The trend using two ideas, which is organisational learning and the learning organisation (West, 1994) to understand how learning occurs in the organization (Tsang, 1997). Easterby-Smith (1997) say there are many secondary data of LO is based on the case studies of organisations that have successful and sometimes depend on public relations than on any grounded studies. For examples, successful LO is Sony. In addition, Eastweby-Smith (1997) says learning within organisations is increasingly important to sustaining a competitive advantage. Therefore, if organisation need to know the theory and practice of organisational learning to adopt both learning concept to competitiveness.
Tsang (1997) defined LO refers to a specific type of organisation in and of itself while organisational learning is a variety of activity carry out in an organisation. Furthermore, LO is the highest level of organisational learning, in which an organisation has the capacity to change themselves and even the development or their members (Argyris & Schon, 1978). LO is an organisation skilled at create, acquire, transform, use the information and knowledge, behaviour to make new knowledge and insights. These are the foundation for organisational learning and improvement.
Garvin (1993) found that many organisations can develop skills in create and acquire knowledge but few of them successful to apply it. This outlines the importance of understand the process by which organisation can change by themselves rather forced themselves. (Senge, 1991; Garvin, 1993; Coopey, 1996) think that LO are skilled at activities which enables them to develop learning. These include their capacity for:
i. Systematic problem solving, which underlines notions of quality and is focused on transformations in management and organisational activity
ii. Experimentation : test new knowledge and learn from mistakes
iii. Drawing upon memory and past experience
iv. Learning from each other
v. Communicate effectively within organisation
vi. Systematic thinking and developing shared ideas
This articles have been analysed the Turkish Tourism Industry and their vision and mission are:
i. We are members of the same team and our customers are also members of our team.
ii. We care about our customers’ perceptions of the services provided and especially our image in the eyes of our customers.
iii. We try to satisfy our customers not only with our words but also with our behaviour.
iv. Our staff is well-trained and we believe in continuous improvement.
v. We have a shared vision of responsibility.
vi. It is privilege to be a member of the staff in this organisation. We do not complain.
vii. We address our customers by name as a sign of our consideration for them.
viii. We have a transparent service policy and there is no way we leave our customers alone with their problems.
ix. Our priority is the security and well-being of our guests and staff.
x. Every single person in our organisation knows exactly what our overall targets are.
xi. We consider and support the creative ideas offered by our staff.
xii. Motivating our employees means their morale should be maximised.
xiii. We always say ‘YES’ to our customers.
As a conclusion, Turkish Tourism Industry has 4 steps to becoming LO in order to increase the competitive advantage, the first step creating LO is mental transformation. Having the ability to collect and act on the information generated through this process is depend on leaders and managers who have the capacity to learn and challenge the status quo. This requires the development of a set of common goals that lead employees in understanding their role in the working environment. In addition, transform oneself into LO includes maintaining employees’ motivation.
Secondly, the need to know that the explanation of external events and the implementation of internal organisational response, and it is known as the responsibility of the organisation board. Potential is increasing when team and individual contribute the knowledge base of the organisation and with the individuals’ motivation and commitment. This enables to support the innovative ideas of the employees.
Next, develop organisational cultures that would promote the ways of working and thinking to be challenged by individuals and teams were given chances to ask question and suggestions for improvement. So, the tradition as non-written and non-verbal rules maybe be challenging in the LO transformation process. In the study of Turkish tourism industry, management are less give encouragement and motivation and this was underlined by some of the employees.
Lastly, a suitable learning environment are supported to create for the development of the individual, so employees have better performance in organization. These benefits hold by hotels Turkey organisation since employees are well-trained, ready to learn and contribute more effectively to organisation.