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SNS activation can stimulate the generation (Powell 2013) and trafficking of myeloid cells to the tumor microenviroment and significantly influence tumor progression. For example, macrophages and neutrophils found within the tumor microenvironment, are known to stimulate the production of tumor factors that greatly influence tumor progression and metastasis such as pro-inflammatory cytokines, and matrix metalloproteinase enzymes (MMPs) (reviewed Hanahan and Weinberg 2011). Additionally, stress can also reduce the oxidative burst of neutrophils and macrophages,
leading to reduced phagocytic activity (Sa-Rocha 2006).
After a single dose of a short-acting GC, the concen- tration of neutrophils increases, whereas the lympho- cytes, monocytes, eosinophils and basophils in the circu- lation decrease in number. The increase in neutrophils is due both to the increased influx from the bone marrow and to the demargination and impaired extravasation of neutrophils. The decreased migration of neutrophils from the blood vessels combined with diminished che- motaxis and adherence to vascular endothelium of neu- trophils and monocytes results in inhibition of the accu- mulation of these cells at the site of inflammation. These effects underlie the potent anti-inflammatory properties of GCs. The reduction in circulating lymphocytes, mono- cytes, eosinophils and basophils is the result of their movement from the vascular bed to lymphoid tissue.

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