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111 Town Square Pl, Jersey City, NJ 07310, U.S.

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Sofia Besana
Anatomy 260
West Coast University
October 17, 2018

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The serosal cavity penetrated by the first arrow is the pleural cavity. First of all, the pleural cavity is the thin fluid-filled space that sits between two pleurae known as visceral and parietal of the lungs (Charalampidis, 2015). The pleurae are considered the serous membranes which folds back to create a two-layered membranous structure (Charalampidis, 2015). Moreover, the main function of the pleural cavity is to aid the functioning of the lungs during breathing. The pleural fluid associated with the cavity acts as a lubricant allowing for reduce friction during respiratory movements.
Autonomic Nervous System also known as Visceral or involuntary nervous system functions without conscious, voluntary control (McCorry, 2007). Autonomic Nervous System regulates body temperature and coordinates cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive, excretory, and reproductive functions. Autonomic Nervous System plays an important role in maintaining homeostasis. Additionally, the system is responsible for innervating cardiac muscle, smooth muscles, and many endocrine and exocrine glands. Not only that, but Autonomic Nervous System also influences the activity of tissues and organ systems (McCorry, 2007). The set-up of efferent neurons in the Autonomic Nervous System differs greatly from the Central Nervous System. Axon of a visceral motor neuron within the central nervous system is responsible for innervating a second neuron located in a peripheral ganglion. The second neuron then innervates the peripheral effector. Postganglionic fibers carry impulses away from the ganglion and are responsible for innervating peripheral tissues and organs, such as cardiac and smooth muscles, adipose tissue, and glands. In continuation with the patient’s arrow attack, the Autonomic Nervous System of the patient will generally trigger the fight or flight response. The fight-or-flight response is the primary mechanism of Autonomic Nervous System. Autonomic Nervous System can be subdivided into two parts: parasympathetic nervous system and sympathetic nervous system. The parasympathetic division is most active during periods of “rest and digest” whereas sympathetic division becomes most active during times of great stress. Parasympathetic division originates from the brain stem or the sacral spinal cord. The preganglionic fiber synapse on neurons of terminal ganglia are typically located near target organs, or intramural ganglia, within the tissues of the target organs. The division is given the title “rest-and-digest” because it conserves energy and promotes sedentary activities. On the other hand, the sympathetic division also known as the thoracolumbar division consists of preganglionic fibers from both thoracic and upper lumbar spinal segments synapse in ganglia near the spinal cord. Another known name for the division is considered “fight or flight” system. It is acknowledged as “fight or flight” because there is an increase in sympathetic activity which generally stimulates tissue metabolism, increase alertness, and prepares the body to deal with emergencies. When the patient gets hit, the sympathetic division releases increased amount of norepinephrine, which in result accelerates heart rate and lung action, body temperature may heighten, and increase blood pressure as well as respiration. However, the longer the person waits to be treated, all aspect of vital signs can drop tremendously, which can lead to death.
The trajectory of the first arrow can be best described by the tip of the arrow entering anteriorly, protruding posteriorly and in a sagittal plane. The main organs that are affected by the hit are the lungs. Lungs play the main role in respiratory. The left lung has larger cardiac impression since most of the heart is located to the left of midline. The patient is in critical condition because the left lung covers the heart and there could possibly be bleeding in the heart. The patient may also have difficulty breathing. Furthermore, the pleura membrane suffered major damage due to the hit of the lungs.
Cardiovascular system is responsible for blood and lymph circulation throughout the body. The system consists of the blood, blood vessels, and heart. First of all, blood is a fluid connective tissue that is responsible for distributing nutrients, oxygen, and hormones to each cell in the human body. Additionally, blood carries metabolic wastes to the kidneys for excretion and transports specialized cells that defend peripheral tissues from infection and disease. The main muscular organ that plays a critical role is the heart. There are two circuits relating to the heart: pulmonary and systemic. The hit will affect both circuits in different ways. First of, the systemic circuit is responsible for carrying out blood to all parts of the body. When the systemic circuit takes damage by the arrow, the patient will lose significant amount of blood. On the other hand, the pulmonary circuit sends blood to the lungs and since the lung is injured, the circuit is compromised. Furthermore, the hematocrit (total blood cell count) will decrease due to the loss of blood cells and hemoglobin will likely have the same result.
A possible neuromuscular effect of the second arrow is weakness of muscle contraction. Moreover, nerves can also experience weakness due to the injury. Neuromuscular junction also called myoneural junction is a place where chemical communication occurs between a nerve fibre and muscle cell (Britannica, 2018).
There are three tissues associated in the given picture. One is a connective tissue which is associated with Hyaline cartilage. Another is epithelial tissue and in relation to pseudostratified columnar ciliated epithelium. Lastly, muscular tissue which can be categorized under smooth muscle and can be found in internal organs. The injuries can affect the area by damaging the muscle tissues that is associated with the visceral organs such as the targeted area, lungs.

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Britannica, T. E. (2018, January 04). Neuromuscular junction. Retrieved from
Charalampidis, C., Youroukou, A., Lazaridis, G., Baka, S., Mpoukovinas, I., Karavasilis, V., Zarogoulidis, P. (2015). Pleura space anatomy. Journal of Thoracic Disease, 7(Suppl 1), S27–S32.
Entman, M. L., Oliver, M. F., ; Jacob, S. W. (2018, July 13). Human cardiovascular system. Retrieved from
McCorry, L. K. (2007). Physiology of the Autonomic Nervous System. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 71(4), 78.
Vital Signs 101. (n.d.). Retrieved from,P00866

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