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The fireflies emit light in a flashing pattern and that is a pleasant visual to the sight. Large number of Firefly species exists and mostly all of them radiate short and periodic flash. Flashing pattern of each Firefly species is different. Fireflies radiate light by bioluminescence process. The aim of flashing light is interpreted to attract either prey or mating partner and also to remind predators the bitter taste of Fireflies.
Same Firefly species respond to each other as their flashing pattern would be similar but certain species such as Photuris will imitate other female firefly species pattern and attract male fireflies of those species who would take that signal for mating but Photuris would eat them.
The light intensity I and distance are inversely proportional to each other, I ? 1/r2 . The light is also being absorbed by the air so the light intensity reduces as the distance increases. Due to these two reasons the fireflies emitted light is restricted to be viewed to few hundred meters at night which is sufficient for them to communicate amongst each other. The objective function which is to be optimized is associated with the flashing pattern of the fireflies.

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