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With the development of modern linguistic science anthropocentrism has become the dominant principle of many researches. Such approach reflects a tendency to put a person at the center of all theoretical assumptions so that a person is not just involved in the analysis of certain phenomena, but also defines the prospects and goals of this analysis. Individual characteristics of linguistic identity are of particular importance in the study of human language, the most important of them is the gender which is regarded both as a process and as a result of “embedding” the individual into socially- and culturally-determined models of masculinity or femininity, accepted in a given society at a certain historical stage of its development.
The sex, gender, gender stereotypes, gender behavior excite researchers of various branches of sciences. First of all, it reflects in psychological researches. But recently the linguists also showed great interest in this issue. The gender stereotypes are investigated and come to light in literature, phraseology, lexicon, speech behavior, etc.
While many Indo-European languages have grammatical gender, English is normally described as lacking of this type of gender, although in the Old English period it was a very productive inflectional category. Gender was no more inflectional category in Modern English.
The development of gender marked nominations of person was also influenced by the development of society and by changing roles of males and females in society. The rise of feminism had impact on the development of new nominations marked by gender as well, especially in the employment sphere. In the process of the language development gender had changed its status in grammar and semantics.
Slang is of particular interest in the study of masculinity and femininity as language phenomena. Being a rapidly developing and changing language system, slang is capable to reflect the true picture of socio-group interactions and hierarchy within these groups. In an effort to monitor the current situation the slang is in we tried to carry out a contrastive analysis of English and Ukrainian gender-marked slang.
Before this study, there have been other researches related to slang in English and Ukrainian. However, none of them focused on gender-marked slang and carried out the contrastive analysis.
The object of the paper is English and Ukrainian gender-marked slang words that are currently in use. The subject of the paper is grammatical, structural, functional and semantical characteristics of this slang.
The aim of this paper is to examine the occurrence of gender-marked slang expressions and single out their differences and similarities in English and Ukrainian languages.
The objectives of the research are as follows:
? to single out distinctive features of Ukrainian and English gender-marked slang words and expressions;
? to look into slang-formation processes and determine which ones are the most productive in Ukrainian and English slang;
? to analyze types of gender markers and decide which turn out to be the most effective;
? to find out whether extra linguistic factors influence the process of slang formation and if so, which and how;
? to work out the semantic shades of meaning of gender-marked slang words and expressions;
? to explain their main functions and role in the language system;
? to compare Ukrainian and English gender-marked slang words and expressions on grammatical, structural, conceptual an lexical levels.
The methodology used is a combination of quantitative and comparative methods. Data were collected from a number of English and Ukrainian dictionaries. The collected gender-marked slang words were then analyzed grammatically, semantically and statistically. The contrastive analysis is represented by the outlined distinctions and similarities which were previously found at grammatical and semantical levels.
The data was collected from 1 Ukrainian and 8 English dictionaries. The total amount of collected English gender-marked slang words and expressions is 104, the amount of Ukrainian ones is 108.
The relevance of the work is dictated by the need of studying of slang units coding gender with the use of gender markers, and its embodiments in two structurally different languages. It opens new data which can be useful both at an explanation of language identities, and at the solution of some difficulties of the translation.
The practical value of the work is defined by possibility of using the results
of real research in various aims: in further researches on linguistics or when developing courses of special disciplines on studying the slang.
There are 3 chapters in this paper. Chapter 1 lays the theoretical foundation for the following analysis. In chapter 2 the grammatical, morphemic and semantic analysis is being carried out. In Chapter 3 Results and Discussions present and discuss the findings of the study compare them between two languages. Conclusion summarizes the main points, states the conclusions, admits limitations.
The research paper consists of pages.

Chapter 1. Theoretical framework
1.1 Origin of slang and its definition
In the modern world, language is constantly developing. Language is inseparable from culture, being a product and reflection of the culture of its bearers. Slang, being one of the integral parts of English vocabulary, has recently energetically penetrated into books, everyday speech and the film industry. Events that relate to humanity directly affect the development of spoken language, they are reflected in various languages of the world and add more and more phrases and expressions to the vocabulary of modern society. Political elections, wars or technological progress are all examples of the constant changes of the modern world that affect the appearance of new, more modern slang.
In the Middle Ages, such writers as Jeffrey Chaucer, William Caxton, William Malmesbury revealed territorial differences in pronunciation and dialects. This was the first definition of the concept of “slang”. However, the modern meaning of the concept of “slang” did not appear earlier than the 16th-17th centuries. At the end of the 16th century the English Jargon appeared. It was a new kind of speech used by criminals and scammers in drinking establishments and gambling houses. At first English Criminal Jargon was considered foreign. So, many scientists assumed that it either originated in Romania, or had something to do with the French language.
There are several works devoted specifically to the thieves’ language, dating back to the 15th-16th centuries. One of the most significant works in this area is the dictionary by H. Harm (London, 1565), whose work was inspired by the work of R. Copeland (Coplend R. The Hye Way to the Spyttel Hous, 1530-1540).
Later, numerous works followed, in which, along with jargon, “slang” vocabulary was used. Among them, the most prominent are: Greene R. “A notable discovery of coosnage” (1591); T. Dekker “The shoemaker’s holiday” (1599); R. Head “Canting academy, or villainies discovered” (1674); “The dictionary of the canting crew, ancient and modern, of gypsies, beggars, thieves”, London, 1699.
In 1736, “Canting Dictionary thieving slang” by N. Bailey was published, which contains many examples of slang related to sex, prison slang and even street slang expressions of the 17th century.
As of today, there is no consensus on the interpretation of the concept of “slang”. It does not contain terminological precision and different linguists define it differently. Numerous dictionaries offer different interpretations of this concept. For example, “Oxford Dictionary & Th?s?urus of Current English” gives the following definition: “… a type of language consisting of words and phrases that are regarded as very informal, are more common in speech than writing, and are typically restricted to a particular cont?xt or group of people”4.
The “Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English” offers another interpretation: “… very informal, sometimes offensive, language that is used especially by people who belong to a particular group, such as young people or criminals”6.
Among the researchers of slang there is also no shared view on the interpretation of the concept of “slang”. One of the famous explorers of slang
E. Partridge, as well as his followers J. Greenock and K.I. Kittridge define slang as “… the quite unstable, not codified, and often completely disorderly and random totality of lexemes that reflect the public consciousness of people belonging to a particular social or professional environment” 8.
Thus, slang is seen as the deliberate use of elements of the literary standard in colloquial speech for purely stylistic purposes:
– to create the effect of novelty, unusualness, difference from universally recognized samples;
– to reflect a certain mood of the speaker, to give the utterance a concreteness, liveliness, expressiveness, brevity, imagery.
Such stylistic means as metaphor, metonymy, synecdoche, euphemism, litota help to achieve these goals.
Another well-known researcher of slang J. Hotten describes slang as a street language full of humor.
Often slang is looked upon in the so-called “psychological aspect”. Slang implies a certain product of individual linguistics of representatives of certain social and professional groups. It is the linguistic formulation of the social consciousness of people belonging to one or another background.
The etymology of the term “slang” also creates a huge amount of controversy among researchers. It is one of the most controversial and intricate issues in English lexicology. The difficulty in revealing the origin of the term lies in its multivaluedness and different interpretation of slang by the authors of dictionaries and researches over the last two hundred years. The term “slang” was first mentioned in the literature, such as: “Language of a low or vulgar type” in 1756. Thus, it is possible to trace the evolution of the development of this concept. Since 1802, slang has been understood to mean: “The cant or jargon of a certain period”, and since 1818 the definition «Language of a highly colloquial type, considered as below the level of standard educated speech, and consisting either of new words or of current words employed in some special sense» 7.
One of the earliest interpreters of the etymology of the word “slang” was
J. Hothen, who claimed that it comes from the gypsy word “slang”, meaning “secret language”.
In addition, some researchers are confident that the word “slang” is of Scandinavian origin. For example, G. Wilde and E. Weekley believe that it has a common origin with the Norwegian “slénja-ord” – “a new slang word”, “slénja-namm” – “nickname” and “slänja-kjeften” in the sense of “scolding, insult someone’. In English there is also a similar idiom with the same meaning “to sling the jaw”, which at the moment is already obsolete.
It can also be assumed that the English word “slang” emerged as a result of contamination of several roots. First of all, it goes back to the root “length”:
middle Greek “elegho” – “I scold, I offend”; “Eleghos” – “reproach, swearing.” In modern English territorial dialects, “slang” is found not only in the meaning of “abusive language, impertinence”, but also in the meaning of “talk, conversation”.
1.2 Slang word-formation
Some main word-formations of slang are compounding, clipping and blending.
Compounds can be created from individual words of various parts of speech. Probably the most common type is NOUN + NOUN pattern: hometown, boyfriend, music box, tennis court, etc. Other popular and ordinary parts are ADJECTIVE + NOUN pattern: short story, heavy water, heavy traffic, big toe, etc, and NOUN + VERB pattern: placekick, home run, baby- sit, clockwork or heart attack, etc.
The ordinary processes of compounding are a major source of new words in slang. The WORD + WORD structure for many slang items is obvious and the meaning can be easily derived from the parts: dough-brain “someone who acts stupidly or as if not thinking”, all-nighter “a session of studying or writing that lasts all night” or do-right “a helpful deed”.
A very large number of verbs in slang are formed by the addition of a short and invariant word like out, on, up or off to a word of any part of speech: harsh on “criticize”, mommy up “love, hug, comfort”, blow off “miss class, ignore responsibility”, beam out “daydream”, blow out “shock, embarrass”, bomb out “fail, perform poorly”, check out “look at, scrutinize”, chill out “relax, calm down”, etc.
The most frequent pattern of clipping is the loss of sounds from the ends of words. The most common pattern is back-clipping, in which the beginning of a base lexeme is retained (lab from laboratory, exam from examination, doc from doctor, pop from popular music). Other patterns are fore-clipping, in which the final part of the word is retained (phone from telephone, chute from parachute, pike from turnpike, gator from alligator), middle clipping in which the middle part of the word is retained (flu from influenza, tec from detective), and complex clipping or clipped compounds in which one part of the original compound most often remains intact (cablegram from cable telegram, op art from optical art, orgman from organization man).
Clipping is also common in slang. They are primarily shortenings of nouns and adjectives: coke from cocaine, cred from credit/credibility, crim from criminal, fave from favourite, hyper from hyperactive, bro from brother, rehab from rehabilitation, etc.
Blending is a combination of shortening and compounding, the process of blending puts together pieces of words and their meanings. Thus brunch is formed from breakfast and lunch and means “a meal that combines breakfast and lunch”.
Blending slang though is not much but they are still popular in use: buel (body + fuel) “to eat voraciously”, droned (drunk + stoned) “unaware because of alcohol or drugs”, froyo ( frozen yogurt), polislide (political science + slide)” easy political science course”, etc.

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1.3 Gender
The term “gender” came to linguistics from anthropology in the early 70s of the twentieth century. For the first time G. Rubin used it in the article “Exchange of women. Notes on the “political economy” of the sex” and is defined as “a set of conventions that entail a regulatory influence on the biological sex as an object of social activity”14. The purpose of the term “gender” is demarcation of sociocultural (gender) and purely biological (sex) characteristics of a person 13.
A gender stereotype is a separate type of stereotype, which reflects culturally and socially conditioned thoughts and presuppositions about indicators, attributes and norms of behavior of representatives of both sexes in the language. Each society in a certain period of its historical development forms stereotyped standards of femininity and masculinity, in other words, stereotypes of “typical woman” and “typical man”, that is, features, norms, roles, typical or desirable for those whom society singles out as men or women.
Today’s society turned out to be controlled by men who occupy the main positions in public life, business, politics. All these realities were represented by the term male-dominated society 15. A woman, according to gender stereotypes, is weak, passive, depends on the man, serves as a keeper of the hearth. Such inequality in gender linguistics has been called “gender asymmetry”, which became the core of feminist linguistics research.
Gender asymmetry in the language is an uneven representation in the language of different sexes. The basis of this statement was formed by one of the main postulates of feminist linguistics: language illustrates the picture of the world from a male point of view, so it is not only anthropocentric (focused on human), but also androcentric (focused on a man). Thus, language creates a picture of the world based on the male point of view, from the point of view of the male perspective, where the female appears mainly in the role of the object, in the role of “another”, “alien” or even ignored 12.
Studies of gender asymmetry of language have also contributed to a deeper study, and in some cases even revision, of word-formative and nominative language systems. The main achievement of feminist linguistics lies in the fact that it allowed the woman to “see herself differently” through language, overcome some male asymmetry and dominance in the language.
Socioeconomic changes in the world, demographic trends, crucial changes in the workforce structure, redistribution of family duties and roles, women’s struggle for their rights and feminism altogether led to an enhancement of the women’s role and status in the modern world, particularly in English-speaking countries, which has been reflected in the language on the lexical level as well.
Modern scientists (M. Blokh, N. Kobrina, M. Kolpakchi, I. Lalayants, etc.) agree that the category of gender in modern English should be considered not grammatical, but semantic, that is, based on the lexical meaning of the word. Therefore, a significant role in the definition of the gender category in English play gender-marked units -“nominative units that subject the main participants to a gender-relevant subject-referenced situation – referents a man and a woman” 13.
According to the means of gender expression in the vocabulary of modern English, we can distinguish several types of gender markers: semantic and structural (morphological and syntactic) gender markers.
Semantically labeled nominative units do not contain gender markers, but are mainly used with male or female reference, conventionally assigned to them in the lexical system of the English language. According to the gender classification of nouns the following subgroups on semantic level are distinguished:
• inanimate nouns of a neutral gender (neuter): table, nature, love, forest;
• animate nouns of a general gender (common): doctor, teacher, inhabitant, individual, president, guest;
• animate nouns of masculine gender (masculine): father, brother, son, husband, bachelor, ox;
• animate nouns of feminine gender (feminine): mother, sister, daughter .
Structurally marked nominative units contain gender markers of two types: morphological and syntactic.
The morphological markers are the suffix morphemes -ess, -trix, -euse, -ette, -ine, -enne, -ene, -en, -e, -a, which form the feminine derivates from generic nominations, for example: actor – actress, waiter – waitress, poet – poetess, hero – heroine, as well as semantically marked nominative foundations with male and female reference categories, which form complex nominations. As part of a complex word, a gender marker can be represented both in pre- and in postposition: male-frog, bell-boy, milkmaid, businesswoman.
Syntactic markers include the male and female reference lexemes: male, man (men) / female, woman (women), lady, boy / girl, which form word combinations of different levels of stability: from free: lady doctor – a woman licensed to practice medicine, male prostitute – a man who engages in sexual intercourse for money 5, to the phraseological: lady of easy virtue – promiscuous woman, one easily seduced and bedded 5, family man – a man who is married and has children, devoted to his family 5.
“Female” markers are used to form the nominations, which designate the prestigious, or so-called “male” areas of activity, where men predominate, for example: woman astronaut, woman priest, female lawyer, woman police constable 5.
“Male” markers occur among a small group of nominations that denote auxiliary professions: a male secretary, a male nurse, or are related to attractiveness: male model, or providing of sexual services: male prostitute, male stripper 9.
Structured gender markers can give a gender reference to a nomination explicitly or implicitly. If there is an explicit gender marker, the gender reference of a nominative unit is stable and does not depend on the linguistic (extralinguistic) context: waitress, schoolboy.
In case of an implicit gender marker, referential attribution of a nominative unit is unstable and is determined by both the linguistic and extralinguistic context of the discourse.
As a kind of marker can serve grammatical forms of personal (he / him, she / her), possessive (his, her / hers) and reflexive (himself / herself) third person singular pronouns, correlated with male or female referent.
One of the cases of structural marking is the gender differentiation of conventional identifiers, which stand before the surname (less often the name and surname) of the referent-person, for example: Mr White-Mrs / Miss White. These gender identifiers are called titles of courtesy or titles of respect.
While English codes natural gender primarily through lexical items (e.g., girl–boy) and through some pronouns (e.g., she–he and him– her), it does not assign a gender to all nouns that refer to animates (e.g., doctor) or to nouns that refer to inanimates (e.g., apple). Languages such as Ukrainian, however, have a grammatical gender system because they mark gender with morphological information that is carried by pronouns, nouns, and adjectives. In Ukrainian to form the words denoting person’s activity, specialty, occupation the suffixes -??, -???, -??, -???(-???), -??(-??), -??, -??, -??(-??), -?, -???(-???), -???? are the most productive (???????, ??????????, ????????, ???????, ?????, ??????, ?????, ????????, ???????, ??????????, ????, ????, ???????, ??????, ???????). The feminine nouns denoting the profession are created from the masculine nouns. To the noun stem suffixes -?(?), -??(?), -?(?), -??(?) are added (????? — ???????, ???? — ?????, ???? — ???????). In spoken language, the suffix –? is also used: ??????? – ?????????.

Chapter 2. Presentation and analysis of the data
2.1 Grammatical analysis of slang words
Having analysed the samples, we found that different gender-marked slang words and expressions fall into different part of speech categories. In Ukrainian language some of them turned out to be adjectival (???????????/?, ??????????/?, ?????????, ???????/?, ???????/?, ???????, ?????????/?, ??????????/?) and participial (??????????/?, ???????????/?, ?????????/?, ?????????/?, ????????/?, ????????/?).
Those in English are astronaut’s wife, classy hoochie, decent Rita, fem-fatale, girlie-girl, hot ma’, ladies’ man, sugar daddy, blue boys, deadbeat dad, boss dick, little girls’ room, girlie magazine, girlie show, clever dick, dumb Dora, good ol’ boy, long-tall-Sally, Yellowman.(Not sure about this category?)
The next and the biggest category is noun words. In Ukrainian these are ?????, ?????, ???????, ??????, ?????, ?????????, ????????, ?????, ???????, ??????, ?????, ???, ????, ????????, ????????, ????????, ?????, ??????????, ????, ??????, ??????, ??????, ???????????, ?????, ???????, ???????, ??????, ??????, ???, ??????, ?????, ????????, ?????, ??????, ??????, ???????, ??????, ?????, ??????????, ?????, ???????, ??????, ?????, ????????????, ????, ?????, ???????, ?????, ????, ????????, ????, ?????, ???, ?????, ?????, ??????, ????, ???, ?????, ???????, ??????, ?????, ????????, ?????, ?????, ???, ??????, ?????, ???, ???????, ?????, ?????, ???????, ?????, ?????, ?????, ???????, ????????, ???????, ???, ????, ??????????, ??????, ??????, ???????, ?????, ???, ?????, ?????.
The representatives of this category in English is plentiful as well, namely aunt Jemima, aviation blonde, Becky, Benjamin, Betty, bridezilla, bro, bag bitch, chica, chickadee, celesbian, chief, chiquita, daddy, diva, drag queen, dude, dudette, fanboy, fella, gurl, gal, Harrison, Joe six-pack, Jenny McCarthy, Lolita, Lady Snow, mami, manizer, nigga, Amazon, John, John Thomas, queen bee, aunt Hazel, aunt Mary, aunt Nora, aunt Emma, bra-burner, Mr. Big, Mrs. Murphy, mother, ladyfinger, womanizer, Chinaman, bumbette, babe magnet, back door man, big booty Judy, boy toy, hockey whore, home boy, home girl, ice queen, mack mamma, space king/queen, attention whore, soccer mum, Nancy boy, Captain Whisky Dick, lady bear, mother nature, dickhead, Yellowman/woman, Jerry, man slut, wife swapper, lady-killer, skirt-chaser, mother fucker.
We also found some verbal expressions in English, such as dick around, mommy up, pussy out.
Unfortunately, we did not manage to discover examples of these in Ukrainian.
Few interjections are present in Ukrainian slang – ????! and ????!.
In English we spotted such expressions as Son of a gun!, Son of a bitch!, Mother of God!, Who’s your daddy? and Man!
Not falling into this category are acronyms – abbreviations from the initial letters of word or phrase.
There is one found sample of slang acronym in Ukrainian – ??? (???? ???? ???????).
Couple more of these are present in English: SWF (Single White Female), SWM (Single White Male).

2.2 The morphemic analysis
The ways slang words and expressions form in two languages differ as well.
As it was already mentioned, compounding is the most common one (for English language). The first type is NOUN + NOUN. We can clearly observe it in such phrases as aunt Jemima, aviation blonde, babe magnet, back door man, bag bitch, big booty Judy, boy toy, back room boys, drag queen, fanboy, hockey whore, home boy, home girl, ice queen, Joe six-pack, mack mamma, queen bee, space king/queen, attention whore, soccer mum, Nancy boy, Captain Whisky Dick, lady bear, ladyfinger, Lady Snow, mother nature, aunt Hazel, aunt Mary, aunt Nora, aunt Emma, wife swapper, skirt-chaser, lady-killer dickhead, bra-burner, Chinaman, boss dick, son of a gun, Mr. Big, Mrs. Murphy, man slut.
The ADJECTIVE + NOUN pattern can be traced in the next expressions: astronaut’s wife, classy hoochie, decent Rita, girlie-girl, hot ma’, ladies’ man, sugar daddy, blue boys, deadbeat dad, little girls’ room, girlie magazine, girlie show, good ol’ boy, clever dick, dumb Dora, long-tall-Sally, Yellowman/woman, sweet sister of mine, SWF (Single White Female), SWM (Single White Male).
There is also one instance of NOUN + ADJECTIVE pattern – fem-fatale and words with a short or invariant word: dick about, pussy out, mommy up.
There are no examples of compounding in Ukrainian.
Naturally, we detected the use of second common word-formation method – clipping: Betty (from Bethany), bro (from brother), sis (from sister), fella (from fellow), ma, mamma, mami (from mother), nigga (from nigger), ol’ (from old) in English; ???? (??????????????), ???????? (???????????), ??? (???????), ?????, ????? (?????????), ??? (???????), ??????? (??????????????), ????? (???????) in Ukrainian.
During the research four instances of blending were discovered as well: celesbian (celebrity + lesbian), bridezilla (bride + Godzilla) in English and ?????????? (???????? + ???????????), ???????? (????????? + ?????????) in Ukrainian.
(P.S. I’ve also got such phrases as What’s-her-name, a face that only mother could love, yes-man, Who’s your daddy and don’t really know where they belong. Pls help!! ?)
Part of Ukrainian gender-marked slang words are formed with the help of adjectival affixes –??/-? (?????????/?, ????????/?, ???????????/?, ??????????/?, ?????????, ???????/?, ????????/?, ???????/?, ???????, ??????????/?, ???????????/?, ?????????/?, ??????????/?, ?????????/?) and affixes that denote person’s activity or occupation (??????????, ???????????, ??????, ??????, ???????, ??????????, ?????, ??????, ?????, ???????, ???????, ????????, ??????, ???????, ??????????, ?????, ?????, ?????, ???????, ????????????, ??????, ?????, ????????, ?????, ??????, ???????????, ???????, ?????, ????????, ??????, ??????, ?????, ?????, ?????, ????????, ???????, ??????, ?????, ??????, ?????).
Diminutive and augmentative forms occur as well. They are ??????, ??????, ?????, ???????, ???????, ????????, ?????, ??????, ???????, ?????? and daddy, girlie.
We consider it also important to mention that a lot of Ukrainian slang words are borrowings, mainly from other Slavic languages (Russian, Polish), therefore some word-formation processes remain unknown.
We also would like to focus on gender-marking formation processes, which were mentioned earlier at the theoretical stage of the paper. First, we have got instances of syntactic markers in English which include the male and female reference lexemes: astronaut’s wife, aunt Jemima, babe magnet, back door man, boy toy, daddy, fanboy, fem-fatale, girlie-girl, home boy, home girl, hot ma’, ladies’ man, mack mamma, manizer, motherficker, son of a gun, son of a bitch, sugar daddy, sweet sister of mine, Single White Male, Single White Female, yes man, blue boys, deadbeat dad, soccer mum, nancy boy, boys in the back room, a face that only mother could love, who’s your daddy, Man!, mother, little girls’ room, lady bear, ladyfinger, lady-killer, mother nature, aunt Hazel, aunt Nora, aunt Mary, aunt Emma, girlie magazine, girlie show, good ol’ boy, womanizer, wife swapper, Yellowman, Chinaman, man slut.
Now let’s take a look at how gender manifests itself through pronouns: what’s-her-name, what’s-her-face, what’s-his-name, what’s-his-face.
Cases of honorifics are present as well: Mr. Big, Mrs. Murphy, Captain Whisky Dick, Lady Snow, Son of a gun, Son of a bitch.
And the least popular in our selection are morphological markers: dudette, bimbette, skirt-chaser, bra-burner.
The mix of two types can be observed in wife swapper, lady-killer, mother fucker.
We also noticed a tendency for using proper names for denomination. There are 9 of these in Ukrainian: ????? (??????, ??????), ??????? (?????, ??? ?????? ??????????), ?????? (????????? ??????, ??????), ???? (?????), ???????? (???????? ??????), ??? (?????), ????? (???????, ??????), ?????? (??????), ????? (??????), ???? (?????).
In English there are 20: aunt Jemima (a female with small breasts), Becky (when you can’t remember or don’t know a woman’s name), Benjamin (money in general or 100$ bill), Betty (an attractive female), big booty Judy (a person with a humongous butt), decent Rita (an attractive female), Harrison (an older attractive man, referring to Harrison Ford), Jenny McCarthy (a promiscuous, flirtatious girl or one who dresses provocatively), Joe six-pack (the average male), Lolita (a sexually attractive or sexually provocative female under the age of sexual consent), Amazon (a physically masculine woman, usually implies tall and unattractive), John Thomas (word for a blokes willy), Mrs. Murphy (a bathroom), long-tall-Sally (a tall girl or woman), aunt Hazel (heroin), aunt Mary (marijuana), aunt Nora (cocaine), aunt Emma (opium), dumb Dora (stupid woman), Jerry (the German).
2.3 The semantic analysis
As we have previously stated, a number of gender-marked slang words have foreign origin. Let’s take a deeper look into them.
The following are instances of Russian borrowings: ?????? (???. ??????), ??????? (???. ???????), ?????? (???. ?????), ?????? (???. ??????), ??? (???. ???????????), ???? (???. ????), ??????? (???. ???????), ????? (???. ?????), ????? (???. ?????), ????????? (???. ????????).
The usage of Polish borrowings such as ??? (???. ?och, w?och — ???????; ??????, ????????? ??????; ?????? ???????), ?????? (???. kobieta — ?????), ?????????? (???. bzikowaty — ??????, ??????) has been noticed as well.
We were not surprised to see even more occasions of English loanwords: ???????? (????. boyfriend — ???????; ???????), ??? (????. man – ???????), ????? (????. nigger – ????-???????????), ??? (????. captain – ???????), ????? (????. baby – ???????). Interesting case is the Ukrainian slang, formed by analogy to borrowed words such as ??????? (????. to pick up – ??????????), ??????? (????. teacher – ???????), ???????????? (????. girlfriend – ??????, ???????), ???????? (?? ?????? ???????????, ???? ?????????? ???? ???????).
The word ????? is of German origin meaning groom, admirer or not a thief.
While studying English gender-marked slang we did not stumble upon so many loanwords. Few expressions from Spanish, i.e. chica (sp. girl), chiquita (sp. little girl, honey) and fem-fatale (fr. disastrous woman) from French, however, were found.
After analyzing all the gender-marked slang units that we collected, we saw that some of them have similar semantic patterns and, hereby, can be grouped according to the shades of meaning they possess.
1. The nationality/territory one relates to
In Ukrainian we found 12 words that are marked by gender and label the people that inhabit certain area. These are as follows: ??? (?????), ????(??????????????, ?????????), ???????? (???????????), ??? (???????), ??????????? (?????? ??. ???????, ????????? ?????????), ????? (?????????), ??????? (???????), ??????? (????????), ????? (???????), ????? (????-???????????), ???? (?????), ?????????? (??????), ??? (?????? ?????????? ??????????????).
In English our sample numbers 5 of those: nigger (Afro-American), Jerry (the German), good ol’ boy (Southerner, especially white, powerful person), Yellowman/woman (East Asian person), Chinaman (Chinese).
2. Mental abilities
We discovered 14 cases of the words that are associated with one’s mental abilities. 10 of them are Ukrainian: ?????, ??????, ???????, ??????, ??????????, ???????, ?????, ????, ?????, ??????, ?????. Even though only ????? is female-marked, all are universal and can be applied to women as well.
The rest (4) of the examples are English: clever dick and dickhead, which are male, bimbette, and dumb dora, which are female.
3. Personality traits
According to personality traits the words are divided as follows: total of 33 are found in Ukrainian: ?????? (+-), ?????? (-), ??????? (-), ????? (-), ?????? (-), ?????????/? (-), ????????/? (-), ???????? (-), ???????? (-), ?????????? (-), ?????? (-), ??????????/? (-), ?????????? (-), ???????/? (-), ????? (-), ???????? (-), ???? (-), ??????????/? (-), ??????????/? (-), ???????????/? (-), ?????????/? (-), ?????? (+-), ??? (+-), ??? (-), ??????? (-), ????? (-), ????????/?? (-), ??????/?? (-), ?????/?? (-), ?????????/? (-), ????? (-), ????? (-), ?????? (-).
19 of them are used towards women, 28 towards men. 29 of them have negative connotations.
Total of 32 are English: back door man (-), bag bitch (-), boy toy (-), bridezilla (-), chief (+-), classy hoochie (-), daddy (+-), diva (-), fanboy
(+-), hockey whore (-), fem-fatale (+-), ice queen (+-), Jenny McCarthy (-), ladies’ man (+-), Lolita (-), mack mamma (-), manizer (-), mother fucker (-), queen bee (+-), space king/queen (+-), amazon (+-), sugar daddy (+-), SWF (+-), SWM (+-), yes-man (+-), attention whore (-), deadbeat dad (-), soccer mom (+-), nancy boy (-), lady-killer (+-), womanizer (-), wife swapper (-), skirt-chaser (-).
Of them all 18 relate to women and 16 to men. 17 have negative connotations and 15 are neutral in use.
4. Appearance
We spotted 11 expressions denoting one’s physical appearance in Ukrainian: ????? (+-), ??? (+-), ?????? (-), ????? (-), ????? (+), ????? (+), ????? (-), ??????? (-), ???????? (-), ????? (+), ?????????/? (-).
7 of them denote women’s features and with the exception of 2 are mainly negative.
16 in English: astronaut’s wife (+-), aunt Jemima (-), babe magnet (+-), Betty (+), big booty Judy (-), chica (+), decent Rita (+), drag queen (+-), Harrison (+), hot ma’ (+), Joe six-pack (+-), mami (+), amazon (+-), a face that only mother could love (-), long-tall-Sally (+-), aviation blonde (+-).
5. Connection to substances
5 words which are related to the alcohol abuse were discovered in Ukrainian: ????????, ?????, ???????, ????????, ???????.
9 phrases which imply drugs were found in English: bag bitch, mother (marijuana), ladyfinger (a marijuana cigarette), Lady Snow (cocaine), mother nature (marijuana), aunt Hazel (heroin), aunt Mary (marijuana), aunt Emma (cocaine), aunt Nora (opium).
6. Sexual orientation
There are 10 words that refer to one’s sexual orientation in Ukrainian: ?????????, ???????, ?????, ???????, ?????, ????????, ?????, ???????, ???????, ?????.
Only 2 of those are observed in English: drag queen, celesbian.
Now, we would also like to discuss the issue of derogation. We detected 56 expressions that carry either derogatory or rude connotation. There are 34 of those in Ukrainian: ???????, ?????, ???????, ????????, ????, ????, ??????, ??????, ?????, ??????, ?????, ???????, ??????, ?????, ??????????, ?????, ???????, ??????, ?????, ???, ??????, ?????, ?????, ?????, ???, ??????????, ?????, ???????, ?????, ????????, ???????, ?????, ?????? .
22 of them are from English: aunt Jemima, bag bitch, classy hoochie, fanboy, hockey whore, son of a bitch, attention whore, nancy boy, boss dick, bra-burner, girlie magazine, girly show, nigger, Yellowman/woman, Chinaman, clever dick, bimbette, dickhead, man slut, aviation blonde, deadbeat dad, diva, Lolita.
A few swearwords were found as well: son of a bitch, attention whore, man slut, bag bitch, boss dick, dickhead, clever dick, dick around/about, pussy out.

Chapter 3. Results and Discussions
In the first diagram we can clearly see that the majority of gender-marked slang words are nouns. This applies both to Ukrainian and English slang expressions. 91 instances of noun words were found in Ukrainian language, while there were 69 of those in English. Second largest group (even though it is not that large, only 8 cases) are adjectival words. The last ones in quantity are participial phrases (6). There is no verbal gender-marked slang found in Ukrainian language. By contrast, the number of verbal words in English equals 3 phrases.
We have also spotted some gender-marked interjections in both languages. These are ????!, ????! in Ukrainian and Son of a gun!, Son of a bitch!, Mother of God!, Who’s your daddy?, Man! in English. Truth be told, we expected to find more of these, since slang is rather expressive component of language, very often characterized by emotional charge.
Few (3) acronyms were noticed as well.
Moving on to the morphemic analysis, since we saw a lot of compounds in English sample, we decided it wise to group them according to the respective types. The biggest group, and it comes as no wonder, turned out to be NOUN + NOUN type (43). Then follows ADJECTIVE + NOUN group (20 expressions). The instance of NOUN + ADJECTIVE is fem-fatale.
17 examples of clipping are present in our research, almost the same in Ukrainian and English – 9 and 8 respectively. The number of blended words is identical in both languages – two in each.
Talking about gender-marking formation process it is important to note that Ukrainian, in contrast to English, has grammatical gender. Therefore, the formation processes are different. In the case with English, the most productive ones turned out to be syntactic markers which include the male and female reference lexemes (49). Pronouns are used in 3.8% of slang words. 4.8% are honorifics.
The number of cases of using morphological markers equals the number of pronouns, which is 4.
Something we found interesting is the combination of gender reference lexeme and morphological cases, whatever insignificant they might be – 3 to be exact.
The most effective tool in gender-marking in Ukrainian, however, is affixes –??/-? and the ones which denote person’s activity or occupation (14 and 40 respectively). Worth stating is the fact that a great deal of Ukrainian slang words are borrowings from Slavic languages mainly, therefore their formation ways might remain unknown.
Diminutive and augmentative forms turned out to not be so popular when it comes to slang (only 5.6 %).
Apparently, there exists a fashion for using proper names regarding gender marking. 19% (20) of gender-marked English slang uses own names, which is the figure twice as big as that in Ukrainian language.
Nonetheless, we believe the most interesting part of the research to be the semantic analysis. Before starting summing it up we would like to say that the insights we come to are very much prone to subjectivity. We would like to provide an example and explain why it is so. Let’s take the word ‘???????????’, for instance. Among Russian and Polish people it is considered to be derogatory and is understood as ‘Ukrainian-German nationalist’, which obviously all Ukrainians are. The actual meaning is ‘a member of the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists, headed by Stepan Bandera’ which took place in 1940s. That is why one should always keep in mind the possibility of broader context of the information given below.
As it was said before, an abundance of slang words, especially Ukrainian, are borrowings from either Russian or Polish vocabularies. We found 10 Russian loanwords and 3 Polish. In some cases these are not even borrowings, but ‘surzhyk’, the result of merging of two or more languages without the compliance with literary language. One of the reasons behind that is historical background. Ukraine belonged to different countries throughout its history, Poland and Russia included, hence the so-called ‘contamination’ of the language.
Besides it, we have also discovered a bunch of English-based loanwords. To be precise, 8. And there is a reason for that as well. Today everyone talks about English as the international or possibly universal language. English words penetrate the vocabulary of every country on an everyday basis. Every line of work is literally soaked with English neologisms. So it is only natural that it also made it to layman’s speech.
Meanwhile, we can draw a conclusion that English is giving more words to other languages than it is absorbing, since we detected only 2 Spanish slang words and 1 French. The driving behind this is the acceptance of words from Latin (mostly by way of French) by England and the days of Mexican and Spanish cowboys working in what is now the U.S. Southwest.
After the thorough studying of all the gender-marked slang words we noticed similar semantic patterns and grouped them according to the shades of meaning. The first and quite sufficient one is the phrases denoting people of certain nationality or inhabitants. There are 12 found instances of such in Ukrainian and almost half less in English. We tend to believe that these are created due to the political and historical situation in the country and the prejudices one may hold towards the nation.
Out of the gender-marked slang words that we collected, 18 are used to describe person’s mental abilities. The representation of those in Ukraine is about three times bigger than the English ones. Even though out of Ukrainian only ????? is female-marked, all are universal and can be applied to women as well, for this language is characterized by grammatical gender. In English the representation of male and female abilities is equal – 2 to 2.
The biggest category marked by gender-marked slang words is personality traits. We found a total of 65 instances – 30.6% in each. In Ukrainian almost all of them are used in negative meaning and are mostly applied to men. In English, however, the tendency shifts a little bit, with half of them being neutral and women being more often described with those. The reasoning behind this could be the fact that generally people tend to pay more attention to unfavorable factors and concentrate more on downsides.
Gender-marked slang words for people’s appearance are used half as much as personality traits. In Ukrainian out of 11 words 7 are used to address women, whereas in English the numbers are 11 out of 16. The leaning towards objectification, women’s in particular, is no new phenomenon in the modern world. Using controversial language nowadays has become more dangerous and we clearly see from our findings that there is a 70% chance of offending someone with those words.
In Ukrainian 5 slang words are specifically related to alcohol abuse. At the same time in English we find 9 words which denote certain type of drugs. We believe this to be the reflection of current issues country is dealing with – in Ukraine people are more inclined to consume alcohol, while abroad people may suffer from drugs addiction.
The last group we talked about was sexual orientation. Once again, it is supposed to have formed under countries’ own attitudes and reservations in regard to this issue. From the statistics we can conclude that the Soviet vestiges are still palpable and Ukraine cannot fully forget about the orientation issue with 90% of the slang words being disapproving. Meanwhile, the west is more liberal in that sense and we found only 2 words in our research that address one’s sexuality.
Since slang is viewed upon as simple language, it was absolutely logical that we encountered some cases of expressions that are either derogatory or offensive. Among Ukrainian slang words we recommend to refrain from using 31.5% of them, while in English this figure is 21.2%. We expect that people are much more frivolous when it comes to everyday, non-official language. Therefore, they tend to say straight what they think (again, there is definite expressive charge to slang) without much consideration. For the record, we also would like to state that women are not the only ones who are approached with demeaning phrases; the number of those applicable to men is precisely the same.
To add, gender-marked swearwords are not a novelty in the world of slang either. The motivation behind it is the same as mentioned above – after all people are emotional beings.

Despite its increasing popularity among the general public, particularly young people, many academic linguists have avoided approaching slang as a field of study. Their reluctance to take slang seriously is perhaps to do with strong linguistic positions, a longstanding conservatism, or simply an aversion to linguistic innovation. Or, perhaps it is to do with the fact that it is the study of standard varieties of English which should be prioritized in academia.
Nevertheless, it does not change the fact that slang keeps flourishing as separate and independent branch of language system. We are very fortunate to have researched the slang which is particularly marked by gender and to observe how gender manifests itself through the means of speech.
We discovered that just looking at words is not enough – one should always keep a broader picture in mind, since the semantics may vary depending on the background of the speaker.
The tendency for using gender markers while naming people of a nation has been discovered in both languages. In most cases it is caused by stereotypes that exist or personal relations with another country. The word ‘????’, however, appeared for entirely different reason – a distinctive feature of Polish language and its sounds.
It has been argued that women are often being looked down at even in the everyday language. Indeed, we observed the phenomenon of women’s objectification that presented itself in such expressions as ‘big booty Judy’, ‘chica’, ‘???????’. They all belong to the slang words denoting personal appearance. Men, on the other hand, are being ‘discriminated’ for their negative personal traits in Ukrainian as well as English. Therefore, there is no need to get all sour about this. The only sound conclusion we reached is that in 2018 trying not to offend someone with the words we use is like walking on a minefield.
When talking about slang functions one can say it is used for many purposes, but generally it expresses a certain emotional attitude; the same term may express diametrically opposed attitudes when used by different people. Many slang terms are primarily derogatory, though they may also be ambivalent when used in intimacy or affection. Since most slang is used on the spoken level, by persons who probably are unaware that it is slang, the choice of terms naturally follows a multiplicity of unconscious thought patterns.
There are many other uses to which slang is put, according to the individual and his place in society. Without any doubt it also helps ease social intercourse and either to soften the tragedy or to “prettify” the inevitability of that (euphemize or dysphemize).
All of these can be observed in the gender-marked expressions we analyzed.
All in all, the thing we definitely proved is that the slang is directly dependent on the events that happen all around the world and is affected by numerous extra-linguistic components. In our case these were the countries’ mentality and social life.
With that being said, the topic of gender-marking and slang is of great fascination and there should be more works dedicated to it.

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