indian history, both exist since human. But it could be possible to identify marginalised groups by literature, movements, field research, observation, etc.

Spatial marginalisation depicts the geographical infrastructure of a group (e.g., tribes, ethnic, and minority groups). It deals those remote groups whose face difficulties to any easy access to basic needs. Such remote area remains away from the avail of mainstream resources. Thus, they are still lag behind and isolated from a developed society. They treat as a different tradition, culture practices like tribes in metro cities. Aftermath, they face discrimination, isolation. The explanation of the spatial dimension of marginality is primarily based on physical location and distance from centres of development, lying at the edge of or poorly integrated into the system ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {“citationID”:”rOQJYL2D”,”properties”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Jahan, 2016)”,”plainCitation”:”(Jahan, 2016)”,”noteIndex”:0},”citationItems”:{“id”:183,”uris”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/MQLUFXRG”,”uri”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/MQLUFXRG”,”itemData”:{“id”:183,”type”:”article-journal”,”title”:”Intersectionality of Marginalization and Inequality: A Case Study of Muslims in India”,”container-title”:”Journal of Political Sciences & Public Affairs”,”volume”:”04″,”issue”:”01″,”source”:”Crossref”,”abstract”:”Marginalization is a process that leads to sidelining of a certain community/individual to the periphery of the social space that eventually constrain their life choices at political space, social negotiation, and economic bargaining. It is a complex contested umbrella term is inextricably linked with the concept of inequality within the marginalized communities. In fact, inequality and marginalization are usually at interface in that they both with interacts and reinforces each other. Religious minority groups are amongst those who encounter severe exclusion, discrimination and oppression. In case of Indian Muslims as a religious marginalized community, these two concepts overlap. However, concern with ‘marginalization’ is relatively recent and it is imperative to check the development trajectory on the marginalized groups. As considerable evidence exists, a process of ‘marginalization’ of minority communities exists in almost all societies and nothing warrants that the same is not true of Muslims in India to a greater or a lesser degree. While discussing social structure of Indian Muslims prominent scholars like Imtiaz Ahmad and Zoya Hasan brought forth the theoretical debate “Can there be a category called Dalit Muslims”1. However, there are different and distinct categories of ‘marginalization’ which sometimes intersect each other and therefore essentially limit the possibility about a proper and comprehensive diagnosis, thereby, making it difficult to resist the actual power-relations. This study explores the systemic processes through which Muslims are being marginalized systematically in different domains of life.”,”URL”:”http://www.esciencecentral.org/journals/intersectionality-of-marginalization-and-inequalitya-case-study-of-muslims-in-india-2332-0761-1000187.php?aid=68344″,”DOI”:”10.4172/2332-0761.1000187″,”ISSN”:”23320761″,”shortTitle”:”Intersectionality of Marginalization and Inequality”,”language”:”en”,”author”:{“family”:”Jahan”,”given”:”Yasmeen”},”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2016″},”accessed”:{“date-parts”:”2018″,8,1}}},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”} (Jahan, 2016 p. 4).

The second, societal marginalisation is associated with society. Societal marginalisation depicts the wide frame of human dimensions such as religion, inequality, social stratification (e.g., caste, class, and gender) and culture. Saunders explained “stratification is the division of society or groups into hierarchically ordered layers. Members of each layer are considered broadly equal, but there is inequality between the layers” ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {“citationID”:”6TJIP5Vq”,”properties”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Saunders, 1994)”,”plainCitation”:”(Saunders, 1994)”,”noteIndex”:0},”citationItems”:{“id”:113,”uris”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/8NDS8H6Y”,”uri”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/8NDS8H6Y”,”itemData”:{“id”:113,”type”:”book”,”title”:”Social Class and stratification”,”collection-title”:”Society now”,”publisher”:”Routledge”,”publisher-place”:”London”,”number-of-pages”:”140″,”edition”:”Repr”,”source”:”Gemeinsamer Bibliotheksverbund ISBN”,”event-place”:”London”,”ISBN”:”978-0-415-04125-6″,”note”:”OCLC: 256625386″,”language”:”en”,”author”:{“family”:”Saunders”,”given”:”Peter”},”issued”:{“date-parts”:”1994″}}},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”} (Saunders, 1994). There might be invisible inequality among the members. A sociologist Dahrendorm was broadly mentioned two types of inequalities; individual and social level. The concept of social stratification varies in different settings. Social inequality is formed by the division of the society regarding religion, caste, class, gender and ethnicity. Thus, marginalisation by the above division passes the inequalities among the life of human being. Health inequalities are interrelated with marginalisation which is determined by socioeconomic factors. Social and health services have the task to support marginalised communities and population. But often services are unable to reach target groups. Issues like social inclusion and health promotion of marginalised groups are given little priority. Consequently, they handicapped in delving contribution to society.

The Constitution of India aims to create an egalitarian society wherein social, economic, and political justice prevail, and equality of status and opportunity is made available to all ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {“citationID”:”2EEMHYp4″,”properties”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Khanam, 2013)”,”plainCitation”:”(Khanam, 2013)”,”noteIndex”:0},”citationItems”:{“id”:153,”uris”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/BTP6CDLN”,”uri”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/BTP6CDLN”,”itemData”:{“id”:153,”type”:”book”,”title”:”Muslim Backward Classes: A Sociological Perspective”,”publisher”:”SAGE Publications India Pvt. Ltd.”,”publisher-place”:”New Delhi”,”number-of-pages”:”1-298″,”edition”:”First”,”event-place”:”New Delhi”,”ISBN”:”978-81-321-1167-2″,”language”:”en”,”author”:{“family”:”Khanam”,”given”:”Azra”},”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2013″}}},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”} (Khanam, 2013 p. 58). In Constitution of India, in article 14th ‘Equality before Law’, article 15th ‘Prohibition of discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth’, article 16th ‘Equality of opportunity in matters of public employment’, article 17th ‘Abolition of Untouchability’ are protect human rights all section of society. Apart from this, in article 29th ‘Protection of interests of minorities’, article 30th Right of minorities to establish and administer educational institutions’ and 46th ‘Promotion of educational and economic interests of Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and other weaker sections’ are protected minority groups. According to the Preamble of the Constitution of India, these are fundamental rights of every Indian citizen. But, these rights are still struggling to get justice, equality and fraternity, particularly in right-wing government. Right-wing politics is based on Hindutva and who do not belong to Hindutva either they have converted into Hindu or leave India ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {“citationID”:”lD6cFOrH”,”properties”:{“formattedCitation”:”(\uc0\u8220{}The Consitution of India,\uc0\u8221{} 1950)”,”plainCitation”:”(“The Consitution of India,” 1950)”,”noteIndex”:0},”citationItems”:{“id”:156,”uris”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/BK4Q3D98″,”uri”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/BK4Q3D98″,”itemData”:{“id”:156,”type”:”article”,”title”:”The Consitution of India”,”publisher”:”Government of India”,”URL”:”https://www.india.gov.in/sites/upload_files/npi/files/coi_part_full.pdf”,”language”:”en”,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”1950″,1,26},”accessed”:{“date-parts”:”2018″,7,31}}},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”} (“The Constitution of India,” 1950). According to Mandal Commission, 52% population belong to Other Backward Class (OBC). Khanam cites pinto (1996) studied ‘Backwardness is four dimensions: caste, class, status and power in India’ ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {“citationID”:”89B6IVXa”,”properties”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Khanam, 2013)”,”plainCitation”:”(Khanam, 2013)”,”noteIndex”:0},”citationItems”:{“id”:153,”uris”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/BTP6CDLN”,”uri”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/BTP6CDLN”,”itemData”:{“id”:153,”type”:”book”,”title”:”Muslim Backward Classes: A Sociological Perspective”,”publisher”:”SAGE Publications India Pvt. Ltd.”,”publisher-place”:”New Delhi”,”number-of-pages”:”1-298″,”edition”:”First”,”event-place”:”New Delhi”,”ISBN”:”978-81-321-1167-2″,”language”:”en”,”author”:{“family”:”Khanam”,”given”:”Azra”},”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2013″}}},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”} (Khanam, 2013 p. 61). It is still debatable whether caste or class should be the criteria for the backwardness.
Finally, marginalisation varies in a different setting. Broadly, marginalisation in India has a different attribute from other countries. Stratification has prominent in India regarding religion, caste and class hierarchy. And these stratification leads marginalisation of an individual or a community. The census of India enumerated OBCs/SCs among Hindu and Muslim (Dalit Muslim is unrecognised by the government) as marginalised groups.
Marginalisation and Identities
India is the land of diversity regarding religions, culture, traditions, etc. India has the largest population of Hinduism followers around 80%, and rest of religious followers are minority regarding number. Minority communities follow different religion Islam, Sikhs, Jains, Buddhist, Parsi etc. India’s highly religious – ridden atmosphere, filled with communal antagonism, inflammatory speeches, crimes against minorities and the agenda of Hindutva has been drifting away from the Muslim and other minority, and Dalit from the mainstream of the national life of India ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {“citationID”:”Knl6ps0Y”,”properties”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Zain, 2009)”,”plainCitation”:”(Zain, 2009)”,”noteIndex”:0},”citationItems”:{“id”:116,”uris”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/9KZZNWAA”,”uri”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/9KZZNWAA”,”itemData”:{“id”:116,”type”:”article-journal”,”title”:”Marginalization of Muslim Minority in India”,”container-title”:”Pakistan Journal of Social Sciences (PJSS)”,”page”:”101-106″,”volume”:”29″,”issue”:”1″,”source”:”Zotero”,”abstract”:”India’s highly religious – ridden atmosphere, filled with communal antagonism, inflammatory speeches, crimes against minorities and the agenda of Hindutva has been drifting away the Muslim minority from the mainstream of the national life of India. The Indian Muslims who form approximately 16 percent of the total population, have been subjected to continuous pressure and have been decimated from positions of importance in all walks of life. Concerted efforts have been made to deprive them from their basic human rights. The Indian Muslims live a life of complete insecurity and are being denied their Indian citizenship in different ways. Despite making countless contributions to India in almost all spheres of life, the Muslims of India find themselves increasingly vulnerable and pessimistic about the possibilities of an economic, socio-cultural and political uplift in the communal Indian society. This study would try to examine the objective conditions that spark communal cleansing in the Indian socio-political context. The study will also concentrate on the thesis that Indian stateengineered activities through its defense organs presenting to the world, the Indian Muslim’s political consciousness about their fair existence, as a manifestation of Islamic extremism or “terrorism against Indian federation” so as to justify Indian state repression and communal violence against the down-trodden innocent Indian Muslims.”,”language”:”en”,”author”:{“family”:”Zain”,”given”:”Omar Farooq”},”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2009″,6}}},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”} (Zain, 2009). Ambedkar said that “Hinduism is a veritable chamber of horrors” in his speech and he explained ‘Untouchable’, ‘Scheduled Caste’, ‘Backward class’, ‘Other Backward class’ to describe fellow human being is like living in a chamber of horrors”. He also accepted that caste prejudice continues to be a horrific reality in India ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {“citationID”:”e6w7UjBd”,”properties”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Roy, 2014)”,”plainCitation”:”(Roy, 2014)”,”noteIndex”:0},”citationItems”:{“id”:135,”uris”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/EZRRU3XY”,”uri”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/EZRRU3XY”,”itemData”:{“id”:135,”type”:”book”,”title”:”Annihilation of Caste: The Annotated Critical Edition”,”publisher”:”Navayana Publishing Pvt. Ltd.”,”number-of-pages”:”1-415″,”edition”:”First”,”language”:”en”,”author”:{“family”:”Roy”,”given”:”Arundhati”},”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2014″,3}}},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”} (Roy, 2014 p. 20). In the Durban conference, the Dalit activists were making the points that caste is not same as a race; racism and casteism are indeed comparable. Roy explained marginalisation through report and data. Brahmins hold 70 per cent of government jobs while their population 3.5 per cent in our country. The Backward Classes Commission report 2007 shows 37.17 per cent Brahmins employed in the Indian bureaucracy. The Untouchable have no Press. In the Centre for the Study of Developing Societies (CSDS) 2006 report, English print media were found 90 per cent belong to the ‘upper caste’, and 49 per cent were Brahmins. Only 4 per cent belong to other caste Shudra, and 3 per cent were Muslims (who are the largest minority community in India with 13.4 per cent population). CSDS study also shows that 47 per cent were Brahmin in all Supreme Court Chief Justices from 1950 to 2000. And same period, 40 per cent were Brahmin among Associate justice in High Court and Lower court. There is neither much Muslim representation or any other minority community nor Schedule caste or tribes. After independence, we accepted democracy but ‘democracy has not eradicated caste’ ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {“citationID”:”Hm69mrct”,”properties”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Roy, 2014)”,”plainCitation”:”(Roy, 2014)”,”noteIndex”:0},”citationItems”:{“id”:135,”uris”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/EZRRU3XY”,”uri”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/EZRRU3XY”,”itemData”:{“id”:135,”type”:”book”,”title”:”Annihilation of Caste: The Annotated Critical Edition”,”publisher”:”Navayana Publishing Pvt. Ltd.”,”number-of-pages”:”1-415″,”edition”:”First”,”language”:”en”,”author”:{“family”:”Roy”,”given”:”Arundhati”},”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2014″,3}}},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”} (Roy, 2014 p. 37). Muslim representation does not match their population proportion in any services. Sachar Committee Report revealed that Muslims are lag behind SCs/STs on almost all account of human progress and development ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {“citationID”:”OeH1uwQs”,”properties”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Government of India, 2007)”,”plainCitation”:”(Government of India, 2007)”,”noteIndex”:0},”citationItems”:{“id”:170,”uris”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/QI6QYAY3″,”uri”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/QI6QYAY3″,”itemData”:{“id”:170,”type”:”article-journal”,”title”:”Social, Economic and Educational Status of the Muslim Community of India (Sachar Committee Report)”,”container-title”:”Government of India”,”page”:”266-271″,”volume”:”4″,”issue”:”2″,”source”:”Crossref”,”DOI”:”10.1177/0973184913411149″,”ISSN”:”0973-1849, 2249-5320″,”language”:”en”,”author”:{“literal”:”Government of India”},”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2007″,1}}},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”} (Government of India, 2007). Only 2.2 per cent of officers is Muslim in Indian Administrative Services (IAS) while 1.8 per cent in Indian Foreign Services (IFS), and 4 per cent in Indian Police Services (IPS). There is not a single Muslim in Secretary-level official under the central government. The only prison is the single place where Muslim representation is higher than their population percentage while work participation ratio shows sharp differences between Hindu and Muslims. Most of the variable indicates that Muslims OBCs are more significantly deprived compared to Hindu OBCs ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {“citationID”:”2YoRx0eX”,”properties”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Jamil, 2017)”,”plainCitation”:”(Jamil, 2017)”,”noteIndex”:0},”citationItems”:{“id”:171,”uris”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/DFK8RX3A”,”uri”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/DFK8RX3A”,”itemData”:{“id”:171,”type”:”book”,”title”:”Accumulation by Segregation: Muslim Localities in Delhi”,”publisher”:”Oxford University Press”,”publisher-place”:”New Delhi”,”number-of-pages”:”240″,”edition”:”First”,”event-place”:”New Delhi”,”ISBN”:”0-19-947065-0″,”language”:”en”,”author”:{“family”:”Jamil”,”given”:”Ghazala”},”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2017″},”accessed”:{“date-parts”:”2018″,7,25}}},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”} (Jamil, 2017 p. 10).
Historically, there has been a lot of studied either marginalisation or religious identity, but still a wide gap between them. Over the last, some decades discourse has started focusing on marginalisation and its association with religious and caste identity. Many studies have done, but it is very difficult to depict whether religion leads marginalisation or marginality happen because of religious and caste identity. We cannot separate or integral of them. We have to understand and interlink both then we might get the relation between them because both encroach each other sphere. Marginalisation is defined as the processes that contribute to exclude of a group or keep them outside from the main section of the society because of their religious and caste identity.
In Hindu religion, the caste system is predominant in Hindu society. The caste system is a hierarchical system of the society based on purity and pollution. The caste system influences the social, economic and political system. The caste system in India is in vogue from time immemorial (Nitisha, 2015). The caste system is the closed system. It is mentioned in Hindu mythology, and other religious groups follow the principle of egalitarian. But the irony is that the caste system became so rigid in this peninsular sub-continent of India that its impact was felt even by other religious communities, such as the Muslims and the Christians, and its regeneration became a subject of criticism throughout the world (Nitisha, 2015).

Louis Durmont stated that ‘caste is mainly religion driven fact and the people of the same level be it economy, same culture and religion come together and forms a caste.

G. S. Ghurye depicted caste as a complicated phenomenon and inferred that its definition could not be put in words ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {“citationID”:”KjuEBvCm”,”properties”:{“formattedCitation”:”(\uc0\u8220{}Caste system in india,origin & sociologist view,\uc0\u8221{} 2017)”,”plainCitation”:”(“Caste system in india,origin ; sociologist view,” 2017)”,”dontUpdate”:true,”noteIndex”:0},”citationItems”:{“id”:119,”uris”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/PZVRKPKI”,”uri”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/PZVRKPKI”,”itemData”:{“id”:119,”type”:”post-weblog”,”title”:”Caste system in india,origin & sociologist view”,”container-title”:”Sociology Group”,”abstract”:”Stratification has its classification and caste system is one of those basic types. A society is stratified on many accounts but caste system”,”URL”:”http://www.sociologygroup.com/caste-system-india-origin-sociologist-view/”,”language”:”en-GB”,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2017″,11,6},”accessed”:{“date-parts”:”2018″,7,26}}},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”} (“Caste system in India, origin & sociologist view,” 2017). Arjan (1999) identified the relation and processes that cause of deprivation. Deprivation is one of the major reason residences. Ghettoization and deprivation are interlinked. One of the most striking features and the element of marginalisation of the Muslim community in India is the influence of space itself, i.e., ghettoisation of Muslims. Gradually, the creation of ‘otherness’ plays a determining role in the process of ghettoisation of Muslims and the quest for identity ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {“citationID”:”1OzM4U0X”,”properties”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Jahan, 2016)”,”plainCitation”:”(Jahan, 2016)”,”dontUpdate”:true,”noteIndex”:0},”citationItems”:{“id”:183,”uris”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/MQLUFXRG”,”uri”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/MQLUFXRG”,”itemData”:{“id”:183,”type”:”article-journal”,”title”:”Intersectionality of Marginalization and Inequality: A Case Study of Muslims in India”,”container-title”:”Journal of Political Sciences & Public Affairs”,”volume”:”04″,”issue”:”01″,”source”:”Crossref”,”abstract”:”Marginalization is a process that leads to sidelining of a certain community/individual to the periphery of the social space that eventually constrain their life choices at political space, social negotiation, and economic bargaining. It is a complex contested umbrella term is inextricably linked with the concept of inequality within the marginalized communities. In fact, inequality and marginalization are usually at interface in that they both with interacts and reinforces each other. Religious minority groups are amongst those who encounter severe exclusion, discrimination and oppression. In case of Indian Muslims as a religious marginalized community, these two concepts overlap. However, concern with ‘marginalization’ is relatively recent and it is imperative to check the development trajectory on the marginalized groups. As considerable evidence exists, a process of ‘marginalization’ of minority communities exists in almost all societies and nothing warrants that the same is not true of Muslims in India to a greater or a lesser degree. While discussing social structure of Indian Muslims prominent scholars like Imtiaz Ahmad and Zoya Hasan brought forth the theoretical debate “Can there be a category called Dalit Muslims”1. However, there are different and distinct categories of ‘marginalization’ which sometimes intersect each other and therefore essentially limit the possibility about a proper and comprehensive diagnosis, thereby, making it difficult to resist the actual power-relations. This study explores the systemic processes through which Muslims are being marginalized systematically in different domains of life.”,”URL”:”http://www.esciencecentral.org/journals/intersectionality-of-marginalization-and-inequalitya-case-study-of-muslims-in-india-2332-0761-1000187.php?aid=68344″,”DOI”:”10.4172/2332-0761.1000187″,”ISSN”:”23320761″,”shortTitle”:”Intersectionality of Marginalization and Inequality”,”language”:”en”,”author”:{“family”:”Jahan”,”given”:”Yasmeen”},”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2016″},”accessed”:{“date-parts”:”2018″,8,1}}},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”} (Jahan, 2016 p. 3). It is clear resources and opportunities depend on social and geographical location. These affect the economic status and political representation. These determine the living and housing condition of any community.

Ghettoisation
Identity is related to insecurity and insecurity force to isolate or segregation which is called “Ghetto”. The term “Ghetto” has a long history, originally referring to Jewish enclave, the Nazis had neither let the Jews emigrant nor accumulation with themselves. As a temporary solution, let them concentrate and ghettoise the Jews population ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {“citationID”:”InvdWV2b”,”properties”:{“formattedCitation”:”(\uc0\u8220{}The ghettoisation of the Jewish population | Holocaust,\uc0\u8221{} 2011)”,”plainCitation”:”(“The ghettoisation of the Jewish population | Holocaust,” 2011)”,”noteIndex”:0},”citationItems”:{“id”:173,”uris”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/ZI56N5LJ”,”uri”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/ZI56N5LJ”,”itemData”:{“id”:173,”type”:”webpage”,”title”:”The ghettoisation of the Jewish population | Holocaust”,”container-title”:”Holocaust. cz”,”URL”:”https://www.holocaust.cz/en/history/final-solution/general-2/the-ghettoisation-of-the-jewish-population/”,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2011″,7,19},”accessed”:{“date-parts”:”2018″,8,1}}},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”} (“The ghettoisation of the Jewish population | Holocaust,” 2011). Nazis came to power in Germany in 1930. They began establishing ghettos in polish cities; Jews forced to live there. Although the Nazis were the success in isolating Jews physically, socially and economically ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {“citationID”:”SlSLxWtW”,”properties”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Bennett, 2004)”,”plainCitation”:”(Bennett, 2004)”,”noteIndex”:0},”citationItems”:{“id”:175,”uris”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/VWHHCCH7″,”uri”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/VWHHCCH7″,”itemData”:{“id”:175,”type”:”webpage”,”title”:”Ghettoization”,”container-title”:”The Encychlopedia of Chicago”,”URL”:”http://www.encyclopedia.chicagohistory.org/pages/514.html”,”author”:{“family”:”Bennett”,”given”:”Larry”},”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2004″},”accessed”:{“date-parts”:”2018″,8,1}}},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”} (Bennett, 2004). The purpose of the Nazi ghetto, however, was to create total confinement for the Jewish population, turning entire neighbourhoods into a prison unlike the ghettos of centuries past ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {“citationID”:”WYFNppAt”,”properties”:{“formattedCitation”:”(\uc0\u8220{}Ghettoization of Europe Jewry,\uc0\u8221{} n.d.)”,”plainCitation”:”(“Ghettoization of Europe Jewry,” n.d.)”,”noteIndex”:0},”citationItems”:{“id”:177,”uris”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/5GV9CWEK”,”uri”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/5GV9CWEK”,”itemData”:{“id”:177,”type”:”webpage”,”title”:”Ghettoization of Europe Jewry”,”URL”:”http://www2.dsu.nodak.edu/users/dmeier/Holocaust/ghettoization.html”,”accessed”:{“date-parts”:”2018″,8,1}}},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”} (“Ghettoization of Europe Jewry,” n.d.). A sociologist Louis Wirth had completed their PhD on the Jews immigrants, and the title was “The Ghetto: A Study in Isolation” in 1928 ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {“citationID”:”JpTvsSbU”,”properties”:{“formattedCitation”:”(\uc0\u8220{}Louis Wirth Sociologist (1928) | Maxwell and Halsted,\uc0\u8221{} 2017)”,”plainCitation”:”(“Louis Wirth Sociologist (1928) | Maxwell and Halsted,” 2017)”,”noteIndex”:0},”citationItems”:{“id”:179,”uris”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/6ZYFZG7Q”,”uri”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/6ZYFZG7Q”,”itemData”:{“id”:179,”type”:”post-weblog”,”title”:”Louis Wirth Sociologist (1928) | Maxwell and Halsted”,”container-title”:”Louis Wirth Sociologist (1928)”,”URL”:”https://maxwellhalsted.uic.edu/home/ghetto-living-cheap-economics-west-side/the-ghetto-1928-by-louis-wirth/”,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2017″},”accessed”:{“date-parts”:”2018″,8,1}}},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”} (“Louis Wirth Sociologist (1928) | Maxwell and Halsted,” 2017). Another study was done by Thomas and Znaniecki’s (1958) ‘The Polish Peasant in Europe and America on racial and ethnic segregation. Christopher (1990) argues South Africa is another example of residential segregation by law based on race. Jackson (1985) analysis has shown that white families demanded and imposed an exclusion of Black families. Falah (1996) explained Israeli state policy which directly shows segregation Arab-Israeli citizen. Oliveira (1996) study showed racial discrimination as a basis of segregation in Brazil ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {“citationID”:”VyWCkXIO”,”properties”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Jamil, 2017)”,”plainCitation”:”(Jamil, 2017)”,”noteIndex”:0},”citationItems”:{“id”:171,”uris”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/DFK8RX3A”,”uri”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/DFK8RX3A”,”itemData”:{“id”:171,”type”:”book”,”title”:”Accumulation by Segregation: Muslim Localities in Delhi”,”publisher”:”Oxford University Press”,”publisher-place”:”New Delhi”,”number-of-pages”:”240″,”edition”:”First”,”event-place”:”New Delhi”,”ISBN”:”0-19-947065-0″,”language”:”en”,”author”:{“family”:”Jamil”,”given”:”Ghazala”},”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2017″},”accessed”:{“date-parts”:”2018″,7,25}}},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”} (Jamil, 2017).  The changing dynamics of the process known as ghettoisation have paralleled shifts in racial-ethnic composition ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {“citationID”:”Minfv6mS”,”properties”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Bennett, 2004)”,”plainCitation”:”(Bennett, 2004)”,”noteIndex”:0},”citationItems”:{“id”:175,”uris”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/VWHHCCH7″,”uri”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/VWHHCCH7″,”itemData”:{“id”:175,”type”:”webpage”,”title”:”Ghettoization”,”container-title”:”The Encychlopedia of Chicago”,”URL”:”http://www.encyclopedia.chicagohistory.org/pages/514.html”,”author”:{“family”:”Bennett”,”given”:”Larry”},”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2004″},”accessed”:{“date-parts”:”2018″,8,1}}},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”} (Bennett, 2004). It is not only related to race, ethnic and minority but also religion, caste and class identity. However, the English word ghetto would live on, and take on a somewhat different nuance. No longer associated with Jews, the ghetto came to mean an urban area where minorities live in poverty ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {“citationID”:”zRPC3BkC”,”properties”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Gilad, 2016)”,”plainCitation”:”(Gilad, 2016)”,”noteIndex”:0},”citationItems”:{“id”:181,”uris”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/8TSJ5ELI”,”uri”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/8TSJ5ELI”,”itemData”:{“id”:181,”type”:”article-newspaper”,”title”:”The Mysterious Origin of the Word ‘Ghetto'”,”container-title”:”Haaretz”,”source”:”Haaretz”,”abstract”:”Five hundred years after the first Ghetto was established, what it was is clear enough: a walled-off area of late medieval towns where the Jews were concentrated. But where the name came from is obscure.”,”URL”:”https://www.haaretz.com/jewish/.premium-the-mysterious-origin-of-the-word-ghetto-1.5397856″,”language”:”en”,”author”:{“family”:”Gilad”,”given”:”Elon”},”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2016″,3,29},”accessed”:{“date-parts”:”2018″,8,1}}},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”} (Gilad, 2016). Gayer ; Jaffrelot in their book “Muslims in Indian Cities: Trajectories of Marginalization” in his excellent study of Abul Fazal Enclave in Delhi, highlights the ambiguity of choice in situations where individuals are bound by multiple constraints ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {“citationID”:”td2Ksfy9″,”properties”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Gayer & Jaffrelot, 2012)”,”plainCitation”:”(Gayer & Jaffrelot, 2012)”,”noteIndex”:0},”citationItems”:{“id”:184,”uris”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/FE5LW39G”,”uri”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/FE5LW39G”,”itemData”:{“id”:184,”type”:”book”,”title”:”Muslims in Indian Cities: Trajectories of Marginalization”,”publisher”:”Harper Collins Publisher”,”publisher-place”:”Noida, UP”,”number-of-pages”:”403″,”edition”:”First”,”event-place”:”Noida, UP”,”ISBN”:”978-93-5029-546-5″,”language”:”en”,”author”:{“family”:”Gayer”,”given”:”Laurent”},{“family”:”Jaffrelot”,”given”:”Christophe”},”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2012″},”accessed”:{“date-parts”:”2018″,7,20}}},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”} (Gayer ; Jaffrelot, 2012). We had instances in India where community living and housing were encouraged with people from the same religion/caste/occupation living in areas meant only for them. Displacement is also the reason behind it because of communal violence. Muslims are more vulnerable regarding ethnic groups, security and anti-national. Consequently, ghettoisation is increasing because of social security and safety ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {“citationID”:”CfdMGLf7″,”properties”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Robinson, 2008)”,”plainCitation”:”(Robinson, 2008)”,”noteIndex”:0},”citationItems”:{“id”:188,”uris”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/J7GJUFKS”,”uri”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/J7GJUFKS”,”itemData”:{“id”:188,”type”:”article-journal”,”title”:”Religion, Socio-economic Backwardness & Discrimination: The Case of Indian Muslims”,”container-title”:”Indian Journal of Industrial Relations”,”page”:”194-200″,”volume”:”44″,”issue”:”2″,”source”:”Zotero”,”abstract”:”The three crucial dimensions of
social exclusion of Muslims are
backwardness, marginalization and
discrimination. More troublesome
is the relationship between ethnic
violence and socio-economic
achievements. That a very high
share of Muslim workers are
engaged in self-employment
activities, particularly in urban
areas – street vending, small trades
and related enterprises – ensures
that the community is far more
exposed to disruptions and
damages caused by urban conflict
and violence. The fragility of
Muslim participation in the
economy and the low level of asset
accumulation further intensify their
vulnerability to displacements
caused by situations of continual
communal strife, argues the paper.”,”language”:”en”,”author”:{“family”:”Robinson”,”given”:”Rowena”},”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2008″,10}}},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”} (Robinson, 2008). The story of under-representation and backwardness in various spheres of life add to the dynamics of marginalisation and social inequality of Marginalised community in India.
Experiences of Marginalised Communities
Marginalisation is an experience of a person or a group because of their identity. It might be their ascribe status (belong to birth) or achieved status (personal accomplishment) ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {“citationID”:”N0N7cBIn”,”properties”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Dushi, 2012)”,”plainCitation”:”(Dushi, 2012)”,”noteIndex”:0},”citationItems”:{“id”:157,”uris”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/FTFWSLLC”,”uri”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/FTFWSLLC”,”itemData”:{“id”:157,”type”:”webpage”,”title”:”Status: Meaning, Types and Concepts of Status”,”container-title”:”preservearticles”,”genre”:”online publsih article”,”URL”:”http://www.preservearticles.com/2014041233449/status-meaning-types-and-concepts-of-status.html”,”author”:{“family”:”Dushi”,”given”:”Gauri”},”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2012″},”accessed”:{“date-parts”:”2018″,7,31}}},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”} (Dushi, 2012). The concept of ascribing and achieved was given by anthropologist Rolf Linton (1936). Those have little control over resources and opportunities. They stigmatised and received a negative attitude from the public. Their low opportunities may develop low self-confidence and self-esteem. The experiences of marginality can ascend in different ways.
A vicious circle is set up whereby their lack of positive and supportive relationships means that they are prevented from participating in local life, which in turn leads to further isolation. It has a tremendous impact on the development of human beings, as well as on society at large ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {“citationID”:”4Us6Nilz”,”properties”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Saksena, 2014)”,”plainCitation”:”(Saksena, 2014)”,”noteIndex”:0},”citationItems”:{“id”:128,”uris”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/2BVXGLBE”,”uri”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/2BVXGLBE”,”itemData”:{“id”:128,”type”:”post-weblog”,”title”:”The Problems of Marginalized Groups in India”,”container-title”:”Academike”,”abstract”:”Marginality is an experience that affects millions of people throughout the world. People who are marginalized have relatively less control over their life.”,”URL”:”https://www.lawctopus.com/academike/problems-marginalized-groups-india/”,”language”:”en-US”,”author”:{“family”:”Saksena”,”given”:”Devesh”},”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2014″,9,8},”accessed”:{“date-parts”:”2018″,7,28}}},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”} (Saksena, 2014).

Poverty, dependency, and feelings of shame are everyday aspects of economic dislocation and social marginalisation. These experiences affect men and women differently and vary with age. Poverty and economic marginalisation have both direct and indirect impacts on people’s health ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {“citationID”:”CUiZLtaP”,”properties”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Kagan et al., 2002)”,”plainCitation”:”(Kagan et al., 2002)”,”noteIndex”:0},”citationItems”:{“id”:124,”uris”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/ZD3QQYYY”,”uri”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/ZD3QQYYY”,”itemData”:{“id”:124,”type”:”article-journal”,”title”:”Working with People who are marginalized by the social system: challenges for community psychological work”,”page”:”19″,”source”:”Zotero”,”abstract”:”Working with people who are marginalized by the social system presents community
psychologists with a number of challenges that extend beyond fundamental principles
such as prevention, empowerment, and participation. Different contributors to this paper,
all of whom have been involved in different ways to the work of the journal Community
Work and Family, draw on their direct work with people who are marginalized by the
social system to highlight tensions and dilemmas for community psychological work.
These include: the negotiation of values and ways of working; multi-level working within
a complex system; issues of measurement and epistemology; intercultural and
interdisciplinary working; liberal or liberation principles; methods of working and data
collection; and conceptual critiques.”,”language”:”en”,”author”:{“family”:”Kagan”,”given”:”Carolyn”},{“family”:”Burns”,”given”:”Diane”},{“family”:”Burton”,”given”:”Mark”},{“family”:”Crespo”,”given”:”Isabel”},{“family”:”Evans”,”given”:”Rob”},{“family”:”Knowles”,”given”:”Kath”},{“family”:”Lalueza”,”given”:”José Luis”},{“family”:”Sixsmith”,”given”:”Judith”},”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2002″,1,1}}},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”} (Kagan et al., 2002).

Ideological aspect of marginalisation ‘Being a member of a marginalised group is also brings the risk of some more psychosocial ideological threats’. For instance, At least 21 documented lynchings of Muslims and Dalits have taken place in India since Narendra Modi’s government came to power ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {“citationID”:”cXIFd4Hv”,”properties”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Qadari, 2017)”,”plainCitation”:”(Qadari, 2017)”,”noteIndex”:0},”citationItems”:{“id”:138,”uris”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/RQN9XIHI”,”uri”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/RQN9XIHI”,”itemData”:{“id”:138,”type”:”webpage”,”title”:”Essay: Making Sense of the Lynchings in India”,”container-title”:”Essay: Making Sense of the Lynchings in India”,”abstract”:”At least 21 documented lynchings of Muslims and Dalits have taken place in India since Narendra Modi’s government came to power. But what is driving ordinary citizens to form lynch mobs in India?”,”URL”:”https://www.trtworld.com/opinion/essay-making-sense-of-the-lynchings-in-india-10261″,”shortTitle”:”Essay”,”language”:”en”,”author”:{“family”:”Qadari”,”given”:”Asgar”},”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2017″,9,7},”accessed”:{“date-parts”:”2018″,7,31}}},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”} (Qadari, 2017). A 16-year old Muslim boy from Haryana, Hafiz Junaid, was lynched to death ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {“citationID”:”VRIuLvNT”,”properties”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Bhattacharjee, 2017)”,”plainCitation”:”(Bhattacharjee, 2017)”,”noteIndex”:0},”citationItems”:{“id”:142,”uris”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/9VLL69LQ”,”uri”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/9VLL69LQ”,”itemData”:{“id”:142,”type”:”webpage”,”title”:”The Lynching of a Nation”,”container-title”:”The Wire”,”abstract”:”Lynching is a modern form of tribalism, where enemies – differentiated by religion, race, caste or ideology – are bracketed for elimination.”,”URL”:”https://thewire.in/communalism/the-lynching-of-a-nation”,”author”:{“family”:”Bhattacharjee”,”given”:”Manash Firaq”},”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2017″,6,25},”accessed”:{“date-parts”:”2018″,7,31}}},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”} (Bhattacharjee, 2017) and Dalit man lynched in Gujarat ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {“citationID”:”cZeD54pK”,”properties”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Maniar, 2018)”,”plainCitation”:”(Maniar, 2018)”,”noteIndex”:0},”citationItems”:{“id”:140,”uris”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/3KDNVC3C”,”uri”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/3KDNVC3C”,”itemData”:{“id”:140,”type”:”webpage”,”title”:”Dalit man lynched in Gujarat: How India is grappling with violence”,”container-title”:”India Today”,”abstract”:”Mobile footage of civilians beating, kicking, flogging crime suspects, the weak and the vulnerable alike has now become a regular feature on television rundowns.”,”URL”:”https://www.indiatoday.in/india/story/dalit-man-lynched-in-gujarat-how-india-is-grappling-with-epidemic-of-violence-1238355-2018-05-21″,”shortTitle”:”Dalit man lynched in Gujarat”,”language”:”en”,”author”:{“family”:”Maniar”,”given”:”Gopi”},”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2018″,5,21},”accessed”:{“date-parts”:”2018″,7,31}}},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”} (Maniar, 2018). But what explains these repeated attacks against Muslims and Dalits? In Untouchables or The Children of India’s Ghetto, the new untouchables of this lynching nationalism are the Muslims and also those whose lives and ideas contradict and resist the Hindu nationalist project ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {“citationID”:”FPdDFpuL”,”properties”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Bhattacharjee, 2017)”,”plainCitation”:”(Bhattacharjee, 2017)”,”noteIndex”:0},”citationItems”:{“id”:142,”uris”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/9VLL69LQ”,”uri”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/9VLL69LQ”,”itemData”:{“id”:142,”type”:”webpage”,”title”:”The Lynching of a Nation”,”container-title”:”The Wire”,”abstract”:”Lynching is a modern form of tribalism, where enemies – differentiated by religion, race, caste or ideology – are bracketed for elimination.”,”URL”:”https://thewire.in/communalism/the-lynching-of-a-nation”,”author”:{“family”:”Bhattacharjee”,”given”:”Manash Firaq”},”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2017″,6,25},”accessed”:{“date-parts”:”2018″,7,31}}},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”} (Bhattacharjee, 2017). The phenomenon is naturalised, seen not as a socially determined reality, but as something to be expected given the way the person is. This phenomenon has been called ‘blaming the victim’ by Ryan in his book ‘Blaming the victims’ (1976), which is part of a more general ‘culture of blame’ ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {“citationID”:”imsx2Q21″,”properties”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Farber & Azar, 1999)”,”plainCitation”:”(Farber & Azar, 1999)”,”noteIndex”:0},”citationItems”:{“id”:144,”uris”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/F83JBA6U”,”uri”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/F83JBA6U”,”itemData”:{“id”:144,”type”:”article-journal”,”title”:”Blaming the helpers: The marginalization of teachers and parents of the urban poor”,”container-title”:”American Journal of Orthopsychiatry”,”page”:”515-528″,”volume”:”69″,”issue”:”4″,”abstract”:”The nature and origins of the current tendency toward disparaging parents and teachers of the urban poor are examined. It is suggested that the influence of parents and teachers must be understood in the context of multiple intervening variables. Several explanations are offered for the phenomenon of blame, including the fact that women constitute the great majority of teachers and are often the primary agents of parenting. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)”,”language”:”en”,”author”:{“family”:”Farber”,”given”:”Barry A.”},{“family”:”Azar”,”given”:”Sandra T.”},”issued”:{“date-parts”:”1999″}}},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”} (Farber & Azar, 1999). These are not isolated incidents. Dalit is not allowed to use religious rituals articles. Segregation is near total, from temples, schools, public well, as is violence against of Dalit ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {“citationID”:”iCNvLvNW”,”properties”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Daniyal, 2018)”,”plainCitation”:”(Daniyal, 2018)”,”noteIndex”:0},”citationItems”:{“id”:145,”uris”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/HKGU57M5″,”uri”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/HKGU57M5″,”itemData”:{“id”:145,”type”:”webpage”,”title”:”The Daily Fix: Dalit lynched for refusing to clear trash is a reminder of Gujarat’s caste apartheid”,”container-title”:”Scroll.in”,”genre”:”Text”,”abstract”:”Everything you need to know for the day (and a little more).”,”URL”:”https://scroll.in/article/879810/the-daily-fix-a-dalit-lynched-for-not-collecting-garbage-is-a-reminder-of-gujarats-caste-apartheid”,”note”:”DOI: https://scroll.in/article/879810/the-daily-fix-a-dalit-lynched-for-not-collecting-garbage-is-a-reminder-of-gujarats-caste-apartheid”,”shortTitle”:”The Daily Fix”,”language”:”en_US”,”author”:{“family”:”Daniyal”,”given”:”Shoaib”},”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2018″,5,22},”accessed”:{“date-parts”:”2018″,7,31}}},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”} (Daniyal, 2018).
A marginalised group suffers from discrimination and segregation in different ways such as physical and cultural traits that set them apart from society by a dominant group. Minority community is targeting in the name of religion and practices. Ever since a Hindu right-wing Bhartiya Janata Party (BJP) government came to power in India under Prime Minister Narendra Modi in 2014, the country’s social environment has become toxic for all religious minorities, especially Muslims, Christians and Dalit ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {“citationID”:”cgDXNDEL”,”properties”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Singh, 2017)”,”plainCitation”:”(Singh, 2017)”,”noteIndex”:0},”citationItems”:{“id”:147,”uris”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/E7BIUKKU”,”uri”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/E7BIUKKU”,”itemData”:{“id”:147,”type”:”webpage”,”title”:”Gurpreet Singh: Christians under constant attack in Modi’s India”,”container-title”:”Georgia Straight Vancouver’s News ; Entertainment Weekly”,”abstract”:”The World Watch List 2017 ranks the world’s so-called largest secular democracy as 15th worst among nations where Christians are persecuted.”,”URL”:”https://www.straight.com/news/1011301/gurpreet-singh-christians-under-constant-attack-modis-india”,”shortTitle”:”Gurpreet Singh”,”language”:”en”,”author”:{“family”:”Singh”,”given”:”Gurpreet”},”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2017″,12,23},”accessed”:{“date-parts”:”2018″,7,31}}},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”} (Singh, 2017). The Prime minister of India Modi belongs to the Rashtriya Swayamsewak Sangh (RSS), which believes in Hindutva. They see Islam and Christianity as a foreign religion, or alien religion and Hindustan are truly belonged to Hindus. Then there are other oppressed communities, like Dalits (considered untouchables by the orthodox Hindus) and Adivasis, or tribal people, who have their distinct identities ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {“citationID”:”ingw7yfL”,”properties”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Singh, 2017)”,”plainCitation”:”(Singh, 2017)”,”noteIndex”:0},”citationItems”:{“id”:147,”uris”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/E7BIUKKU”,”uri”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/E7BIUKKU”,”itemData”:{“id”:147,”type”:”webpage”,”title”:”Gurpreet Singh: Christians under constant attack in Modi’s India”,”container-title”:”Georgia Straight Vancouver’s News & Entertainment Weekly”,”abstract”:”The World Watch List 2017 ranks the world’s so-called largest secular democracy as 15th worst among nations where Christians are persecuted.”,”URL”:”https://www.straight.com/news/1011301/gurpreet-singh-christians-under-constant-attack-modis-india”,”shortTitle”:”Gurpreet Singh”,”language”:”en”,”author”:{“family”:”Singh”,”given”:”Gurpreet”},”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2017″,12,23},”accessed”:{“date-parts”:”2018″,7,31}}},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”} (Singh, 2017). After 2014, violence against cultural, political, religious, ethnic and linguistic minorities has become routine in the country. Dharm Jagran Samiti’s (DJS) Uttar Pradesh head had said: “Our target is to make India a Hindu Rashtra by 2021 ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {“citationID”:”AUDrlpPo”,”properties”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Shaji, 2018)”,”plainCitation”:”(Shaji, 2018)”,”noteIndex”:0},”citationItems”:{“id”:149,”uris”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/7IFEMZX2″,”uri”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/7IFEMZX2″,”itemData”:{“id”:149,”type”:”webpage”,”title”:”History of Attacks on Christians by the Right Wing in India”,”container-title”:”NewsClick”,”abstract”:”Ever since Modi has become the prime minister, violence against religious, cultural, political, linguistic and ethnic minorities has become routine in the country.”,”URL”:”http://newsclick.in/history-attacks-christians-right-wing-india”,”language”:”en”,”author”:{“family”:”Shaji”,”given”:”Shilpa”},”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2018″,4,23},”accessed”:{“date-parts”:”2018″,7,31}}},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”} (Shaji, 2018). Shibli Peter at Centre for Social Studies and Culture says “Majority of the Christian population is Dalits and tribals, and they are continuously threatened” ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {“citationID”:”gCFZNaqe”,”properties”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Hoda, 2018)”,”plainCitation”:”(Hoda, 2018)”,”noteIndex”:0},”citationItems”:{“id”:151,”uris”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/N7P493QF”,”uri”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/N7P493QF”,”itemData”:{“id”:151,”type”:”webpage”,”title”:”Christian community members fear communalism under BJP rule will polarise 2019 Lok Sabha elections”,”container-title”:”Firstpost”,”abstract”:”Justy Alex, who is also from Delhi and is pursuing her Masters in social work, says,”,”URL”:”https://www.firstpost.com/india/christian-community-members-fear-communalism-under-bjp-rule-will-polarise-2019-lok-sabha-elections-4507689.html”,”language”:”en”,”author”:{“family”:”Hoda”,”given”:”Anwarul”},”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2018″,6,12},”accessed”:{“date-parts”:”2018″,7,31}}},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”} (Hoda, 2018).
Yoginder Sikand (2003) analysed and explained the condition of marginalised community particular on Dalit Muslim. Socially and economically oppressed Dalit Hindu escaped from the shackles of the caste system and converted him/herself to other religions including Islam. The author argued that Dalit assertiveness of large conglomerate of Muslim caste and some leaders are seeking new identity as ‘Dalit Muslim’ and relates itself to the extensive multi-religious Dalit community. Mostly, Indian Muslims are descendants of ‘low and untouchable’ caste converts, and a small number of belonging to ‘Arab, Iranian or central Asia’ origin. Indian Muslim have stratified into foreign and Indian origin (Ajalf or low) Muslim. As among Hindu, Ajlaf Muslims maintain a strong sense of jati identity. It was the crucial factor in the emergence of a ‘Dalit Muslim’ identity. They are defining themselves as Muslim as well as Dalit. Bihar, India’s poorest state and fifteen per cent population of Muslim and consisting of 29 caste groups. Mostly, they engaged in manual workers, artisans, daily wages and petty peasants and barely managing their life. Eijaz Ali established All-Indian Backward Muslim Morcha (AIBMM) in Bihar to struggle for the Dalit Muslim rights. He said that upper castes Muslims are misleading the masses of the Muslim for their petty gains after the demolition of the Babri mosque at Ayodhya in 1992. The foremost priority of the AIBMM to get recognition ‘Dalit Muslim’ as schedule caste so that they can benefit same that another Dalit community is availing including reservation and socio-economic development programmes. AIBMM demand avail reservation legally but Muslim have been viewed in the past as ‘anti-national’ and even ‘pro-Pakistan’. According to the constitutions, socially, economically and educationally deprived group or community can avail of reservation, but Muslims and Dalit Muslims are still struggling for their identity and living conditions. Dalit Hindu converted into Islam through the love and compassion of the Sufis for the poor rather than the sword. And ‘High’ caste Hindu converted into Muslim to save their properties or secure their positions in Muslim-ruled territories with the notion of caste superiority. The practice of untouchability, which Islam condemns, is still in practices even those who converted to Islam. Upper caste Muslims sees lower caste as inherently inferior. Yogendra Sikand cite Ali argument “…share in the plight of their fellow believers and to work for their social emancipation, the Muslim ‘upper caste feudal lords’ are said to be ‘deaf, dumb and blind to the suffering of Muslim backwards'” ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {“citationID”:”JPFKj255″,”properties”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Sikand, 2003)”,”plainCitation”:”(Sikand, 2003)”,”noteIndex”:0},”citationItems”:{“id”:185,”uris”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/8W2B2G7V”,”uri”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/8W2B2G7V”,”itemData”:{“id”:185,”type”:”webpage”,”title”:”The ‘Dalit Muslims’ and the All-India Backward Muslim Morcha”,”container-title”:”indianet”,”URL”:”http://www.indianet.nl/dalmusl.html”,”language”:”en”,”author”:{“family”:”Sikand”,”given”:”Yoginder”},”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2003″},”accessed”:{“date-parts”:”2018″,8,1}}},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”} (Sikand, 2003). Muslims leader concern only for the ruling class and displayed little for the plight of the Dalit Muslims. Moreover, high caste Muslim leaders are playing just ‘minority card’ and while they are claiming to speak on behalf of like all Muslim. Muslim upper caste attitude the same as Hindu ‘upper’ caste treat their caste. Rowena Robinson (2008) studied marginalisation regarding employment and income. She argues that Work participation ratios (WPR) and regular services are lower among Muslims than other religious groups. Self-employment activities are higher among Muslim because of low outcomes from education, discrimination in public and private job, reservation in government services etc. Mostly, they engaged in street vending, small trades and causal labourer. They are even more disadvantaged that SCs and STs for whom affirmative action plan may have improved the rates ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {“citationID”:”veY6ImC9″,”properties”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Robinson, 2017)”,”plainCitation”:”(Robinson, 2017)”,”noteIndex”:0},”citationItems”:{“id”:”Rdm9b8un/0HlKTRtv”,”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=02559abe-1907-4e5d-a92e-ef3c96167efc”,”uri”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=02559abe-1907-4e5d-a92e-ef3c96167efc”,”itemData”:{“author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Robinson”,”given”:”Rowena”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”2″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2017″},”page”:”194-200″,”title”:”Religion , Socio-economic Backwardness & Discrimination : The Case of Indian Muslims”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”44″}},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”} (Robinson, 2017). Muslims areas are poorly served. According to the census, Muslims concentrated areas have neither well physical and financial infrastructure nor well connectivity roads and transports nor health facilities. Muslims participation in Lok Sabha was just 6% while Hindu upper caste had 42% in 2004-09. On the other hand, the Srikrishna commission report has stated that the police are often biased against Muslims. The author stated that clearly, Muslims suffer from deprivation on almost every front of life. These discriminations, marginalisation and backwardness are associated with religious identity. They are generally backward and live in the shadow of vulnerable and poverty ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {“citationID”:”uCtNDjjX”,”properties”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Robinson, 2008)”,”plainCitation”:”(Robinson, 2008)”,”noteIndex”:0},”citationItems”:{“id”:188,”uris”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/J7GJUFKS”,”uri”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/J7GJUFKS”,”itemData”:{“id”:188,”type”:”article-journal”,”title”:”Religion, Socio-economic Backwardness & Discrimination: The Case of Indian Muslims”,”container-title”:”Indian Journal of Industrial Relations”,”page”:”194-200″,”volume”:”44″,”issue”:”2″,”source”:”Zotero”,”abstract”:”The three crucial dimensions of
social exclusion of Muslims are
backwardness, marginalization and
discrimination. More troublesome
is the relationship between ethnic
violence and socio-economic
achievements. That a very high
share of Muslim workers are
engaged in self-employment
activities, particularly in urban
areas – street vending, small trades
and related enterprises – ensures
that the community is far more
exposed to disruptions and
damages caused by urban conflict
and violence. The fragility of
Muslim participation in the
economy and the low level of asset
accumulation further intensify their
vulnerability to displacements
caused by situations of continual
communal strife, argues the paper.”,”language”:”en”,”author”:{“family”:”Robinson”,”given”:”Rowena”},”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2008″,10}}},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”} (Robinson, 2008 p. 199).
Conceptual Framework
Social exclusion and marginalisation are a crucial issue or theme that transcends all other areas of the research. Development of human outcomes often reflects the exclusion of underprivileged or disadvantaged groups, economic institutions produce social inequalities, and political leaders or system restrained marginalised voices. Though, social exclusion and marginalisation are often used interchangeably while both have a slight distinction. The former one defines the position or status of individual or groups who experience deprivation from access and utilisation of resources and opportunities while the latter one is the set of processes through which individual and groups confront systematic disadvantage in their daily life interaction with dominant social, economic and political institutions. Social exclusion is the utmost form of marginalisation. Therefore, constant marginality produces the possibility of being outsiders, alienated, and therefore socially excluded. Consequently, those group/community experiences exclusion and marginalisation is called marginalised group/community. The marginalised have been left on the shady boundaries of the stage. Schiffer et al. explained the inherent characteristic of ‘those in the margin’ that they have poor access to recourses like education and social services and economic services. Meanwhile, participation, representation in decision-making body and self-determination are on a low level ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {“citationID”:”krW5Uic6″,”properties”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Schatz & Schiffer, 2008)”,”plainCitation”:”(Schatz & Schiffer, 2008)”,”noteIndex”:0},”citationItems”:{“id”:28,”uris”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/AIXNCLAS”,”uri”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/AIXNCLAS”,”itemData”:{“id”:28,”type”:”article-journal”,”title”:”Marginalisation, Social Exclusion and Health”,”container-title”:”Foundation RegenboogAMOC”,”page”:”1-24″,”source”:”Google Scholar”,”author”:{“family”:”Schatz”,”given”:”Eberhard”},{“family”:”Schiffer”,”given”:”Katrin”},”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2008″}}},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”} (Schatz & Schiffer, 2008). Marginalised group/community is varied in a different setting. It belongs to socio-cultural and human problem from various section of society such as Black slaves, Black Americans, Africans, Gender, Dalit and other minorities such as the Ethnic minority, Muslims. The ascribed status of group/community affects their participation in society regarding access to resources, level power structure etc. These depend on the biology of person, social stratification and geographical location. In the Indian context, the study divided into three broad themes:
Social Marginalisation
Economic Marginalisation
Political Marginalisation
The study will focus on religion, caste and gender under the social marginalisation while class and status would be looked at under the economic marginalisation and representation in decision-making body and power structure under the political marginalisation. Further, these complement with health marginalisation regarding health-seeking behaviour and health inequalities particularly marginalised community in India such as OBCs and Dalit among Hindu and Muslims. There is a broad consensus that health in general, and health inequalities, in particular, are strongly related with socio-economic determinants and that the possible level of marginalisation influence the well-being of individuals and groups ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {“citationID”:”B7EUjU8Q”,”properties”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Schiffer & Eberhard, 2008)”,”plainCitation”:”(Schiffer & Eberhard, 2008)”,”noteIndex”:0},”citationItems”:{“id”:134,”uris”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/CAJL3CXA”,”uri”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/CAJL3CXA”,”itemData”:{“id”:134,”type”:”article-journal”,”title”:”Marginalisation, Social Inclusion and Health”,”container-title”:”Foundation RegenboogAMOC”,”page”:”1-24″,”abstract”:”This article discusses the issues of marginalisation and social inclusion and their particular relevance for the wellbeing
of individuals and groups in Europe. Specific attention is paid to the relation between marginalisation and
access to health services. The authors look at the situation of drug users, sex workers, (undocumented) migrants
and youth at risk. The experiences made in connection with a broad variety of activities of Correlation – European
Network Social Inclusion & Health illustrate concrete examples of interventions and skills building, which take into
account elements as empowerment and the impact on policy debate.
Integrated approaches and strategies on all levels of society are needed to improve social inclusion and access
to health and social services. Also in developed countries, poverty, exclusion and stigmatisation are a reality for
millions of people, resulting in illness and poor well-being. National governments and international bodies like the
European Union need to increase their efforts to close the gap between the ‘haves’ and ‘have nots’. The authors
summarise the policy framework, in which the European Union addresses exclusion and health inequalities of
citizens.
The article analyses the situation of particular groups in society – drug users, sex workers, (undocumented)
migrants and young people at risk – that may face particular economic disadvantages, stigmatisation,
criminalisation and oppression and that, consequently, may experience serious barriers to access health and
social services. It calls for projects and interventions that offer evidence-based approaches and services, using
the latest findings of social research and evaluations. Participation and empowerment strategies have proven
their effectiveness to improve the health condition of people, living in the margins, both at individual and structural
levels. The involvement of marginalised groups in decision making and programme development should therefore
be seen as an essential element of policy making in this sector.
The Correlation network has contributed to the debate about marginalisation and health by linking experts from
different fields and backgrounds, like grass root organisations, researchers and policy makers. By doing so,
Correlation developed expertise, implemented innovative approaches and provided profound knowledge in this
area.”,”language”:”en”,”author”:{“family”:”Schiffer”,”given”:”Katrin”},{“family”:”Eberhard”,”given”:”Schatz”},”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2008″}}},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”} (Schiffer & Eberhard, 2008 p. 7). These inequities are socially produced (and therefore modifiable) and unfair ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {“citationID”:”Fa3FaXkj”,”properties”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Whitehead & Dahlgren, 2006)”,”plainCitation”:”(Whitehead & Dahlgren, 2006)”,”noteIndex”:0},”citationItems”:{“id”:209,”uris”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/D6KHIFA5″,”uri”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/D6KHIFA5″,”itemData”:{“id”:209,”type”:”article-journal”,”title”:”Concepts and principles for tackling social inequities in health:”,”container-title”:”World Health Organization”,”page”:”45″,”source”:”Zotero”,”language”:”en”,”author”:{“family”:”Whitehead”,”given”:”Margaret”},{“family”:”Dahlgren”,”given”:”Göran”},”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2006″}}},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”} (Whitehead & Dahlgren, 2006). The socio-economic, political, and geographical, aspects of life are deeply rooted in their experience of health status in their rationality with their past, present and future life. These are produced or encourage for the ghetto (Janmohamed mentioned Saha study in the article). Saha explained the condition of the population who lived in ghettos in his book about ‘Ghettoization of Muslim’. He found that within these ghettoes, 92% of residents do not have contact with the majority community, 85% never tried to return to their original residence after shifting to the ghetto, and 93% described themselves as being in financial distress and struggling to find work ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {“citationID”:”qkMVpP6v”,”properties”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Janmohamed, 2015)”,”plainCitation”:”(Janmohamed, 2015)”,”noteIndex”:0},”citationItems”:{“id”:214,”uris”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/THCIZ8TA”,”uri”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/THCIZ8TA”,”itemData”:{“id”:214,”type”:”article-magazine”,”title”:”Ghettoization: Denying Differences Won’t Bring Majority ; Minority Communities Together”,”container-title”:”The Economics Times”,”URL”:”https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/politics-and-nation/ghettoization-denying-differences-wont-bring-majority-minority-communities-together/printarticle/46646561.cms”,”language”:”en”,”author”:{“family”:”Janmohamed”,”given”:”Zahir”},”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2015″,3,22},”accessed”:{“date-parts”:”2018″,8,3}}},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”} (Janmohamed, 2015). Muslims OBCs constitute more than 80 per cent population of the total Muslim population; therefore, the issues of marginalisation and rate of participation in human development indicators become more vibrant when we have so many development goals across the world ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {“citationID”:”ChLKIbpL”,”properties”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Khanam, 2013)”,”plainCitation”:”(Khanam, 2013)”,”noteIndex”:0},”citationItems”:{“id”:153,”uris”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/BTP6CDLN”,”uri”:”http://zotero.org/users/4461801/items/BTP6CDLN”,”itemData”:{“id”:153,”type”:”book”,”title”:”Muslim Backward Classes: A Sociological Perspective”,”publisher”:”SAGE Publications India Pvt. Ltd.”,”publisher-place”:”New Delhi”,”number-of-pages”:”1-298″,”edition”:”First”,”event-place”:”New Delhi”,”ISBN”:”978-81-321-1167-2″,”language”:”en”,”author”:{“family”:”Khanam”,”given”:”Azra”},”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2013″}}},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”} (Khanam, 2013). The basic problem is that the marginalised community of Indian society does not have the better access to the appropriate health facilities due to poverty, low income, exclusion, illiteracy. Being a stratified based society regarding religion, caste, class and gender; India is witnessing inter-religious group inequalities in access and utilisation of the health facilities. The marginalised community become a victim of the curable disease which impacts on their daily life and overall their well-being. In the Indian context, the health-seeking behaviour is closely linked with social structure.
To conclude, there are differences regarding class, caste and gender along with regional differences which produce further inequalities in socio-economic, political status and health-seeking behaviour among marginalised communities. Marginalised groups face multiple barriers because of their culture, identity, religion, political structure etc. Women have faced the consequences of marginalisation more than men among minorities groups. The impacts of marginalisation are the root cause of inequality in the society. Many factors lead marginalised community the position of deprivation and discrimination which caught the attention of this research.
The present study would be a comprehensive discussion on the marginalised community of their life and experiences regarding the social structure and health-seeking behaviour. There is a need for a study with a focus on marginalised community highlighting their socio-economic, political marginalisation and its relation with experience of health-seeking behaviour in society in India.

Research Questions:
What are the theoretical dimensions of marginalisation in a different setting?
What are the determinants of marginalisation and types of marginalisation across inter-religious groups in India?
How marginalisations affect Health seeking behaviour of marginalised communities from inter-religious groups in India?
How the dynamics of marginalisations play a role in contemporary society where we can witness development.

Operational Definition
Marginalisation-Marginalisation is the process that prevents or made restrict the individual or groups from full participation in society regarding social, economic, political, and healthy life.
Social Marginalisation- denial of resources, services and goods, and the inability to full participation because of religion, caste and gender.

Economic Marginalisation- it is referred to various economic disadvantages such as income, services, marketing etc. because of class and status.
Political Marginalisation- social and economic marginalisation leads to political alienation. It is linked to certain participation and representation in decision-making body and power structure who stakeholders of schemes and policy thereby marginalised community can improve.
Marginalised Community- a group that is confined to the edge of the society in India such as OBCs/Dalit among Hindu and Muslims (when you are talking of just the periphery-wise parameter, then it becomes a spatial marginalised community, how do you justify other aspects through this definition?
Health Seeking Behaviour- a sequence of remedial actions that influenced by a variety of variables, such as socioeconomic, political variables, and type of illness, access to services and quality and perceived experiences of the services

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