There are five different areas of development. They are physical, social, emotional, communication and intellectual. Development is measured based on age groups, these are as follows, 0-12 months, 1-2 years, 2-5 years, 5-12 years, 12-19 years. Each stage of development is a guideline as all children will reach their milestones at different times.
Physical development consists of fine motor skills and gross motor skills. Fine motor skills is the use and control of small muscles to achieve tasks, such as picking up small objects; whereas gross motor skills is the use and control of larger muscles to achieve tasks such as skipping and hopping. Both fine motor skills and gross motor skills use several muscles in the body which is why muscle strength is an important aspect in this. The muscles in the body need to gain strength so that the child or young person will be able to coordinate better. Childrens physical development progresses very rapidly in the early stages of childhood.
Social development in children is about forming relationships and maintaining them, in the early stages of childhood children will mainly be close to their parents/main caregiver, their interaction is limited to their parents/ mains caregiver to begin with but eventually their social development will progress, and they will be able to form relationship with other people. Children will eventually know their own mind and be able to make decisions for themselves. From a few weeks old a baby can start to smile and respond to things around them. When a sound is made around them they will responded to these sounds.
Emotional development is about a child/young person understanding themselves. Emotional development starts at the beginning of infancy and continues in adult life. The first emotional that a baby has is joy, anger, sadness and fear. Later in childhood more emotions arise such as shyness, shame, embarrassment and guilt. Every child is different and may develop certain emotions at different stages.
Communicational development is about learning to communicate with others. There are many examples of communication such as talking, reading, writing and using body/sign language. Childrens language development can start in their first three months of life. They will watch faces and mouths and try to copy each movement and sound. Communicational development can start in babies and can be anything from a gurgling sound to a high-pitched sound. Also, it can be a baby moving their head to look at you whilst your talking. Communication does not just have to be language it can be gesture’s too.
Intellectual development is all about learning. children learn in many ways for example, exploring, copying, roleplay and many more ways. In the early stages of childhood children learn a big amount through role play. Also, children learn through the other areas of development. There are two main skills that are important to intellectual development which are language and communication skills.
The sequence and rate of each development from birth to 19 years:
Physical development stages. (guidance)
Babies will start moving their head,
arms and legs around.
They will try lifting their head up.
They will eventually learn how to roll over.
Babies can hold their head up.
Babies will try to sit up with help and then eventually they will be able to sit up on their own.
Babies will learn to start to crawl.
They will learn to support themselves around the furniture.
Toddlers will learn to start to walk whilst being helped and towards the end of this stage they will be able to walk unassisted.
They will be able to show you objects they want.
They will have a better hold on objects.
They will be able to move things from one hand to the other.
Toddlers can push and pull objects.
Pulling themselves along on push on toys.
They will be able to carry things around.
Will be able to colour and scribble using their full hand.
They are likely to have all milk teeth towards the end of this stage.
Childrens balance has improved but their posture is still developing.
Towards the middle of this stage toilet training is usually complete.
Young children develop the ability to hop, walk along in a straight line, jump over objects that are low.
By this stage dressing themselves is something that can be done on their own.
There is a good improvement on their fine motor skills.
Baby teeth may start to fall out.
It will become know if the child is more comfortable with their left or right hand.
Eating food with a knife and fork will be achievable.
Fine and gross motor skills are fully developed.
At this stage children / young adults go through puberty.
They start to involve themselves in sports activities such as football, basketball, gymnastics and dancing.
Social development stages: (guidance)
At this stage in a baby’s social development; they communicate through crying until their needs are met.
When babies are upset they will want comfort from the people they are close too such as their parents/main caregiver.
Babies at this stage will start to know the difference between people they know and experiences that they know to the ones they don’t know.
They will respond to their name being called.
They will become cautious of strangers and unfamiliar places.
Toddlers at this stage will be happy with keeping themselves amused.
Interaction with other will have developed.
Toddlers will want to do things for themselves
Toddlers like to play on their own and with other children.
They can tell you what they need without crying.
During this stage children learn a big amount by watching other people.
They start to include other children whist playing.
Children will make close friendships with others.
Children will be able to work in teams if needed.
At this stage children can sometimes have an imaginary friend and form a bond with them.
At this age children should know what is right or wrong behaviour.
8-11years old children are discovering their likes and dislikes.
At this stage a child’s group of friends have expanded, but they will also keep a relationship with their close friends.
At this age children’s relationships with their parents/main caregiver will begin to become distant.
Emotional development stages: (guidance)
Babies have a positive response to routine and security.
Forms attachments to mother and father and recognises face.
Change in routine may cause upset.
Their bonds with their main caregivers will increase
Their bonds with their main caregiver will continue to develop. They will also develop bonds with people they see often.
Babies at this stage will start to know what they like and dislike.
Moods will start to form because of teething.
Babies will be able to laugh towards the middle of this stage.
At this stages toddlers will want to let their parents know of their independence. They will also throw tantrums at this stage.
Toddlers will let you know when they do not want to do something and will use the word ‘no’.
Toddlers will show their love by giving hugs.
They will still need reassurance from their main caregiver.
Children can become frustrated if they have a lack of vocabulary.
When children are given a task and they cannot achieve it they will often get upset.
When things do not work out the way they want them to they will get frustrated.
Young children often become less attached to their parents/ main caregiver and become more independent.
Children will show an increased confidence in themselves; confidence can often be knocked back when something goes wrong.
Children will have better control over their emotions.
At this stage puberty has begun so hormonal changes will cause mood swings.
It is still a challenge to balance between competitiveness and rivalry.
Can be supportive when needed.
Communicational development stages: (guidance)
Babies will start to recognise sound and movements.
They will start to turn their heads towards sounds.
They will start making their own gurgling sounds.
Babies will try to make the sounds of certain words and eventually they will be able to say words such as ‘dada’ and ‘mama’.
Babies will try to get your attention by making high pitched sounds or raising their voices.
Toddlers will start to know the name of certain objects.
Babies will communication through baby talk.
Eventually this will turn in to more than one word.
They will start to know noises of certain animals.
Toddlers will link words and gestures together such as nodding their head with the word ‘yes’ or shaking their head from side to side for the word ‘no’.
When simple instructions are given the child can follow them.
Childrens language development can be very quick at this point.
At this stage children become more inquisitive.
Children will try to repeat familiar stories.
They will be able to follow more complex instructions.
Has a bigger vocabulary.
At this stage their reading and writing skills will be basic.
Children can have a prolonged conversation.
Children will know information like birthday, age, first and last name.
At this age the young person vocabulary is greatly widened.
They can also use different language styles.
UK Essays. November 2013. ‘Stages of Development | 0-19 Years’. online. Available from: http://www.ukessays.com/essays/childcare/stages-development-019-5201.php?vref=1 (Accessed 19 April 2018).
Apt parenting. ‘what you should know about social development in children’. online. Available from: https://aptparenting.com/social-development-in-children (accessed 19th April018)
Kids matter. ’emotional development’ online available from: https://www.kidsmatter.edu.au/mental-health-matters/social-and-emotional-learning/emotional-development (accessed 19th April)
‘introduction to intellectual development’ online. Available from: http://resources.hwb.wales.gov.uk/VTC/2012-13/22032013/hsc/eng/unit_2/hsc_u2_hgd/hsc_u2_intellectual-dev.htm (accessed 19th April)
Lanekids. February 27th, 2013. Developmental Milestones for Children Age 2 – 5 Years online. Available from: http://www.lanekids.org/developmental-milestones-for-children-age-2-5-years/ (accessed 21st April 2018)
Axappp healthcare august 18th 2015 Development milestones- 5-11 years. online. Available from: https://www.axappphealthcare.co.uk/health-information/pregnancy/child-development-milestones-5-11-years/ (accessed 22nd April2018)
NHS. Child development ages and stages. online. Available from: http://www.cambscommunityservices.nhs.uk/what-we-do/children-young-people-health-services-cambridgeshire/specialist-services/childrens-speech-and-language-therapy/activities-ideas-and-info/child-development-ages-and-stages (accessed 22nd April 2018)