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With reference to table 6 on the alleged causal-factors of unregistered pharmaceuticals in chapter five, it is manifest that most participants in Mtendere Compound associated the establishment of unregistered pharmaceuticals to diverse factors. As such, some of the responses were quite similar while others were noticeably different and this was premised on the participant’s background typically their occupation and age. Income generation was one of the cited factors of unregistered pharmaceutical from some participants interviewed. According to table 6, income generation (26.7 %) was instituted to be the most frequently alleged factor that leads to unregistered pharmaceutical in Mtendere Compound.
Income generation as a factor to unregistered pharmaceuticals is spearheaded by other casual-factors such as self medication and population increase. Undeniably, 11.1 % of the responses among the participants in Mtendere Compound mentioned population increase as one of the factors that has led to unregistered pharmaceuticals in the area. Demand for health care services (5.6%) was equally pointed out as a factor that leads to unregistered pharmaceuticals in Mtendere Compound. Income generation can therefore not be separated from population increase; this is because as the population escalates the demand for health services equally increases. On the other hand, it is evident from table 6 that 7.8 % of the factors that lead to unregistered pharmaceuticals were necessitated by self medication among the public.
According to Ozler (2012) income generation refers to interventions that attempt to address poverty, unemployment and lack of economic opportunities to increase participants’ ability to generate income and secure livelihood. As of July, 2016 ZAMRA managed to close 140 unregistered drug outlets around Lusaka through their inspection unity. It was further expressed that only 241 drugstores were registered across the country (Musonda, 2016). On the other hand, Kalungia et al (2016) concluded that non-prescription sale and dispensing of medicines especially antibiotics is widespread in Zambia. Additionally, it is estimated that 97% of the clients (consumers) that visit community pharmacies request for non-prescription medicines (especially antibiotics). Additionally Machula (2007) further cements that population increases have tremendously exacerbated the escalation of unregistered pharmaceuticals in Zambia as well as the sale of their medical products to the public among others. Therefore, concerted public and professional interventions are needed coupled with strong regulatory levels of self medication which is exacerbated by unregistered pharmaceuticals through a Community Health Programme (CHP).
According to table 6, associated high costs of running a pharmacy (5.6%) was identified as a factor that leads to unregistered pharmaceuticals among some participants interviewed in Mtendere Compound. Similarly, some participants further cited that being unaware of the registration process (5.6 %) was another factor that intensified the establishment of unregistered pharmaceutical in the area. According to ZAMRA (2017), one has to undergo the process of registration and follow other guidelines and requirements before setting up a retail pharmacy. The registration process involves, making an application with ZAMRA that first inspect the proposed building for it suitability. If the building is suitable, the business owner has to put shelves, dispensary and air conditioning in it as well as getting certifications from the local councils. Thereafter, contracting a fully registered pharmacist who has to be fulltime employee and getting pre-requisite reference books for the pharmacy. Finally, ZAMRA conducts the second inspection and if everything is found in place, the business can start operating. Nonetheless, this process in not followed by many pharmacy operators either intentionally or unknowingly. This has therefore, increased the mushrooming of unregistered pharmaceuticals in Mtendere Compound. A community health programme whose many focus is on the importance of registering pharmacies among retail pharmacy operators could help address such unlawful behaviour among them and lessen the prevalence of unregistered pharmaceuticals.
Lack of medicines in health facilities (11.1%) and spending a lot of time in clinics (5.6%) were deemed to be among other factors that have led to the growth of unregistered pharmaceuticals in Mtendere Compound. Chanda (2015) argues that lack of medicines in health facilities has steered up a number of community pharmacies among some of which are unregistered. Due to this vice, many consumers across the country have put their health at risk by unknowingly consuming drugs that could be perceived from unregistered pharmacists. On the other hand, 1.1 % of the responses from the participants blamed influence from other pharmacists as a factor that has led to the rise of unregistered pharmaceuticals in Mtendere Compound and it scored the lowest frequency amongst all the responses. This factor is therefore swayed by business competition 5.6% which actually as cited to be another factor that lead to unregistered pharmaceuticals in the area. Additionally, health seeking behaviour 5.6% was mentioned as a factor that supposedly has accelerated the growth of unregistered pharmaceuticals in the Mtendere Compound. The participants interviewed justified their view that many individuals are prompted to be engaged in this lucrative business and compete among themselves so as to meet the demand of the public that are seeking for medicines hence the escalation of unregistered pharmaceuticals in the area.
On another striking note, 8.9% of the participants did not know the factors that relate the escalation of unregistered pharmaceuticals. Basco, (2004) argues that it is a difficult task to trace unregistered pharmacies and the likelihood of them selling counterfeit or substandard medicines especially in Africa as it is not given so much prioritized that much. Maybe this influenced their view. However, the public need to be education and be vigilant that unregistered pharmaceuticals are present and there need to be aware as consuming medical products from such retails could erode their health and wellbeing.
Based on the discussion above, most of the participants interviewed in Mtendere Compound demonstrated a great aptitude to relate the factors that might have led to the establishment of unregistered pharmaceuticals to based on their experience. As noted earlier on, only 8.9% were unable to relate the casual-factors of unregistered pharmaceuticals in Mtendere Compound. All in all, factor of unregistered pharmaceuticals were identified to be influenced by socio-economic and moral behavioural perspectives. The preceding segment discusses the effects that unregistered pharmaceuticals pose on the consumers.

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