The production of global biodiesel grew at a phenomenal rate of ~23% annually between 2005 and 2015, leading to a seven-fold expansion of the sector during a single decade. The diesel share in transportation demand is expected to increase at diverse rates in all countries, and at a global scale, biodiesel is expected to account for 70% of transport fuel demand growth out to 2040. The global biodiesel story has been fueled by a set of countries that dominate the oil crops sector and is considered to be largely a 21st Century phenomenon. As the worldwide production of biodiesel reached 31.6 billion liters in 2015 (Fig .1) a small fraction ( < 2%) of global diesel production but still a large volume in comparison to historical biodiesel levels. Energy market trends have reversed since 2014, however, creating an interesting paradox shown in Fig. 1 which revealed that global biodiesel production has continued to rise despite a precipitous drop in crude oil prices.