Role-related behaviour is how environments are able to change over any period of time and this can affect the way you will deal with it and respond. Although people may respond/ deal with it differently because we are all different human beings. An example is when you referee a football game and then next game a referee with a higher ability referees which gives you the opportunity to watch and learn from.
Typical responses are responses that are very frequent and are normal responses. You as a person will often respond to the situations around you when necessary. An example could be when playing a sport and people are watching you, you could be really quiet but when you’re on your own you could be loud. This could be because you’re not really confident and don’t want to stand out of the crowd. Responses vary from one person to another.
A theory is called the Jarvis’s theory and its main aim and focus is on the characteristic of personality where everyone has inherited factors from their parents. Common sense, and natural instincts make individuals react and do things in different ways. Behaviour = Trait. Negatives of this theory includes that the behaviour of people is always different because it’s not always predictable as people’s behaviour can change from time to time. This theory doesn’t include details about people who change their behaviour because of the environment they are in.
Another theory is Eysenck’s theory and its main focus is traits. It says that traits are often most likely to be presented and should be named personality types.
Another theory is Cattell’s theory which includes 16 personality traits. Cattell stated that these personalities were within all people but it alternates and varies at different intensity’s as everyone is unique and different. Positives include that it gives the ability to be able to measure the intensity very easily and quickly. Negatives include that it cannot predict behaviour and does not count the behaviour if there is a change in environment because the environment can influence a change in behaviour.
Girdino’s theory main focuses on and believes that there are two main personality types – And these are named Type A and Type B. Type A have characteristics such as they are highly competitive, a strong focus to succeed, works very quickly, likes to be controlling, most likely to suffer stress and anxiety. Whereas Type B have characteristics such as they are non-competitive, not really motivated, has a slow work rate, does not want to be in control and less likely to suffer stress.
Social learning theory which is also named as Saturation approach presented by Bandura focusses on behaviour = Function of the environment (B=F(E)). Behaviour is learnt and taught through interaction with the surrounding environment. These responses are hard to predict and can only be observed. Two main focusses involved in social learning includes the behaviour of other people being observed and the new behaviour being looked at after observation, but only when through social reinforcement.
The Interactional view is a view which is able to predict behaviour in a sporting activities, it considers how the situation and personality traits link and work together. This is known as the interactional approach to personality and sport behaviour.
The Psychodynamic theory has three main focusses which are ID, Ego and Superego.
Sigmund Freud first introduced this theory in 1933. ID represents our basic instinct over where we have no conscious control e.g. Eating when hungry.Ego is our conscious idea with reality of the situation and aims to satisfy the basic instinct e.g. Cooking and buying food, however if no money the ego may instigate a motive to steal and Superego is to be the ‘moral arm’ of the personality and this will judge whether behaviour is appropriate and acceptable.
Effects on sports performance
Athletes versus non-athletes
Athletes of differing skill levels
Team versus individual
Type A versus Type B
Once you have describe and explained personality, you will need to examine the theories, linking them to success of failure in sport. You will also need to add in your own ideas and judgements.